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One hundred and forty-two copies printed on
plate paper and ten copies on Japan paper.



THE BRADFORD MAP







^ i



The Bradford [Map

THE CITY OF NEW YORK

ATTHETIME OF THE GRANTING OF

THE MONTGOMERIE CHARTER

A DESCRIPTION THEREOF COMPILED BY

WILLIAM LORING ANDREWS

TO ACCOMPANY A FACSIMILE OF AN ACTUAL SURVEY

MADE BY JAMES LYNE AND PRINTED BY

WILLIAM BRADFORD IN I 73 I




NEW YORK

PRINTED AT THE DE VINNE PRESS

1893



/vr^H/






Copyright, 1893, by William L. Andrews.



\ Plan ojihc C^iL) of NE^^




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From the Original Map in



ORK fVom ail aclual Siii \{>^




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LLECTION OF W. L. ANDREWS.



I



Size of Original, i8 x 225i inches.



^.



PREFACE



T.



HE primary purpose of the author in issuing this
monograph is to phice in circulation a hmited num-
ber of reproductions of a few very rare prints re-
lating to the early history of New York — a field in
which the author began his collecting thirty years
ago, and to which after many diversions he has re-
turned again and again with renewed interest.

It is quite conceivable that the most ardent biblio-
phile might in time grow weary of gathering Aldines
and Elzevirs, or even Fifteeners and old bindings ;
but there are certain kinds of books which never
lose their attraction for those who have once be-
come enamoured of them. No collector of early
English poetry was ever known willingly to abandon
his fascinating pursuit, and it is yet to be recorded
of an antiquary born within sound of the bells of



Treface

Trinity Church that he tired in his quest for memo-
rials of the city he loved. The fact that the game
he seeks is one of the most difficult to run to earth
only serves to incite his thirst and make the chase
more eager and exciting.

Although no copies of the Bradford and Du}^kinck
maps and of the prints of Castle William and the
Middle Dutch Church beyond those mentioned in
this book have come to the knowledge of the au-
thor during many years of careful research, it is of
course possible (but in his opinion improbable) that
other copies will hereafter be discovered. There
have been and will be many false alarms, however,
especially in relation to the Bradford Map, "original "
copies of which appear with considerable regularity
from time to time.





CONTENTS



Chapter I



INTRODUCTION



PAGE

'9



Chapter II

THE CITY AND ITS INHABITANTS IN 173 1



27



Chapter III

THE PRINCIPAL LANDMARKS OF THE CITY IN 173, .73



Chapter IV



CONCLUSION



97




ILLUSTRATIONS

Artotypes

View of New York, by William Burgis . . Frontispiece

'^ The Bradford Map .... opposite page ix

Castle William IN Boston Harbor . . " "21

Fort Nieuw Amsterdam .... "



A



" 23

New Amsterdam in 1650 . . . . '' "24

"^ Allegorical Design .... " " 38

■^ Wall Street about 1830 .... " " 57

^ The New York Gazette . . . " ''76

^ St. Paul's Church . . . . . " "79

The Middle Dutch Church . . . " "88

V The Federal Edifice . . . . . " "92



In the Text

New Amsterdam ....
Seal of New Netherland

xiii



'9



Illustrations

PAGE

Amsterdam, Holland ....... 23

Dutch Weight ........ 25

Fort George, New York ....... 27

Farm-house on Broadway ...... 29

Trinity Church as enlarged . . . . . -3°

Arms of John Harpending ...... 32

Broad Street and Exchange Place . . . . -33

Broadway, near Grace Church . . . 35

Plan of the City in 1789 .... . . 36

City Hall Park ........ 39

Public Stage-coach ....... 40

Beekman Family Coach ...... 43

Lispenard's Meadows . . . . . . -45

De Peyster Mansion ....... 46

Hell Gate ......... 49

A Fire in New York in 173 i 54

Assembly Ticket . . . . . . . .61

A Fine Long Queue ....... 65

My Lady's Head-dress ....... 67

Fraunces Tavern ........ 70

Section of Iron Railing . . . . . . • 7 '

Southwest View or the City ..... 73

Governor's House and Church in the Fort . . -78

Trinity Church, Second Edifice . . . . 81

" Old South" Church in Garden Street . . . .82

xiv



lUtistrations



Garden Street Church, Second Edifice .

Le Temple du Saint Esprit

Middle Dutch Church as Post-office

Presbyterian Meeting House in Wall Street

Stadthuys in Coenties Slip

Old City Hall in Wall Street .

Government House ....

City Hall in the Park ....

Broadway and Fulton Street

Royal Exchange .....

New York from Governor's Island

Father Knickerbocker ....

Flag of Dutch West India Company



83
85
87
88
90

9'
92

93
94
95
97
101
104




Still wert thou lovely, whatsoe'er thy name,
New Amsterdam, New Oratige, or New York,
IVhether in cradle sleep, on sea-weed laid,
Or on thy island throne in queenly power arrayed.

MRS. SIGOURNEY.




Let us satisfy our eyes
IVith the Memorials and the things of fame
That do renown the Citv.





NEW AMSTERDAM, NOW NEW YORK,
^s it appeared about the year 1640, while under the Dutch Governvient.



THE BRADFORD MAP



CHAPTER I



INTRODUCTION



o,



T all the maps and views illustrating the early
history of the city of New York, none surpass in
interest or exceed in rarity the "Survey" made by
James Lyne, and printed and published by William
Bradford in 1731. Only two impressions from the
original copperplate, so far as known, exist. One.
the gift of John Pintard in 1807 to the institution
of which he was one of the founders, is in the collec-
tion of the New York Historical Society. This copy,
unfortunately, is not in good condition. It was
mounted on a stretcher and covered with a heavy



The 'Bradford (Map

coat of varnish many years ago, and the paper, which
is of an inferior quality, is cracked and discolored.
The other impression is in a better state of preserva-
tion. It may be called literally an uncut copy of the
Map, as the rough edges of the sheet upon which it
was printed remain intact. The only marks that the
flight of time has left upon it are one or twot small
perforations and some breaks in the folds of the paper,
but they have been skilfully repaired by that adept in
the art of restoring decayed and injured prints, George
Trent. In every other respect it is in the same con-
dition as when it came from the rude, old-fashioned
press of William Bradford.

In this piece of copperplate engraving no feature is
lacking to render it an acquisition of the first impor-
tance to every collector of Americana. It is one of
the earliest examples of the art of engraving executed
in New York, and without doubt it is the first map
printed here; it relates to the chief city on the con-
tinent, and it is of the utmost rarity. What more
could the most fastidious collector demand ?

This Map, the print of the Middle Dutch Church
engraved by William Burgis at about the same period,
the view of " t' Fort nieuw Amfterdam op de Man-
hatans" which is found in the " Befchrijvinghe Van
Virginia," etc., published in Amsterdam in 1 651, and
the view of "Nieuw Amsterdam" in Adriaen vander
Donck's " Nieuw-Nederlant," 1656, are the corner-
stones of a collection of prints relating to New York




From the Original Print in the Collection of W. L. Andrews.



The Bradford (Map

history. The books containing the two Jast named
prints are still occasionally to be found, but the others
were separate engravings, and consequently were
more exposed to the hap and hazard of time. Their
all but total disappearance is therefore not so much a
matter of surprise.*

The Bradford Map and the Middle Dutch Church
print were stumbled upon by the writer thirty years
ago in a book-hunting tour which he has ever since
regarded as an exceptionally successful one. They
were found preserved in an old scrap-book, which
contained in addition a " View of Castle William by
Boston in New England," a contemporaneous print
of equal if not greater rarity. All three are among
the very earliest specimens of American copperplate
engraving. Prints of the Revolutionary epoch from
the hands of our own engravers have become of in-
frequent occurrence, but these prints antedate them

* In 1755, a map of New York city was published by Gerardus
Duyckinck, which Du Simitiere, writing in 1768, asserts to be the
Bradford Map with additions and alterations; and its general ap-
pearance certainly gives color to this statement, if it be true
that Duyckinck obtained possession of the Bradford plate, pieced
it, and reengraved portions of it, the scarcity of the impressions
from the original engraving is readily explained. Curiously
enough, according to Du Simitiere, the Duyckinck map itself al-
most immediately after its publication became exceedingly difficult
to obtain. The only copy now known to exist is the one in the
New York Historical Society, and it certainly is a curious piece
of patchwork.



The "Bradford {Map




by half a century. It was by a narrow chance that
these interesting and historically important pictorial
records of our city escaped complete destruction.

In all these years no third copy of the Map or
of the Burgis print and no duplicate of the View

of Castle William have
been brought to »light.
The second impression
of the engraving of the
Dutch Church, from
which reduced copies
were made for Valen-
tine's History of New
York and other publica-
tions, is or was in the

SEAL OF NEW NhTHtRLAND, 1623. .^^^^„^^;^„ ^C D \JI

^ possession of a Rev. Mr.
Strong, of Newtown, Long Island. No reproduction
the size of the original appears to have been made.

The survey of James Lyne presents a view of New
York as it appeared after little more than a century
of growth ; for. although the river which bears the
name of Hudson was explored by its discoverer in
1609. and a small trading-post had been erected at
Fort Nassau on Castle Island, near Albany, in 1614.
it was not until the year 1626* that a colony was
permanently established on Manhattan Island under
the auspices of the Dutch West India Company. On

♦The city was not incorporated under the name of New Amster-
dam until 1652 ; it was laid out in streets in 1656.
22




Z !£



U



The "Bradford {Map

May 6 of that year the first real-estate transaction on
the Island of Manhattan, and one involving the
largest transfer of property ever made, was con-
summated. Governor Peter Minuit, representing the
company, purchased for "their account and risk " the
entire island from its aboriginal owners, giving in ex-
change for this wide domain a quantity of beads,




THE CITY OF AMSTERDAM, HOLLAND.

buttons, and other trinkets valued at sixty gulden
($24). The amount of land secured for this paltry
sum was estimated by Minuit at 22,000 acres.

The unsophisticated red men appear to have been
mightily contented with their share in this transac-
tion. There still remained in their undisputed con-
trol a continent of primeval forest, the depths of
which they had but partially explored. Ignorant and



Tbe "Bradford OAap

careless of the value or extent of their possessions,
thev willingly bartered away their woods and streams
for a few trumper\'^ articles of personal adornment.
It mattered not to them if they pitched their wig-
wams and lighted their council-fires a few steps
nearer to the setting sun. There was land enough
and to spare for the pale-face, especially as the kidians
believed that, while parting with the soil, they re-
tained the right to fish and hunt upon it. This
belief on their part led later to serious results.

The wilv Dutch governor must have laughed in his
sleeve as he clinched this one-sided bargain with a
flagon of the ' • mad waters " — that is to say. good old
Dutch schnapps — which tradition declares he found
to be a potent factor in his dealings with the Indians
and of special service in expediting this impor-
tant negotiation. The ver\' name of the island is a
perpetual reminder of the unrestrained conviviality of
this occasion. Manhattan — /. e.. Manahachtanienks,
a reveling name importing ■' the place where they all
got drunk " — was then and there bestowed upon it by
the Indians in commemoration of this great meeting.

The directors of the Dutch West India Company
were not uninformed as to the value of their proposed
purchase. Hendrick Hudson, on his return to Holland
seventeen years before, had reported that he found it
*•' a verv" good land to live in and a pleasant land to
see/' and the politic and energetic Minuit was de-
spatched to secure possession of this desirable domain



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The Bradford O^ap



on the best terms he could negotiate. There is no
reason to believe that the directors ever complained
that he paid an
exorbitant price
for the rocks,
swamps, and
pools of Manna-
hatta. During
the eight years
following, ac-
cording to the
returns made to
Holland by the
Company, they
received from the
colony more than
50,000 beaver-
and 6000 otter-
skins of the value
of over 525,000

gulden. If purchased from the Indians, as Irving
assures us they were, by Dutch weight, the Dutch-
man's hand being deemed the equivalent of one
pound and his foot of two, there must have been
a considerable profit in the business they transacted
in furs. Nevertheless, through official mismanage-
ment of the affairs of the province, the stockholders
of the Company found themselves in the long run
decidedly out of pocket.




DUTCH WEIGHT.



Snug houses and neat stoops, where friends would often meet,

The men with pipes, cock'd hats, ajid fine long queues.

The girls with white short gowns, stuff petticoats, and high-heel shoes,

And knitting at the side and fingers going,

And now and then a tender fiance bestowing.





SOUTH-WEST VIEW OF FORT GEORGE, WITH THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

CHAPTER II

THE CITY AND ITS INHABITANTS IN 1 73 1

VyE are surprised to find as we unfold our Map
that the city of New York so late as 1731 was
confined within such narrow limits, and that so few
were the steps that had as yet been taken in that
triumphant march of material progress which has
brought the metropolis of the New World to its
present pinnacle of power and greatness. It was,
indeed, a day of small things, a town of less than
1500 houses and 9000 inhabitants, on the outskirts
of which the echo of the Indian's warwhoop had



The Bradford {Map

hardly yet died away. Broadway, for years the pride
of every Knickerbocker's heart until its glory was
overshadowed and its prestige eclipsed by that of
Fifth Avenue, was one hundred and sixty years ago a
common country road. In the place of lofty ware-
houses filled with costly merchandise, high banks of
clay skirted its sides. Farm-houses were S(^attered
here and there along its length, and on that portion
of it where St. Paul's Church now stands fields of
wheat were growing in rank luxuriance.*

Unlike the Quaker City of Philadelphia, laid out
in the beginning with rectangular streets crossing
each other at prescribed distances with mathematical
precision, the streets of New York were left largely

*Census of New York City and County, November 2d, 1731.

Henry Beekmaii, Sheriff.

White males, above ten years, 2628



" females, "

" males, under

" females, "

Black males, above

" females, "

" males, under

" females, "



2250
1143
1024

599
607
186
'85
8622



Total population of the entire province :

Whites, 50,242

Blacks, 7,202

57,444



The "Bradford Olap



to their own devices. Cow-patiis and lovers' walks
are responsible for the location and devious windings
of some, while others "meandered of their own
sweet will in green suburban groves," or followed
lazily the indentations of the shore. Pearl Street (then
called Queen, in _

honor of Queen
Anne) was the
first roadway
above the water-
line on the East
River, and no
street running
north and south
except a section
of Church had as
yet been laid out
west of Broad-
way. From Old Wind-mill Lane, just above Crown
Street, now Liberty, the green fields of the " King's
Farm "* stretched in an unbroken expanse north-
ward and westward to the banks of the Hudson,
and from the steps of old Trinity Church no build-
ing obstructed the delightful view of the "Great
River "t flowing clear and sparkling in the sunshine,
its waters unvexed by the furrow of any keel save

* Trinity Ciiurch property, granted to the corporation in 1705
by Lord Cornbury, who reserved a quit-rent of three shillings,
f Groote Rieviere de Montaines.

29




FARM-HOUSE ON BROADWAY.



The "Bradford ^ap




that of an occasional leisurely-going clump-built

Albany sloop.

Wandering through the streets of New York in

173 1 , names unfamiliar to its present denizens would

have met the way-
farer's eye at every
turn. The Efiglish
conquerors of the city
had almost entirely
obliterated the Dutch
street nomenclature,
and from time to
time thereafter they
altered names to suit
dynastic changes in
the mother country.
The close of the
Revolutionary War,
with its successful
abolishment of kingly
rule, speedily brought
about a general re-
christening of every
street in the name

of which there was any suggestion of royalty.
Pearl Street (Paerl Straat), the crooked street of

New York, which grievously perplexes the pedestrian

by beginning and ending on Broadway, was variously

known in 1657 ^^ the Smiths' Valley, the Hoogh




TRINITY CHURCH AS ENLARGED, I 737.



The "Bradford (Map

Straat, the Waal (or sheet piled) Street, and the Wa-
terside. In 1 69 1 the lower portion was called Dock
Street. Some years later that part above Hanover
Square became known as Queen Street, a title it re-
tained as late as 1789. But the present Cedar Street
also bore that name, and to avoid confusion these
thoroughfares were called respectively Great Queen
Street and Little Queen Street. An open space on
Pearl Street in the block bounded by Whitehall,
Moore, and Water Streets was in early days known as
the Strand, and was used as a market-place or stand
for country wagons. The first church built on Man-
hattan Island, erected in 1633,* was a plain frame
building on the north side of Pearl Street, between
Broad Street and Old Slip. In 1642 this old kirk was
abandoned as a place of worship, and devoted to
business purposes.

The upper part of William Street was named after
William Beekman. From Maiden Lane to Pearl Street
it was called Smith Street. In olden days the lower
part was known as Burger's Path, and later as The
Glassmakers' Street.

John Harpending, the shoemaker, who donated the
land (a part of the "Shoemaker's Pasture") upon
which stood the Dutch Church at the corner of Fulton
and William streets, gave the name to John Street.

♦ For a number of years previously religious meetings had been held
in a loft above the first horse mill erected on the island.



The "Bradford O^ap




The descent from William Street to Pearl was known
as Golden Hill.

Cliff Street ran through Vandercliff's orchard. On
the Bradford Map his name is given to a portion of

the present Gold Street,
while the appellation of
Clif/ Street is appVed to
the street next to the
eastward, which is the
present Cliff Street. Cliff
Street intersected Golden
Hill, and this fact, accord-
ing to the annalist Wat-
son, gave rise to its
name, "along the cliff."
Beekman Slip, Fair Street, Division Street, and Par-
tition Street were the various names by which Fulton
Street was known prior to 1816.

Maiden Lane* was called in Dutch " t'Maadge
Paatge," or the Maiden's Path; and a quiet, secluded
road leading through the farm of Colonel Rutgers,
much frequented by romantically disposed couples,
was known as Love Lane. Phlegmatic as were those
old Dutch burghers, they were by no means devoid
of sentiment.

Nassau Street was at first known only by the gas-
tronomical designation of " the road that leads by the



ARMS OF JOHN HARPENDING.



* The first settlers upon Maiden Lane were ship-carpenters.

32



The 'Bradford {Map



pie-woman's to the City Commons." In. 1731 the
upper part was called Kip Street.

Wall Street ("Lang de Wal") marks the original
line of the city's palisades, which were erected for de-
fense against foes from neighboring colonies as well
as from incursions by the Indians ; hence its name,
which has not
been changed
since the year
1700. Its old
Dutch title was
the " Cingel." or
ramparts, and
"t'Schaape Way-
tie," or the pub-
lic sheep-walk,
extended from it
towards the pres-
ent Exchange Place. It is currently reported that
lambs are still to be seen browsing in this vicinity,
and that they frequently return home badly fleeced.

At the foot of Wall^ Street on the East River stood
the Slave Market. The average price for an able-
bodied negro, when the market was not overstocked
by too frequent arrivals from the coast of Guinea,
was $125. Human flesh was a cheap commodity in
New York in 1731 .

Garden Street, previously known as Verleitenberg
(corrupted to Flattenbarrack) Street, is now Exchange




EAST SIDE OF BROAD STREET, CORNER OF
EXCHANGE PLACE, IN 1 780.



The 'Bradford 3s/lap

Place. The portion of it lying on the declivity be-
tween Broadway and Broad Street was in winter a
famous coasting-place for the youth of the town.
In the spring and summer months the corner of
Exchange Place and Broad Street was frequented by
the Indians, who there manufiictured and exposed for
sale basket work, the material for which they had
brought in their canoes from the interior.

Whitehall Street derives its name from a large
house built by Governor Thomas Dongan, and named
Whitehall after the London palace of the kings of
England from Henry Vlll. to William III. In 1659
this street was known as " t'Marckvelt Steegie," or
path to the Marketfield (the present Bowling Green).
The ruins of Dongan's house could be seen on the
river front as late as 1769. They are included in the
section of the long panoramic view of New-York by
Burgis which is reproduced in this book.

Broad Street, built on the line of a creek or inlet
which extended up as far as Wall Street, was in
1657 called the " HeerenGracht"(the principal canal),
and also the '* Prince Gracht." Bridge Street (Brugh
Straat) crossed it by a bridge. State Street is said to
have been the first street in the city paved with stone.
In most of the early streets the gutter, or " kennel,"
ran through the center.

Not even the principal thoroughfare of the city has
escaped mutation in its name, having been called the
Breedweg, the Heere Straat, the Great Highway, the



The "Bradford OViap




BROADWAY, NEAR GRACE CHURCH, I 828.



Broad Waggon Way, Great George Street, and the
Middle Road; but since the year 1674 that part of
it below Vesey Street has remained in undisturbed
enjoyment of its present title. Above Vesey Street
it was so late as
1 794* called Great
George Street. In
1707 it was first
paved, from Trin-
ity Church to
Maiden Lane.

The Park, pro-
bably the first
recognized public
property on the island, has been known at various
periods as the Vlackte, or Flat, the Plains, the Com-
mons, and the Fields. It was ceded to the corpo-
ration of the city of New York in 1686 by Governor
Dongan, and has remained without interruption in
possession of the city government from that date to
the present time. In 1731 it was a neglected waste
covered with brush and underwood. It remained
uninclosed from the public highway for many years,
and was used with adjacent unoccupied lands prin-
cipally as pasturage for the cows of the townspeople.
Summoned in the early morning by the blast of a
horn at the garden gate, the cattle were collected by

*A number of changes in the names of streets was ordered

in this year.

35



The Bradford (Map

the public cowherd and driven to the Commons,
guarded through the day, and returned to their owners
at nightfall. Portions of the Park and its vicinity were
also used for public executions. In 1 691 Jacob Leisler
here ended his life on the scaffold, and in the imme-
diate neighborhood took place the wholesale burnings
and hangings of the unfortunate creatures implicated
in the Negro Plot of 1 74 1 . David Grim's map of 1 742
marks some low-lying ground near the corner of
Pearl and Chambers Streets as the location where the
stakes were set up and this tragedy enacted ; the
gibbet was erected a little further to the north. Grim


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