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<td ^f^tm f i Jl^^fi

Travels in
northern Greece

William Martin Leake

Digitized by


Digitized by


Digitized by


Digitized by


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Digitized by CjOOQ IC




Digitized by CjOOQIC






Zitdni, Lamia — View of MeU9, T%ermopyla, and Mount (Eta,
from Zitdni — Mount Katav6thra — Patratziki or Ne6patra,
Hypaia — Rivers Ell&dba, or Spercheius, and Vistiitza, or
Inachug — .^maneg — (Eiai — ^Tribes of the Maliensea — PhtH-
oUs — Dolopes — Dryopes — Franzi — River Guigo, Dyras^^
Mavran^ria, MeUu — TYachis — Heracleia — Rivers Karvunari6,
or Atopus and PkanM — Anthele — ThermopyUt — AJpeni — i^ma
Pundonitza — Military events at Thermopyltt — Upper Pass of
Mount CaMidroiima, or Anop^uL — Forts Tickius, Rhodmiia,
CalUdromum 1


L0CRI8, PH0CI8, D0R18.

Pundonitza — ^TernStza — Geography of Doris and the frontier of
Phocis — Rivers Apostolid and Kaienitza — River Cephissw —
Dhadhi, ilmpAtcMa— Velitza, Tithorea, iVeon— LefU, Ela-
tela — Paled Fiva, Ledon — LikBa — Source of the Cephissus —
Charadra, Ttthronium, Dry mesa — TetrapolU of Doris — River
Erineus, or Pindus, or Acyphas — Erineus, Pindus, Cytiniitm,
Bcaim — Departure from Velitza — Bissik^ni — The Stenft of the
Cephissus — Dhavlia — Rivers Platanid^ Mavroner6 — DauliSp
Inscription — r Aio Vldsi — Mera — Kftpuma — Panqpeus — CA«-
roneia — Mount Pe^acAiit— Arrival at Livadhia 66

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livadhia^ Mideia, Lihadeia, river Hercyna, Grove qf 7Vc>pJlotttttf
— Inscriptions of Livadhia — Coroneia — AktlcomeiUB — ^Petra—
Mountains lAbelhrium, LaphysHum, TVphosshan — Ten^le of
Wnerva Itonia — Rivers Curalitu, Phdlarus, Isomanim — Krdpi
— Skripti, Orchomenus, TYeasurp of Minyas, Monastery of
Skripti, Temple of the Graces, Inscriptions — Rivers C^&tMi»,
Melas~-Lake CephissU—Tegyra 118



Departure from Skripti — Souroe of tke Melae^^TtBm63i, d^le-
don^ExBjkh6^Abes^Temple ^ 4|>o/2(» - Vogdh^— ify-
ampoUe — T&knda — Atakmta — Opus — Cynus — Orobia —
Mdepsus — ^Topography of Eastern Loeris — Dt^jAmtS'-^jUopey
Cnemides, Thnmmm, river Boayrius^ SoarpkeiOf Nioeta^ Pka^
ryym, or Tome, Avgeim, Bessa, CaUiarm — ^Mount C^MMtf —
Mount Khlom6, Cyrtone — Corseia — Return to V41tesi — Ka-
lap6dlii^ Niify«»Sf6ka— Merali— Kh^bavo— Paledkaatro of
B^si, Para^tamU — River Cephissus — K4puma — Return to
Livadhia — Ancient military transactions in the plain of Cht^
roneia — Battle between SyUa and Archelaus — Mount Philo-
bcBotus^Blver Assus — Mount 7%tcrtiaii — Rivers ilfortttf, Mohis
— Assia — Departure for Thebes — Petra — Ocaiea — Mazi — Ha-
Uartus — Death of Lysander — River LopAt«— Fountain Cissusa
— Orckalides — Mount J^ecum — Rivers PermessuSf OlmeiMS-^
Onchestus — Mount Fag4, Phcaucium, or Phtdum — ^The Th^eric
plain— Thebes l6l



Ypsili Rakhi — General geography of BtBotia — Rivers and foun-
tains of Tkebes^-Cadmeia — Description of the city by Dic€6-'
arehus and Pausanias — Dimensions of the city — Seven Gates

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— Doparture for 'Bgnpo^ TeumuBm Mount Siamatd, %-
pahu — OHmu — RiT&r Tkermodon — Harma — Mfcaksiui —
'Egripo, Ckalcit — JBMr^nw— -Bridge — Mount Kalogheritia —
LelamtMm AmUs — Ctfpe Emperawm — Departure from 'Egripo
— ^AkMlia — SdB^oMiit— Ancient road — Ja^thedxm 218


From Anthedtm to the Lake Paralimni— Cross Mount Ptoum - ^
Falek, Temple of ApoBo P/otct— Kdkkino— Lake Copais—
Chasms of the Cqfthiseue — line of ancient Shafts aho've the
suhterraneous River — Emissory — Valley of Larmes — La-
rynma, upper and lower — Return to Kdkkino — Kardhitza^
Aereepkimm — Inscriptions — Athamemtiwm — Copet — KataT6tfara
of Mcrant Phicwm — ^Ancient Canal between the lakes Aoreephu
and IhfUee — Hyle — S^zina— Lake Liv^hi^ HyUce — Return
to Thebes— Sctoitw—EJeofi 276



From Thebes to Kokhla — Potnia — River Asopus —Plataa —
Fountain Vergnti&ni — Kriaktiki — Hysi€B — Bubtika — Katztila,
Erythrm—Seoh»~-Eteonu8 — Fountain Oargaphia — Plat^i —
MomuMnt qf Meardonius — Ancient roads from Plataa to
Athens and Megara — FonaUain of Diana and rock of Action
— I^hragidium — Battle of Plataa — Heroum of Androcrates —
Argiopiue — The Island — Siege of PUxtaa in the Pdoponnesian
War — Re^stablishment of the walls under Cassander — He-
raum, old and new — ^Description of Plataa by Pansamas —
GateqfEleuthera 323



Departure from Thebes — Therapnm — Scolus — Plain of Si41iasi—
Panaeium — St. Meletius — Derveno-kh6ria — Ghyft6-ka8tro,

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(Eitoe - Mytipoli, EleiUkerm — ^Pass of Saranddporo or Cephunu
—Plain of Bleu8%8 and Thria-^BkeOi'-'TempU qf Vetm PkUa
— Dfaifni, Temple of ApoUo on Mount PcBct^Mtn^— Arrival at
Athena — Geography of the Megaris — Route from JSleusis to
Megara — Description of Megara by Fanuanuu — hong Walls
— NisiBa — Minoa — jEgosthena^ Pagm — Erineta—Itue — Mount
Kandfli) Cerata — Mount Karjfdhi — The Oneia — Polichne —
TVipodiscus—^geirusa — Creraneia — Cimolia — Scirone, rocks
Scironidei , 368



Mount Pames — ^View from the summit — Departure from Athens
—Kifisla—Vrani— Plain of ilfara/*o«— Suli— TWcoryfAw—
Temple of Nemesis — Evre6ka6tro» Rham$ius — 6rammatik6 —
Varndva —Mount Mavron6ro, Phelleus — K^Uamo, Psaphis —
Mavrodhilisi, temple qf Amphiaraus — ApoBt6ius, Delphinium
— 'Oropo, Oropus — Sykdmino— Dhilissi^ Delium — Battle of
Delium — Skimatdri — Grimddha, Tanagra — Rivers Lari and
Asopus — Battles qf Tanagra and (Enophytee — 'Inia, (Enopkyta
— ^Andritza, Pkara — Archaic inscriptions — Vlokho— Mounts
Soro, Sulld — Return to Thebes — Chalia — Cynoscephala —
GraaS'Stetktts 416



Departure from Thebes — ^Vale of the Kanaviri — Rim6kastro —
Lefka, Thesput—Leuctra—Battle of Leuctra — Paleopanaghia
— Pyrg&ki, Ascra — Fountain Aganippe — Grove of the Muses-^
Hippocrene, Olmeius, Permessus — Nc6khori— Ceressus — Ta-
tezd — Fountain of Narcissus — Xeronoroi — Pyrgo on Mount
Korombili— Port Aliki — Kak6sia, Thisbe —VsXhy, Port of
Thisbe — Dobrend — Inscriptions at Kakdsia — Kh6sia — Monas-
tery of Saint Taxiarches — Port Sardndi — Sipha — Dob6—
Zdlitza, Bulis^Theba Corsica -^Port Eutretus^Euiresis^
Arrival at Kyridki 477

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KyryLki^-Moimt Heficon— Paled- khora— Monastery of St. Luke
of Siins—Stiris and its fountain— Jm6rynf«—Met6khi Sto
Ial6— Sidhiro-kafkhio-— Aspra Spitia—Jii^tcyra— Mount Oir-
phis — DheaiinsL-^Medeon—Mttrathus ^CAipe Pharyginm—My'
ckus — Pamassia Nape— River Pleishu — Delphi— lia topo-
l^mphy, antiquities, inscriptions, &c 526



Departure from Delphi — Kri9s6> CWifa—Xeroplgadho— CirrAo —
River Pieutue — S61ona, Amphissa — ^Latlu inscription — Roads
from Stiona — Athymia, ilfyoma— Lidhoriki— Steu6— Velt^k-
hovo^Rivers Mega, K6kkino, and Mom6— Khan of Paleux&ri
— Monastery of Vamdkova — Magtila — Cross the Momo —
Plain of Pil&la — Mount Rlganl — 'Epakto, Naupactue — ^Ancient
geography of JEtoUa and Locris-^Athemtm invasion — March
qf the Spartan Euryhchus through Loeris — (Eneoih—^gitiiim
— Potidania — E^aUum — Erythra — CrocyliMm — Tichium —
Hyle — Thkphon — Phtstum — ApidoH — OpMonenses -* Bomi —
CaOnim — Pyra — Mount CoraxSwrytanes 582

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Zitiini, Lamia— View of Melis, Thermopylce, and Mount (Eta
from Zitiini— Mount Katavothra— Patratziki or Neopatra,
/Typfl/o— Rivers EUadha, or Spercheius, and Vistntza, or
lnachus—jEmanes—(Etcei—tnhe8 of the Malienses—Phthi-
atte—Dolopes-^Dryopes—FTeaizi-^RiyeT Gurgo, Dyras—
Mavran^ria, Meku—TrachU—Heracleia—RiYeTB Karvunaria,
or Asopus, and Phcenix'-Anthele—Thermopylce—Alpeni—
Mc^a—Pundonitza— Military events at Thermopylce—V^^i
Pass of Mount Callidramus, or Anopiea^Forta Tichius, Rho-
duntiaf CalUdromum.

Nov. 25. — ZriTouviov is a name remarkable from its
resemblance to the Arabic Zeitun, which means a
place of olive trees, and is repeatedly found in
countries where that language is spoken, but as
none of the names of Greece are derived from the
Arabic unless through the Turkish, as the Turks
have corrupted Zeittin into Isdun, and as Znrivtov
is found among the bishoprics of the province of


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2 MELTS. [chap.

Larissa in the ninth century, there can be little
doubt that the name came into use with others
still existing, which are found in the Notitise Epis-
copatuum, and is not to be traced to an Oriental
origin. There are about 3000 Turks in the town,
and 2000 Greeks, who are poor, or at least afraid
of not appearing so. The district confines east-
ward on that of Armyro, and is bordered in the
other directions by Neopatra, 'Agrafa, and Fer-
sala. It contains near 60 villages, of which the
population is almost entirely Greek.

The strength of the castle hill of Zituni, the
secure and convenient distance of the place from
the sea, and its abundant sources of water^ point it
out at once as the position of an important Hellenic
city, which an inscription copied at Zituni, by Paul
Lucas, shows to have been Lamia ^ And this is
amply confirmed by Livy and Strabo. The latter
places Lamia above the plain, which lies at the
head of the Maliac Gulf, at a distance of 30 stades
from the Spercheius*. Livy describes it as situated
on a height distant seven miles from Heracleia, of
which it commanded the prospect', and as lying

^ U6\ic ^(iatrHtwv Aafuiufy ' Eodem tempore quo Ro-

MyaaiKdt^av Tiapafi6yovt ^vaei mani Heracleam, Philippus La-

^e Xtyoi^yrov, Aper^c evcircv miam ex composito oppugna-

ica^ thyoiac rfjc ^h ahrffv. — bat Interstmt septem

P. Lucas, Voyage dans la millia passuum et quia Lamia

Grdce, &c. tome i. p. 405. quum posita est in tumulo, turn

' 'Air^X^t ^£ Aa/i/ac 6 ^ep- regionemeammaximedespectat

X€«oc vepl TptdKoyra vra^iovcf oppidum, qua breve interval-

ifTtpKtifUvric 'K'ediov TiyBc KaOii- lum videtur et omnia in con-

Koyrog MToyMaXiaKoy K6\iroy» spectu sunt, &c. — Liv. 1. 36,

—Strabo, p. 433. c. 25.

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X.] MELI8. 3

on the route which led irom Thermopylae through
the passes of Phthiotis to Thaumaci^

The only remains I can find of the ancient city
are some pieces of the walls of the Acropolis, form-
ing a part of those of the modem castle ; and some
small remains of the town walls constructed of
masonry of the third species, at the foot of the hill
beyond the extreme modem houses to the east-
ward. On the opposite side of the town, a brisk
little river turns fourteen mills, situated one above
the other, on the slope of the hill. The same
method is practised at Dhomok6, but there with
only four mills.

The ancient importance of Lamia is shown by
its silver coins, and by the occurrence of its name
in ancient history, on some important occasions,
particularly in the year B.C. 323, when the Athe-
nians, on the deaUi of Alexander, were excited
by the '^ sibi mortifera facundia" of Demosthenes
to renew their struggle with Macedonia. Anti-
pater was at first unsuccessful, and retired into
Lamia, where he was besieged by the Athenians,
but their commander Leosthenes, having been
slain, and Antipater having received a reinforce-
ment firom Asia under Craterus, the Macedonians
were again enabled to meet the enemy in the field,
and terminated the war by a victory near Crannon'.
In the year B.C. 191, Lamia was besieged by
Philip, son of Demetrius; Livy, in relating this

' Liv. 1. 32, c. 4. V. supra, Polyb. 1. 9, c. 29. Pausan.
vol. i. p. 458. 1. 10, c. 3. Plutarch, in De-

' Diodor. 1. 18, c. 9, et seq. mosth.
Arrian. ap. Phot. cod. 92.

B 2

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4 MELIS. [chap.

transaction, takes notice of the rocky soil of Lamia,
which prevented the Macedonians from making
so rapid a progress in this siege as their comrades,
who were similarly employed at Heracleia on the
opposite side of the plaint In the following year
Lamia was taken by the Romans under Manius
Acilius Glabrio*.

The castle of Zituni commands a most beautiful
and interesting prospect; and being itself a remark-
able point, is an excellent geographical station.
There is no other of equal altitude which compre-
hends so complete a view of the country adjacent
to the head of the Maliac Gulf, or at least that
affords so much assistance in understanding the
history of the celebrated events which have oc-
curred on this scene. Having the advantage to-
day of a most diaphanous atmosphere, I easily re-
cognize the places with which I was familiar in

The most striking part of the prospect is the
vast (Eteean range of mountains extending from
Callidronms above Thermopylosy as far westward as
the summit near Karpenisi named Velukhi, not far
to the left of which is seen Patratziki or Neopatra,
below one of the highest summits of the range ;
to the left of that town rise the stupendous preci-
pices called Katav6thra, which fall in a north-
eastern direction to the plain of Zituni. In the
opposite quarter, towards the entrance of the gulf,
is seen Stylidha', the port of Zituni ; and in a line

' Liv. 1. 36, c. 25. » :^Tv\^^a,

' Id. 1.37, c. 5.

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X.] MEUS. 5

with it the most westerly inlet of the sea, which
here advances to within three miles of the town.
Near the shore, on this side of Stylidha, appears
the village Aghia Marina ; and beyond Stylidha
the slope of Momit OthrySy as far as the entrance
of the Euhoic Straits. The promontory of Lithadha
in Euhcea forms a lofty peninsula in the center of
the gulf, to the right of which the view compre-
hends a long reach in the Evhoic channel ; and at
its entrance the islands anciently called Lichades, to
the right of which is Mount Cnemis, with the village
of Mola at its foot. From hence, to the beginning
of the pass of Thei^mapylcBy a narrow plain abound-
ing with wood extends along the shore, behind
which are the hills below Pundonitza, which con-
nect the mountains Cnemis and CallidromuSj and
at their foot a remarkable rock, upon which I ob-
served, on my former visit to this country, some
remains of ancient monuments. It is nearlv in a
line with the castle of Pundonitza, seven degrees
to the left of which appears the peak of Khlomo
above Talanda. Considerably to the right of Pun-
donitza begins the precipitous termination of Mount
Callidromus above the salt springs, which gave
name to ThermopyloB \

This alone is the proper pass, for to the east-
ward of it the hills, though now difficult to pene-
trate on account of the woods, form a very regular
slope from the summit of Callidromus Uy the para-
lian plain, about Mola ; the above-mentioned rock

* See the plans of the Pass, Thermopylae, at the end of this
and of the country around volume.

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6 MELIS. [chap.

with the ancient remains, being at the foot of a
part of this slope, is not very near the pass, and
cannot therefore be the site of any of the places in
the pass mentioned by Herodotus ; it may indicate
perhaps the position of Nicaea^ Thereabout it
must have been that Hydames descended to the
rear of Leonidas. The eastern extremity of the
pass was a little to the left or east of the derveni,
or guard-house, from whence to the upper or
western salt-springs, precipices overhang the pass,
gradually increasing in height from die former
position to the latter, immediately over which
they are highest. Above these precipices there
is still an elevated country of varied surface, gra-
dually rising to the foot of the snowy and fir-clad
summit of the mountain ; and in this place, just
under the highest peak, stands the village of

Below the district of Dhrakospilid, to the west-
ward, extends a regxdar and cultivated declivity,
which belongs to another village named Dha-
masta ^ and reaches to the AsopuSj and Thermo-
pylcBy terminating at the latter in a long stony
slope corresponding to the plain of Anthele of
Herodotus, which lies between the upper salt
source of ThermopylcB proper, and another pass
to the westward where the road is confined be-
tween cliffs and a marsh, and where are also some
sources of hot salt water. But this latter pass,
lying between the plain of Anthele and the Aso-

* Polyb. 1. 10, c. 42 ; 1. 17, » ApoiroffiriXeo.

c. 1.7. Strabo, p. 428. * Aafiatnd*

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X.] MELIS. 7

jiaan plain, may be turned through the slope of
Dhamasta. So that supposing the sea and marshes
to hare occupied all that which now forms a plain
in front of ThermopylcBj the real pass will be re*
duced to the space between the derveni and the
old or upper sources, or in other words to the
space eastward of the plain of ATUheUj which is
now occupied by the course of the eastern salt
springs and their deposit. Dhamasta is situated
at the head of some cultivated declivities at the
foot of a precipice under the upper heights of the
mountain, and around it there is a considerable
tract of vineyards. The cultivated slope imme-
diately below the village is separated by some
shrubby steeps from the Asapian or Trachinian
plain. To the right of Dhamasta is seen a little
table land on the mountain, upon which, amcmg
the woods, stands a monastery of the Panaghia,
and near it to the right, is an acclivity reaching to
the crest of the Zygos, or connecting ridge, which
unites Mount CalUdramus with the great CEUean
summits, and over which passes the modem road
from Zituni to Salona. This Zygos is cultivated
in patches quite to the top. The summit of Par-
nassus makes its appearance above a shrubby
height ; one of the lowest of those bordering the
plain, and which to the westward is bounded by
the precipitous ravine of the AsopuSy which river
here traverses the mountain nearly in the same
oblique direction in which it crosses the plain.
To the right of the Asopus for two miles are seen
the great precipices from which the city Trachis
derived its name, and which about the middle

Digitized by


8 MELIS. [chap.

advance considerably into the plain. Above them
are seen some small villages^ situated on cultivated
slopes, extending as far as the great summit which
is called Patriotiko, or Patratzikiotiko, from its
being immediately above Neopatra, or Patratzik.
This summit is covered with firs and other
trees. Between the cliffs of Trachis or Hera-
cleiaj to the westward^ and the still higher
precipices called Katavothra, where the valley is
narrowest, a cultivated declivity advances into
the Trachinian plain. Here on the edge of the
plain are the villages Vardhates, Alpospata, and
Franzi. A remarkable chasm separates the south
easternmost summit of the Patriotiko from the
Katavothra, and terminates to the left of the
heights of Franzi in a ravine which descends into
the plain near Alpospata, half way between the
end of the Trachinian Rocks and the point of
Franzi. Here and at the foot of the gorge of the
AsoptiSy the land of Trachis is highest, and from
these two points it subsides gradually to the Sper-
cheius. This river is now known by the name of
Elladha ^ ; Mount Callidromus is called Saromata,
— the Asopus, Karvunaria.

A pezodhromo well acquainted with all this
country, informs me that there is a road of not
above two hours along the upper region of the
mountain from Dhrakospilia to Pundonitza, which
he has often traversed. It is undoubtedly by the
same route that Hydames crossed the mountain,
and the pezo may possibly be a descendant of his

Digitized by



guide ; for neither the barbarians of the east nor
of the north seem to have colonized much in Me-
Ksy if we may judge by the names of places, which
are chiefly of Greek derivation.

Livy thus describes the (Etsean barrier * : " These
mountains which divide Greece in the middle, as
Italy is divided by the ridge of the Apennine,
extend in a continued line from Leucas and the
western sea to that on the eastern side of Greece ;
they are so uneven and rocky, that not only
armies, but even ordinary pedestrians find a diffi-
culty in crossing them by the few ^aths which
they afford. At the eastern extremity they are
named (Eta, and their highest summit Callidro-
mon, at the foot of which, towards the Maliac
Gulf, there is a pass only sixty paces in breadth.

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