may not be reduced too much) for about four hours : if it has
not boiled too fast, there should be two quarts of good gravy ;
strain through a silk, or tamis-sieve ; take very particular
care to skim it well, and set it in a cold place.
Strong savoury Gravy (No. 188), alias " Brown Sauce," alias
" GRAND ESPAGNOL."
Take a stew-pan that will hold four quarts, lay a slice or
two of ham or bacon (about a quarter of an inch thick) at
the bottom (undressed is the best), and two pounds of beef
or veal, a carrot, a large onion with four cloves stuck in it,
one head of celery, a bundle of parsley, lemon-thyme, and
savoury, about as big round as your little finger, when tied
close, a few leaves of sweet basil (one bay-leaf, and an es-
rording to this rule, we give our verdict in favour of No. 19 or 24. See N.B. to
This subject is fully discussed in " The Art of Invigorating and Prolonvintr
Life, by Diet, &c. published by G. B. Whittaker, 13 Aye-Maria "lane.
* Called, in some cookery books, "SECOND STOCK ;" in the French kitchen, "jus
t A great deal of care is to be taken to watch the time of putting in the water :
jf it is poured in too soon, the gravy will not have its true flavour and colour ; and
:fit be let alone till the meat sticks to the pan, it will get a burnt taste..
BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 195
chalot, if you like it), a piece of lemon-peel, and a dozen
corns of allspice ;* pour on this half a pint of water, cover
it close, and let it simmer gently on a slow fire for half an
hour, in which time it will be almost dry ; watch it very care-
fully, and let it catch a nice brown colour ; turn the meat,
&c. let it brown on all sides ; add three pints of boiling
water,! and boil for a couple of hours. It is now rich
gravy. To convert it into
CM//W, or thickened Gravy. (No. 189.)
To a quart of gravy, put a table-spoonful of thickening
(No. 257), or from one to two table-spoonfuls of flour, ac-
cording to the thickness you wish the gravy to be, into a
basin, with a ladleful of the gravy ; stir it quick ; add tho
rest by degrees, till it is all well mixed ; then pour it back
into a stew-pan, and leave it by the side of the fire to sim-
mer for half an hour longer, that the thickening may tho-
roughly incorporate with the gravy, the stew-pan being only
half covered, stirring it every now and then ; a sort of scum
will gather on the top, which it is best not to take off till you
are ready to strain it through a tamis. J
Take care it is neither of too pale nor too dark a colour ;
if it is not thick enough, let it stew longer, till it is reduced
to the desired thickness ; or add a bit of glaze, or portable
soup to it, see No. 252 : if it is too thick, you can easily thin
it with a spoonful or two of warm broth, or water. When
your sauce is done, stir it in the basin you put it into once or
twice, while it is cooling.
real Broth. (No. 191.)
A knuckle of veal is best ; manage it as directed in the
receipt for beef broth (No. 185*), only take care not to let
it catch any colour, as this and the following and richer pre-
paration of veal, are chiefly used for white soups, sauces, &c.
To make white sauce, see No. 364*.
Feal Gravy. (No. 192.)
About three pounds of the nut of the leg of veal, cut into
* Truffles, morells, and mushrooms, catchups and wines, &c. are added by those
who are for the extreme of haul gout.
t The general rule is to put in about a pint of water to a pound of meat, if it only
mimers very gently.
% A tamis is a worsted cloth, sold at the oil shops, made on purpose for straining
auces : the best way for using it is for two people to twist it contrary ways. This
ia a better way of straining sauce than through a sieve, and refines it much more
196 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS,
half-pound slices, with a quarter of a pound of ham in small
dice ; proceed as directed for the beef gravy (No. 186), but
watch the time of putting in the water ; if this is poured in
too soon, the gravy will not have its true flavour, if it be let
alone till the meat sticks too much to the pan, it will catch
too brown a colour.
Knuckle of Veal, or Shin or Leg of Beef, Soup.(No. 193.) ]
A knuckle of veal of six pounds weight will make a large
tureen of excellent soup, and is thus easily prepared : cut
half a pound of bacon into slices about half an inch thick,
lay it at the bottom of a soup-kettle, or deep stew-pan, and
on this place the knuckle of veal, having first chopped the
bone in two or three places ; furnish it with two carrots, two
turnips, a head of celery, two large onions, with two or three
cloves stuck in one of them, a dozen corns of black, and the
same of Jamaica pepper, and a good bundle of lemon-thyme,
winter savoury, and parsley. Just cover the meat with cold
water, and set it over a quick fire till it boils ; having skimmed
it well, remove your soup-kettle to the side of the fire ; let it
stew very gently till it is quite tender, i. e. about four hours ;
then take out the bacon and veal, strain the soup, and set it
by in a cool place till you want it, when you must take off
the fat from the surface of your liquor, and decant it (keep-
ing back the settlings at the bottom) into a clean pan.
If you like a thickened soup, put three table-spoonfuls of
the fat you have taken off the soup into a small stew-pan,
and mix it with four table-spoonfuls of flour, pour a ladleful
of soup to it, and mix it with the rest by degrees, and boil it
up till it is smooth.
Cut the meat and gristle of the knuckle and the bacon
into mouthfuls, and put them into the soup, and let them
Obs. You may make this more savoury by adding catchup
(No. 439), &c. Shin of beef may be dressed in the same
way ; see Knuckle of Veal stewed with Rice (No. 523).
Mutton Broth. (No. 194.)
Take two pounds of scrag of mutton ; to take the blood
out, put it into a stew-pan, and cover it with cold water ;
when the water becomes milk- warm, pour it off; then put it
in four or five pints of water, with a tea-spoonful of salt, a
table-spoonful of best grits, and an onion; set it on a slow
fire, and when you have taken all the scum off, put in two or
BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 197
three turnips ; let it simmer very slowly for two hours, and
strain it through a clean sieve.
This usual method of making mutton broth with the
scrag, is by no means the most economical method of ob-
taining it ; for which see Nos. 490 and 564.
O6. You may thicken broth by boiling with it a little oat-
meal, rice, Scotch or pearl barley ; when you make it for a
sick person, read the Obs. on Broths, &c. in the last page of
the 7th chapter of the Rudiments of Cookery, and No. 564.
Mock Mutton Broth, without Meaty in five minutest (No. 195.)
Boil a few leaves of parsley with two tea-spoonfuls of
mushroom catchup, in three-quarters of a pint of very thin
gruel* (No. 572). Season with a little salt.
O6. This is improved by a few drops of eschalot wine
(No. 402), and the same of essence of sweet herbs (No. 419).
See also Portable Soup (No. 252).
The Queen's Morning "Bouillon de Santtf (No. 196.)
Sir Kenelm Digby, in his " Closet of Cookery," p. 149,
London, 1669, informs us, was made with " a brawny hen, or
young cock, a handful of parsley, one sprig of thyme, three
of spearmint, a little balm, half a great onion, a little pepper
and salt, and a clove, with as much water as will cover
them ; and this boiled to less than a pint for one good por-
Ox-heel Jelly. (No. 198.)
Slit them in two, and take away the fat between the claws.
The proportion of water to each heel is about a quart : let.it
simmer gently for eight hours (keeping it clean skimmed) ;
it will make a pint and a half of strong jelly, which is fre-
quently used to make calves' feet jelly (No. 481), or to add to
mock turtle and other soups. See No. 240*. This jelly
evaporated, as directed in No. S52, will give about three
ounces and a half of strong glaze. An unboiled heel costs
one shilling and threepence: so this glaze, which is very
inferior in flavour to No. 252, is quite as expensive as that is.
N.B. To dress the heels, see No. 18.
Obs. Get a heel that has only been scalded, not one of
* By this method, it is said, an ingenious cook long deceived a large family, who
were all fond of weak mutton broth. Mushroom gravy, or catchup (No. 439),
approaches the nature and flavour of meat gravy, more than any vegetable juice,
and is the best substitute for it in maigre soups and extempore sauces, that culinary
chemistry has yet produced.
198 BROTHS, OKAV1ES AND SOUPS.
those usually sold at the tripe-shops, which have been boiled
till almost all the gelatine is extracted.
Clear Gravy Soups. (No. 200.)
Cut half a pound of ham into slices, and lay them at the
bottom of a large stew-pan or stock-pot, with two or three
pounds of lean beef, and as much veal ; break the bones, and
[ay them on the meat ; take off the outer skin of two large
onions and two turnips ; wash, clean, and cut into pieces a
couple of large carrots, and two heads of celery; and put in
three cloves and a large blade of mace. Cover the stew-pan
close, and set it over a smart fire. When the meat begins to
stick to the bottom of the stew-pan, turn it ; and when there
is a nice brown* glaze at the bottom of the stew-pan, cover
the meat with hot water : watch it, and when it is coming to
boil put in half a pint of cold water ; take off the scum ; then
put in half a pint more cold water, and skim it again, and
continue to do so till no more scum rises. Now set it on one
side of the fire to boil gently for about four hours ; strain it
through a clean tamis or napkin (do not squeeze it, or the
soup will be thick) into a clean stone pan ; let it remain till
it is cold, and then remove all the fat. When you decant it,
be careful not to disturb the settlings at the bottom of the pan.
The broth should be of a fine amber colour, and as clear as
rock water. If it is not quite so bright as you wish it, put it
into a stew-pan; break two whites and shells of eggs into a
basin; beat them well together; put them into the soup : set
it on a quick fire, and stir it with a whisk till it boils ; then
set it on one side of the fire to settle for ten minutes ; run it
through a fine napkin into a basin, and it is ready.
However, if your broth is carefully skimmed, &c. accord-
ing to the directions above given, it will be clear enough
without clarifying ; which process impairs the flavour of it in
a higher proportion than it improves its appearance.
Obs. This is the basis of almost all gravy soups, which
are called by the name of the vegetables that are put
Carrots, turnips, onions, celery, and a few leaves of cher-
vil, make what is called spring soup, or soup sante; to
this a pint of green pease, or asparagus pease, or French
beans cut into pieces, or a cabbage lettuce, are an im-
With rice or Scotch barley, with macaroni or vermicelli,
or celery cut into lengths, it will be the soup usually called
by those names.
BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 199
Or turnips scooped round, or young onions, will give you
a clear turnip or onion soup ; and all these vegetables mixed
together, soup GRESSI.
The gravy for all these soups may be produced extempore
with No. 252.
The roots and vegetables you use must be boiled first, or
they will impregnate the soup with too strong a flavour.
The seasoning' for all these soups is the same, viz. salt
and a very little Cayenne pepper.
N.B. To make excellent vegetable gravy soup for 4$d. a
quart, see No. 224.
Scotch Barley Broth ; a good and substantial dinner for
fivepence per head. (No. 204.)
Wash three-quarters of a pound of Scotch barley in a
little cold water ; put it in a soup-pot with a shin or leg of
beef, of about ten pounds weight, sawed into four pieces
(tell the butcher to do this for you) ; cover it well with cold
water ; set it on the fire : when it boils skim it very clean,
and put in two onions of about three ounces weight each ;
set it by the side of the fire to simmer very gently about two
hours ; then skim all the fat clean off, and put in two heads
of celery, and a large turnip cut into small squares ; season
it with salt, and let it boil an hour and a half longer, and it
is ready: take out the meat (carefully with a slice, and
cover it up, and set it by the fire to keep warm), and skim
the broth well before you put it in the tureen.
Shin of beef of lOlbs 2
% pound of barley 4*
2 onions, of about 3 oz. weight each... 0|
Large turnip 1
Thus you get four quarts of good soup at 8c?. per quart,
besides another quart to make sauce for the meat, in the
following manner :
Put a quart of the soup into a basin; put about an
ounce of flour into a stew-pan, and pour the broth to it
by degrees, stirring it well together; set it on the fire, and
stir it till it boils; then (some put in a glass of port
wine, or mushroom catchup, No. 439) let it boil up, and it is
Put the meat in a ragout dish, and strain the sauce through
200 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS.
a sieve over the meat ; you may put to it some capers, or
minced gherkins or walnuts, c.
If the beef has been stewed with proper care in a very
gentle manner, and be taken up at " the critical moment when
it is just tender," you will obtain an excellent and savoury
meal for eight people for fivepence ; i. e. for only the cost of
the glass of port wine.
If you use veal, cover the meat with No. 364 2.
Obs. This is a most frugal, agreeable, and nutritive
meal ; it will neither lighten the purse, nor lie heavy on the
stomach, and will furnish a plentiful and pleasant soup and
meat for eight persons. So you may give a good dinner for
5d. per head ! ! ! See also Nos. 229 and 239.
N.B. If you will draw your purse-strings a little wider,
and allow Id. per mouth more, prepare a pint of young
onions as directed in No. 296, and garnish the dish with
them, or some carrots or turnips cut into squares ; and for
Gd. per head you will have as good a RAGOUT as " le Cuisinier
Imperial de France" can give you for as many shillings.
Read Obs. to No. 493.
Ycu may vary the flavour by adding a little curry powder
(No. 455), ragout (No. 457, &c.), or any of the store sauces
and flavouring essences between Nos. 396 and 463 ; you may
garnish the dish with split pickled mangoes, walnuts, gher-
kins, onions, &c. See Wow wow Sauce, No. 328.
If it is made the evening before the soup is wanted,
and suffered to stand till it is cold, much fat* may be
removed from the surface of the soup, which is, when
clarified (No. 83), useful for all the purposes that drippings
are applied to.
Scotch Soups. (No. 205.)
The three following receipts are the contribution of a
friend at Edinburgh.
Take the best end of a neck or loin of mutton ; cut it into
neat chops ; cut four carrots, and as many turnips into
slices ; put on four quarts of water, with half the carrots
and turnips, and a whole one of each, with a pound of dried
green pease, which must be put to soak the night before ;
let it boil two hours, then take out the whole carrot and tur-
* See "L'Jrt de Cnitmier," par A. Beauvillier, Paria, 1814, p. 68. "I have
learned by experience, that of all the fats that are used for frying, the pot top which
Js taken from the surface of the broth and stock-pot is by far the best."
BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 201
nip ; bruise and return them ; put in the meat, and the rest
of the carrot and turnip, some pepper and salt, and boil
slowly three-quarters of an hour; a short time before servingy
add an onion cut small and a head of celery.
Take a scrag of mutton, or shank of veal, three quarts of
water (or liquor in which meat has been boiled), and a good-
sized fowl, with two or three leeks cut in pieces about an
inch long, pepper and salt ; boil slowly about an hour : then
put in as many more leeks, and give it three-quarters of an
hour longer : this is very good, made of good beef-stock,
and leeks put in at twice.
Lamb Stove, or Lamb Stew.
Take a lamb's head and lights ; open the jaws of the head,
and wash them thoroughly ; put them in a pot with some
beef-stock, made with three quarts of water, and two pounds
of shin of beef, strained ; boil very slowly for an hour; wash
and string two or three good handfuls of spinach (or
spinage); put it in twenty minutes before serving; add a
little parsley, and one or two onions, a short time before it
comes off the fire ; season with pepper and salt, and serve
all together in a tureen.
Scotch Brose.(No. 205*,)
" This favourite Scotch dish is generally made with the
liquor meat has been boiled in.
" Put half a pint of oatmeal into a porringer with a little
salt, if there be not enough in the broth, of which add as
much as will mix it to the consistence of hasty-pudding, or
a little thicker ; lastly, take a little of the fat that swims on
ihe broth, and put it on the crowdie, and eat it in the same
way as hasty-pudding."
Obs. This Scotsman's dish is easily prepared at very little
expense, and is pleasant-tasted and nutritious. To dress a
haggies, see No. 488*, and Minced Collops, following it.
N.B. For various methods of making and flavouring" oat-
meal gruel, see No. 572.
Carrot Soup. (No. 212.)
Scrape and wash half a dozen large carrots ; peel off the
red outside (which is the only part used for this soup) ; put
it into a gallon stew-pan, with one head of celery, and an
202 BROTHS, GRAVIES, AKD SOUPS.
onion, cut into thin pieces ; take two quarts of beef, veal, or
mutton broth, or if you have any cold roast-beef bones (or
liquor, in which mutton or beef has been boiled), you may
make very good broth for this soup : when you have put the
broth to the roots, cover the stew-pan close, and set it on a
slow stove for two hours and a half, when the carrots will
be soft enough (some cooks put in a tea-cupful of bread-
crumbs) ; boil for two or three minutes ; rub it through a
tamis, or hair-sieve, with a wooden spoon, and add as much
broth as will make it a proper thickness, i. e. almost as thick
as pease soup : put it into a clean stew-pan ; make it hot ;
season it with a little salt, and send it up with some toasted
bread, cut into pieces half an inch square. Some put it into
the soup ; but the best way is to send it up on a plate, as a
Obs. This is neither expensive nor troublesome to pre-
pare. In the kitchens of some opulent epicures, to make this
soup make a little stronger impression on the gustatory
organs of " grands gourmands," the celery and onions are
sliced, and fried in butter of a light brown, the soup is poured
into the stew-pan to them, and all is boiled up together. But
this must be done very carefully with butter, or very nicely
clarified fat; and the "grand cuisinier" adds spices, &c,
" ad libitum."
Turnip and Parsnip Soups, (No. 213.)
Are made in the same manner as the carrot soup (No. 212.)
Celery Soup. (No. 214.)
Split half a dozen heads of celery into slips about two
inches long ; wash them well ; lay them on a hair-sieve to
drain, and put them into three quarts of No. 200 in a gallon
soup-pot ; set it by the side of the fire to stew very gently
till the celery is tender (this will take about an hour). If any
scum rises, take it off; season with a little salt.
Obs. When celery cannot be procured, half a drachm of
the seed, pounded fine, which may be considered as the
essence of celery (costs only one-third of a farthing, and can
be had at any season), put in a quarter of an hour before the
soup is done, and a little sugar, will give as much flavour to
half a gallon of soup as two heads of celery weighing seven
ounces, and costing 2r/. ; or add a little essence of celery,
BROTHS, GRAVIES, AND SOUPS. 203
Green Pease Soup. (No. 216.)
A peck of pease will make you a good tureen of soup. In
shelling them, put the old ones in one basin, and the young
ones in another, and keep out a pint of them, and boil them
separately to put into your soup when it is finished : put a
large saucepan on the fire half full of water ; when it boils,
put the pease in, with a handful of salt ; let them boil till
they are done enough, i. e. from twenty to thirty minutes,
according to their age and size ; then drain them in a colan-
der, and put them into a clean gallon stew-pan, and three
quarts of plain veal or mutton broth (drawn from meat with-
out any spices or herbs, &c. which would overpower the
flavour of the soup) ; cover the stew-pan close, and set it
over a slow fire to stew gently for an hour ; add a tea-cupful
of bread-crumbs, and then rub it through a tamis into another
stew-pan ; stir it with a wooden spoon, and if it is too thick,
add a little more broth : have ready boiled as for eating, a
pint of young pease, and put them into the soup ; season with
a little salt and sugar.
N.B. Some cooks, while this soup is going on, slice a
couple of cucumbers (as you would for eating) ; take out the
seeds ; lay them on a cloth to drain, and then flour them, and
fry them a light brown in a little butter ; put them into the
soup the last thing before it goes to table.
Obs. If the soup is not green enough, pound a handful of
pea-hulls or spinage$ and squeeze the juice through a cloth
into the soup : some leaves of mint may be added, if approved.
Plain green Pease Soup without Meat. (No. 217.)
Take a quart of green pease (keep out half a pint of the
youngest ; boil them separately, and put them in the soup
when it is finished) ; put them on in boiling water ; boil them
tender, and then pour off the water, and set it by to make the
soup with : put the pease into a mortar, and pound them to a
mash; then put them into two quarts of the water you boiled
the pease in ; stir all well together ; let it boil up for about
five minutes, and then rub it through a hair-sieve or tamis.
If the pease are good, it will be as thick and fine a vegetable
soup as need be sent to table.
Pease Soup. (No. 218.)
The common way of making pease soup* is to a quart
* To maie pease pottage, double the quantity. Those who often make pease
soup should have a mill, and grind the pease just before they dress them; a less
quantity will suffice, and the soup will be much sooner made.
04 BROTHS, GKAVIES, AND SOUPS.
of split pease put three quarts of cold soft water, not more,
(or it will be what " Jack Ros-bif " calls " soup maigre,")
notwithstanding Mother Glasse orders a gallon (and her
ladyship's directions have been copied by almost ever}'
cookery-book maker who has strung receipts together since),
with half a pound of bacon (not very fat), or roast-beef bones,
or four anchovies : or, instead of the water, three quarts of
the liquor in which beef, mutton, pork, or poultry has been
boiled, tasting it first, to make sure it is not too salt.*
Wash two heads of celery ;t cut it, and put it in, with two
onions peeled, and a sprig of savoury, or sweet marjoram, or
lemon-thyme; set it on the trivet, and let it simmer very
gently over a slow fire, stirring it every quarter of an hour
(to keep the pease from sticking to, and burning at, the bot-
tom of the soup-pot) till the pease are tender, which will be in
about three hours. Some cooks now slice a head of celery,
and half an ounce of onions, and fry them in a little butter,
and put them into the soup till they are lightly browned ;
then work the whole through a coarse hair-sieve, and then
through a fine sieve, or (what is better) through a tamis, with
the back of a wooden spoon : put it into a clean stew-pan,
with half a tea-spoonful of ground black pepper ;} let it boil
again for ten minutes, and if any fat arises, skim it off.
Send up on a plate, toasted bread cut into little pieces a
quarter of an inch square, or cut a slice of bread (that has-
been baked two days) into dice, not more than half an inch
square ; put half a pound of perfectly clean drippings or lard
into an iron frying-pan ; when it is hot, fry the bread ; take
care and turn it about with a slice, or by shaking of the pan
as it is frying, that it may be on each side of a delicate light
brown, (No. 319 ;) take it up with a fish-slice, and lay it on a
sheet of paper to drain the fat : be careful that this is done
nicely : send these up in one side-dish, and dried and pow-
dered mint or savoury, or sweet marjoram, &c. in another.
Those who are for a double relish, and are true lovers of
" haut gout" may have some bacon cut into small squares