with the mixture, and lay a poached egg (No. 546) upon each.
Damson, or other Plum Cheese. (No. 89.)
Take damsons that have been preserved without sugar ;
pass them through a sieve, to take out the skins and stones.
To every pound of pulp of fruit put half a pound of loaf sugar,
broke small ; boil them together till it becomes quite stiff;
pour it into four common-sized dinner plates, rubbed with a
little sweet oil ; put it into a warm place to dry, and' when,
quite firm, take it from the plate, and cut it into any shape
N.B. Damson cheese is generally used in desserts.
Barley Sugar. (No. 90.)
Clarify, as No. 475, three pounds of refined sugar ; boil it
to the degree of cracked (which may be ascertained by dip-
ping a spoon into the sugar, and then instantly into cold
water, and if it appears brittle, it is boiled enough) ; squeeze
in a small tea-spoonful of the juice, and four drops of essence
of lemon, and let it boil up once or twice, and set it by a few
minutes : have ready a marble slab, or smooth stone, rubbed
over with sweet oil ; pour over the sugar ; cut it into long
stripes with a large pair of scissors ; twist it a little, and
when cold, keep it from the air m tin boxes or canisters.
N.B. A- few drops of essence of ginger, instead of lemon,
will mak what is called ginger barley sugar.
Barley Sugar >rops.(No. 91.)
To be made as the last receipt. Have ready, by the time
the sugar is boiled sufficiently, a large sheet of paper, with a
smooth layer of sifted loaf sugar on it ; put the boiled "sugar
PASTRY, &C. 387
ihto a ladle that has a fine lip; pour it out, in drops not larger
than a shilling, on to the sifted sugar ; when cold, fold them
tip separately in white paper.
N.B. Some use an oiled marble slab instead of the sifted
Raspberry Jam. (No. 92.)
Rub fresh-gathered raspberries, taken on a dry day, thf ough
a wicker sieve ; to one pint of the pulp put one pound of
loaf sugar, broke small; put it into a preserving-pan over it,
brisk fire ; when it begins to boil, skim it well, and stir it
twenty minutes ; put into small pots ; cut white paper to the
size of the top of the pot ; dip them in brandy, and put them
Over the jam when cold, with a double paper tied over the pot.
Strawberry jam is made the same way, and the scarlets
are most proper for that purpose*
Apricot, or any Plum Jam. (No. 93.)
After taking away the stones from the apricots, and cut-
ting out any blemishes they may have ; put them over a slow
fire, in a clean stew-pan, with half a pint of water ; when
scalded, rub them through a hair-sieve : to every pound of
pulp put one pound of sifted loaf-sugar ; put it into a pre-
serving-pan over a brisk fire, and when it boils skim it well,
and throw in the kernels of the apricots, and half an ounce
of bitter almonds, blanched ; boil it a quarter of an hour fast,
and stirring it all the time ; remove it from the fire, and fill
it into pots, and cover them as at No. 92.
N.B. Green gages or plums may be done in the same way,
omitting the kernels or almonds.
Lemon Chips. (No. 94.)
Take large smooth-rinded Malaga lemons ; race or cut off
their peel into chips with a small knife (this will require
some practice to do it properly) ; throw them into salt and
water till next day ; have ready a pan of boiling water, throw
theiri in and boil them tender. Drain them well ; after having
lain some time in water to cool, put them in an earthen pan*
pour 1 over enough boiling clarified sugar to cover them, and
then let them lie two days; then strain the syrup,. put mor%
sugar, and reduce it by boiling till the syrup is quite thick j
put in the chips* and simmer them a few minutes, and set:
them by for two days : repeat it once moire } lei them be two
flays longer, and they will be fit to tttndy, which must fee
388 PASTRY, &C.
done as follows : take four pints of clarified sugar, which will
be sufficient for six pounds of chips, boil it to the degree of
blown (which may be known by dipping the skimmer into the
sugar, and blowing strongly through the holes of it ; if little
bladders appear, it has attained that degree) ; and when the
chips are thoroughly drained and wiped on a clean cloth, put
them into the syrup, stirring them about with the skimmer
till you see the sugar become white ; then take them out with
two forks ; shake them lightly into a wire sieve, and set them
into a stove, or in a warm place to dry.
N.B. Orange chips are done in the same way.
Dried Cherries. (No. 95.)
Take large Kentish cherries, not too ripe ; pick off the
stalks, and take out the stones with a quill, cut nearly as for
a pen : to three pounds of which take three pounds or pints
of clarified sugar (see No. 475,) boil it to the degree of
blown (for which see last receipt) ; put in the cherries, give
them a boil, and set them by in an earthen pan till the next
day ; then strain the syrup, add more sugar, and boil it of a
good consistence; put the cherries in, and boil them five
minutes, and set them by another day : repeat the boiling
two more days, and when wanted, drain them some time,
and lay them on wire sieves to dry in a stove, or nearly cold
Green Gages preserved in Syrup. (No. 96.)
Take the gages when nearly ripe ; cut the stalks about
half an inch from the fruit ; put them into cold water, with a
lump of alum about the size of a walnut ; and set them on a slow
fire till they come to a simmer : take them from the fire, and
put them into cold water ; drain, and pack them close into a
preserving-pan ; pour over them enough clarified sugar to
cover them ; simmer them two or three minutes ; set them
by in an earthen pan till next day, when drain the gages, and
boil the syrup with more sugar, till quite thick ; put in the
gages, and simmer them three minutes more, and repeat it,
for two days ; then boil clarified sugar to a blow, as at No.
94, place the gages into glasses, and pour the syrup over,
and, when cold, tie over a bladder, and upon that a leather ;
and should you want any for drying, drain and dry them on a
wire sieve in a stove or slow oven.
Apricots or egg plums may be done in the same way.
PASTRY, &,C. 389
To preserve Ginger. (No. 97.)
Take green ginger, pare it neatly with a sharp knife;
throw it into a pan of cold water as it is pared, to keep it
white ; when you have sufficient, boil it till tender, changing
the water three times ; each time put it into cold water to
take out the heat or spirit of the ginger ; when tender, throw
it into cold water : for seven pounds of ginger, clarify eight
pounds of refined sugar, see No. 475 ; when cold, drain the
ginger, and put it in an earthen pan, with enough of the
sugar, cold, to cover it, and let it stand two days ; then pour
the syrup from the ginger to the remainder of the sugar ;
boil it some time, and when cold, pour it on the ginger again,
and set it by three days at least. Then take the syrup from
the ginger ; boil it, and put it hot over the ginger ; proceed in
this way till you find the sugar has entered the ginger, boiling
the syrup, and skimming off the scum that rises each time,
until the syrup becomes rich as well as the ginger.
Obs. If you put the syrup on hot at first, or if too rich, the
ginger will shrink, and not take the sugar.
N.B. When green ginger is not to be procured, take large
races of Jamaica ginger boiled several times in water till
tender, pare neatly, and proceed as above.
To preserve Cucumbers. (No. 98.)
Take large and fresh-gathered cucumbers ; split them down
and take out all the seeds ; lay them in salt and water that
will bear an egg, three days ; set them on a fire with cold
water, and a small lump of alum, and boil them a few
minutes, or till tender ; drain them, and pour on them a thin
syrup ; let them lie two days ; boil the syrup again, and put
it over the cucumbers ; repeat it twice more ; then have ready
some fresh clarified sugar, boiled to a blow (see No. 94) ;
put in the cucumbers, and simmer it five minutes ; set it by
till next day ; boil the syrup and cucumbers again, and set
them in glasses for use.
Preserved Fruit, without Sugar. (No. 99.)
Take damsons when not too ripe ; pick off the stalks, and
put them into wide-mouthed glass bottles, taking care not to
put in any but what are whole, and without blemish ; shake
them well down (otherwise the bottles will not be half ful)
when done) ; stop the bottles with new soft corks, not too
tight ; set them into a very slow oven (nearly cold) four or
five hours: the slower they are done the better; when thev
begin to shrink in the bottles, it is a sure sign that the fruii
is thoroughly warm : take them out, and before they are cold,
drive in the corks quite tight ; set them in a bottle-rack or
basket, with the mouth downwards, and they will keep good
Green gooseberries, morello cherries, currants, green
gages, or bullace, may be done the same way.
Obs.lf the corks are good, and fit well, there will be no
occasion for cementing them ; but should bungs be used, it
will be necessary.
Bread. (No. 100.)
Put a quartern of flour into a large basin, with two tea-
spoonfuls of salt ; make a hole in the middle ; then put in a
basin four table-spoonfuls of good yest; stir in a pint of
milk, lukewarm; put it in the hole of the flour; stir it just
to make it of a thin batter ; then strew a little flour over the
top ; then set it on one side of the fire, and cover it over :
let it stand till the next morning; then make it into dough;
add half a pint more of warm milk ; knead it for ten minutes,
and then set it in a warm place by the fire for one hour and
a half; then knead it again, and it is ready either for loaves
or bricks : bake them from one hour and a half to t\vo hours,
according to the size.
French Bread and Rolls. (No. 100*.)
Take a pint and a half of milk ; make it quite warm ; half
a pint of small-beer yest ; add sufficient flour to make it as
thick as batter ; put it into a pan ; cover it over, and keep it
warm : when it has risen as high as it will, add a quarter of a
pint of warm water, and half an ounce of salt, mix them well
together ; rub into a little flour two ounces of butter ; then
make your dough, not quite so stiff as for your bread ; let it
stand for three quarters of an hour, and it will be ready to
make into rolls, &c. : let them stand till they have risen, and
bake them in a quick oven.
SALLY LUNN.- Tea Cakes. (No. 101.)
Take one pint of milk quite warm, a quarter of a pint of
thick small-beer yest ; put them into a pan with flour suffi-
cient to make it as thick as batter, cover it over, and let it
stand till it has risen as high as it will, i. e. about two hours
add two ounces of lump sugar, dissolved in a quarter of a
of warm milk,* a quarter of a pound of butter rubbed
jnto your flour very fine ; then make your dough the same
,as for French rolls, &c. ; and let it stand half an hour ; thea
make up your cakes, and put them on tins : when they have
stood to rise, bake them in a quick oven.
Care should be taken never to put your yest to water or
milk too hot, or too cold, as either extreme will destroy the
fermentation. In summer it should be lukewarm, in winter
a little warmer, and in very cold weather, warmer still.
When it has first risen, if you are uot prepared, it will Jiot
hurt to stand an hour.
Muffins. (No. 102.)
Take one pint of milk quite warm, and a quarter of a pint
of thick small-beer yest; strain them into a pan, and add
sufficient flour to make it like a batter ; cover it over, and
let it stand in a warm place until it has risen ; then add a
quarter of a pint of warm milk, and one ounce of butter
rubbed in some flour quite fine; mix them well together:
then add sufficient flour to make it into dcragh, cover it over,
and let it stand half an hour ; then work it up again, and
break it into small pieces : rail them up quite round, an<J
cover them over for a quarter of an hour; then bake them.
Crumpets. (No. 103.)
The same : instead of making the mixture into dough, add
only sufficient flour to make a thick batter, and when it has
.stood a quarter of an hour it will be ready to bake.
Muffins and crumpets bake best on a stove with an iron
plate fixed on the top ; but they will also bake in a frying-
pan, taking -care the fire is not too fierce, and turning them
when lightly browned,
Yorkshire Cakes. (No. 104.)
Take a pint and a half of milk quite warm, and a quarter of
a pint of thick small-beer yest ; mix them well together in a
pan with sufficient flour to make a thick batter ; let it stand
in a warm place covered over until it has risen as high as it
will ; rub six ounces of butter into some flour till it is quite
fine ; then break three eggs into your pan with the flour and
butter ; mix them well together ; then add sufficient flour to
make it into a dough, and let it stand a quarter of an hour;
* If you do not mind the expense, the cake will be much lighter if, instead of tbt
Xiilk. you put four eggg.
392 PUDDINGS A^'D PIES.
then work it up again, and break it into pieces about the size
of an egg, or larger, as you may fancy ; roll them round and
smooth with your hand, and put them on tins, and let them
stand covered over with a light piece of flannel.
OBSERVATIONS ON PUDDINGS AND PIES.
THE quality of the various articles employed in the com-
position of puddings and pies varies so much, that two pud-
dings, made exactly according to the same receipt, will be
so different* one would hardly suppose they were made by
the same person, and certainly not with precisely the same
quantities of the (apparently) same ingredients. Flour fresh
ground, pure new milk, fresh laid eggs, fresh butter, fresh
suet, &c. will make a very different composition, than when
kept till each article is half spoiled.
Plum puddings, when boiled, if hung up in a cool place in
the cloth they are boiled in, will keep good some months ;
when wanted, take them out of the cloth, and put them into
a clean cloth, and as soon as warmed through, they are ready.
MEM. In composing these receipts, the quantities of eggs,
butter, &c. are considerably less than are ordered in other
cookery books ; but quite sufficient for the purpose of making
the puddings light and wholesome ; we have diminished the
expense, without impoverishing the preparations; and the
rational epicure will be as well pleased with them as the
Milk, in its genuine state, varies considerably in the quan-
tity of cream it will throw up, depending on the material
with which the cow is fed. The cow that gives the most
milk does not always produce the most cream, which varies
fifteen or twenty per cent.
Eggs vary considerably in size ; in the following receipts
we mean the full-sized hen's egg ; if you have only pullet's
eggs, use two for one. Break eggs one by one into a basin,
and not all into the bowl together ; because then, if you meet
with a bad one, that will spoil all the rest: strain them
through a sieve to take out the treddles.
* An old gentlewoman, who lived almost entirely on puddings, told us, it was a
long time before she could get them made uniformly good, till she made the following
rule : " If the pudding was good, she let the cook have the remainder of it ; if it was
not, she gave it to her lapdog ;" but as soon as this resolution was Known, poor
iittle Bow-wow seldom got the sweet treat after.
PUDDINGS AND PIES. 393
N.B. To preserve eggs for twelve mouths, see N.B. to
No. 547. Snow, and small beer, have been recommended
by some economists as admirable substitutes for eggs ; they
will no more answer this purpose than as substitutes for
sugar or brandy.
Flour, according to that champion against adulteration,
Mr. Accum, varies in quality as much as any thing.
Butter also varies much in quality. Salt butter may be
washed from the salt, and then it will make very good pastry.
Lard varies extremely from the time it is kept, &c. When
you purchase it, have the bladder cut, and ascertain that it
be sweet and good.
Suet. Beef is the best, then mutton and veal; when this
is used in very hot weather, while you chop it, dredge it
lightly with a little flour.
Beef-marrow is excellent for most of the purposes for
which suet is employed.
Drippings, especially from beef, when very clean and nice,
are frequently used for kitchen crusts and pies, and for such
purposes are a satisfactory substitute for butter, lard, &c.
To clean and preserve drippings, see No. 83.
Currants, previous to putting them into the pudding, should
be plumped : this is done by pouring some boiling water upon
them : wash them well, and then lay them on a sieve or cloth
before the fire, pick them clean from the stones ; this not
only makes them look better, but cleanses them from all dirt.
Raisins, figs, dried cherries, candied orange and lemon-
peel, citron, and preserves of all kinds, fresh fruits, goose-
berries, currants, plums, damsons, &c. are added to batter
and suet puddings, or enclosed in the crust ordered for apple
dumplings, and make all the various puddings called by those
Batter puddings must be quite smooth and free from lumps ;
to ensure this, first mix the flour with a little milk, add the
remainder by degrees, and then the other ingredients.
If it is a plain pudding, put it through a hair-sieve ; this
will take out all lumps effectually.
Batter puddings should be tied up tight: if boiled in a
mould, butter it first ; if baked, also butter the pan.
Be sure the water boils before you put in the pudding; set
your stew-pan on a trivet over the fire, and keep it steadily
boiling all the time ; if set upon the fire, the pudding often
Be scrupulously careful that your pudding-cloth is perfectly
sweet and clean; wash it without any soap, unless very
greasy ; then rinse it thoroughly in clean water after, Im-
394 PUDDINGS AND PIES.
mediately before you use it, dip it in boiling- water ; squeeze
it dry, and dredge it with flour.
If your fire is very fierce, mind and stir the puddings every
now and then to keep them from sticking to the bottom of
the saucepan ; if in a mould, this care is not so much re-
quired, but keep plenty of water in the saucepan.
When puddings are boiled in a cloth, it should be just dip-
ped in a basin of cold water, before you untie the pudding-
cloth, as that will prevent it from sticking ; but when boiled
in a mould, if it is well buttered, they will turn out without.
Custard or bread puddings require to stand five minutes before
they are turned out. .They should always be boiled in a
mould or cups.
Keep your pasteboard, rolling-pin, cutters, and tins very
clean: the least dust on the tins and cutters, or the least
hard paste on the rolling-pin, will spoil the whole of your
Things used for pastry or cakes should not be used for an>
other purpose ; be very careful that your flour is dried at the
fire before you use it, for puff paste or cakes ; if damp it will
make them heavy.
In using butter for puff paste, you should take the greatest
care to previously work it well on the paste-board or slab,
to get out all the water and buttermilk, which very often
remains in; when you have worked it well with a clean
knife, dab it over with a soft cloth, and it is then ready to lay
on your paste ; do not make your paste over stiff before you
put in your butter.
For those who do not understand making puff paste, it is
by far the best way to work the butter in at two separate
times, divide it in half, and break the half in little bits, and
cover your paste all over : dredge it lightly with flour, then
fold it over each side and ends, roll it out quite thin, and then
put in the rest of the butter, fold it, and roll it again.
Remember always to roll puff paste from you. The best
made paste, if not properly baked, will not do the cook any
Those who use iron ovens do not always succeed in baking-
puff paste, fruit pies, &c. Puff paste is often spoiled by
baking it after fruit pies, in an iron oven. This may be
easily avoided, by putting two or three bricks that are quite
even into the oven before it is first set to get hot. This will
not only prevent the syrup from boiling put of the pies, but
also prevent a very disagreeable smell in the kitchen and
house, and almost answers the same purpose as a brick
PUDDINGS AND PIES.
College Puddings. (No. 105.)
Beat four eggs, yelks and whites together, in a quart basin,
with two ounces of flour, half a nutmeg, a little ginger, and
three ounces of sugar; pounded loaf sugar is best. Beat
it into a smooth batter ; then add six ounces of suet, chopped
fine, six of currants, well washed and picked ; mix it all well
together ; a glass of brandy or white wine win improve it.
These puddings are generally fried in butter or lard; but they
are much nicer baked in an oven in patty-pans? twenty
minutes will bake them : if fried, fry them till they are of a
nice light brown, and when fried, roll them in a little flour.
You may add one ounce of orange or citron, minced very
fine ; when you bake them, add one more egg, or two spoon-
fuls of milk. Serve them up with white wine sauce*
Rice Puddings baked, or boiled. (No. 106.)
Wash in cold water and pick very clean six ounces of rice,
put it in a quart stew-pan three parts filled with cold water,
set it on the fire, and let it boil five minutes ; pour away the
water, and put in one quart of milk, a roll of lemon peel, and a
bit of cinnamon ; let it boil gently till the rice is quite tender ;
it will take at least one hour and a quarter; be careful to stir
it every five minutes ; take it off the fire, and stir in an ounce
and a half of fresh butter, and beat up three eggs on a plate,
a salt-spoonful of nutmeg, two ounces of sugar ; put it into
the pudding, and stir it till it is quite smooth ; line a pie-dish
big enough to hold it with puff paste, notch it round the edge,
put in your pudding, and bake it three quarters of an hour :
this will be a nice firm pudding.
If you like it to eat more like custard, add one more egg,
and half a pint more milk ; it will be better a little thinner
when boiled ; one hour will boil it. If you like it in little
puddings, butter small tea-cups, and either bake or boil them,
half an hour will do either : you may vary the pudding by
putting in candied lemon or orange-rpeel, minced very fine,
or dried cherries, or three ounces of currants, or raisins, or
apples minced fine.
If the puddings are baked or boiled, serve them with white-
wine sauce, or butter and sugar.
Ground Rice Pudding. (No* 17.)
Put four ounces of ground rice into a stew-pan, and by
degrees stir in a pint and a half of milk; set it on tlie fire^
with a roll of lemon and a bit of cinnamon ; keep .
396 PUDDINGS AND PIES.
it till it boils ; beat it to a smooth batter ; then set it on the
trivet, where it will simmer gently for a quarter of an hour ;
then beat three eggs on a plate, stir them into the pudding
with two ounces of sugar and two drachms of nutmeg, take
out the lemon-peel and cinnamon, stir it all well together,
line a pie-dish with thin puff paste (No. 1 of receipts for
pastry), big enough to hold it, or butter the dish well, and
bake it half an hour ; if boiled, it will take one hour in a
mould well buttered ; three ounces of currants may be added.
Rice Snow Balls. (No. 108.)
Wash and pick half a pound of rice very clean, put it on
in a saucepan with plenty of water ; when it boils let it boil
ten minutes, drain it on a sieve till it is quite dry, and then
pare six apples, weighing two ounces and a half each. Divide
the rice into six parcels, in separate cloths, put one apple in
each, tie it loose, and boil it one hour ; serve it with sugar
and butter, or wine sauce.
Rice Blancmange. (No. 109.)
Put a tea-cupful of whole rice into the least water possi-
ble, till it almost bursts ; then add half a pint of good milk
or thin cream, and boil it till it is quite a mash, stirring it the
whole time it is on the fire, that it may not burn ; dip a shape
in cold water, and do not dry it ; put in the rice, and let it
stand until quite cold, when it will come easily out of the
shape. This dish is much approved of; it is eaten with
cream or custard, and preserved fruits ; raspberries are best.
It should be made the day before it is wanted, that it may
This blancmange will eat much nicer, flavoured with
spices, lemon-peel, &c., and sweetened with a little loaf