have been lost with Northern Epeiros, and the
rest may one day come to Greece with Cyprus and
the Dodekanese. Whether Constantinople will
become Greek again is uncertain. The treaty of
Sevres hinted at such an eventuality, but Greece
is no longer the favourite child of the Entente.
It may be doubted whether, apart from historical
arguments, its possession would materially benefit
" Old " Greece. Indeed, mediaeval history points
the lesson that Byzantium exploited " Old " Greece
for its own purposes, and only when the Byzantine
Empire shrank to a mere fragment of suburban
territory did Mistra assume importance. To-day
there is antagonism between Byzantine and
Athenian Hellenism : the former is Venizelist,
the latter Constantinian ; and the Royalist
Government wished to delay the election to the
Patriarchate, vacant for three years, for fear lest
a Venizelist Patriarch should be chosen. 1 Greece
is too small for two great cities ; the question of
precedence between Athens and Constantinople
would be difficult, while there would be the danger
of Bulgarian interruption of the land communica-
1 As was the case.
166 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
tion between the two. No Balkan State wants
Greece at Constantinople : Roumania has lately
said so ; and the Powers, now that Bolshevism
has, at least temporarily, eliminated the Russian
candidature, have acquiesced in the half-measure
of leaving the Turk there. That this will be
permanent is improbable ; but, when he finally
retires to Asia Minor, whence he came, the most
likely solution, although by no means ideal, would
seem to be international control. Still, we cannot
expect the Greeks, with their strong Byzantine
memories and acute historic sense, to cease regard-
ing Constantinople as pre-eminently their " City,"
and Santa Sophia their holy of holies. Only, as
Bismarck said of Prussia before her consolidation :
" the equipment is too big for the tiny body."
A scattered state is hard to defend. If Greece
obtained Byzantium, could she maintain it in
war, or administer it in peace ?
But, as no country should know better than
Greece, the greatness of states does not depend
upon their mileage. Both intensively, as well as
in extent, Greece has greatly progressed in the
century of her independence. Athens is now one
of the finest cities of the South, and owes its rapid
development in large measure to that fervent
patriotism of " the outside Greeks," which prompts
them to spend their fortunes upon beautifying
the capital of their free brethren. To Epeirote
"benefactors" a recognized class in Greece
Athens owes many public foundations. Intellectu-
THE EUROPEAN CRISIS 167
ally, as is natural in a race so eager to learn, the
advance has been rapid. Illiteracy has greatly
diminished ; and, if the figures of illiteracy in the
census of 1907 for " Old Greece "66-27 per cent.
seem high, that is partly due to the large proportion
of elderly illiterates inherited from Turkish Thessaly
and British Zante, where little was done under
our protectorate for primary education. By 1914
the number of pupils in elementary schools had
already increased by 40,487. The acquisitions
of the Bucharest and Sevres treaties will give the
schoolmaster much work to make up for Turkish
neglect ; but the Greek element in "New" Greece
already had numerous schools, provided by
patriotic Hellenes. Greek estimates 1 give them as
1,011 with 59,640 pupils for Macedonia, 562 with
42,890 pupils for Thrace, 179 with 22,296 pupils
for Constantinople and Chatalja, 405 with 56,525
pupils for the Smyrna vilayet, 1,646 with 108,726
pupils for the rest of Asia Minor (including the
Dardanelles), 12 with 1,835 pupils in Imbros and
Tenedos, and 131 with 11,122 pupils in the Dodek-
anese and Kastellorizon, besides those in Cyprus,
Crete, Samos and the other islands conquered
from Turkey. Here again quality as well as
quantity must be considered. Greek, like most
foreign education, is too literary ; it does not
develop character ; and M. Venizelos, therefore,
1 Colocotronis, La Macedoine et VHelUnisme (Paris,
1919), p. 614 ; Soteriadis, An Ethnological Map (London,
1918), pp. 14-15.
168 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
desired the experiment of a school on British lines.
The boy scout movement has to a certain extent
supplied that physical training which the ancient
Greeks considered an integral part of education.
Greek athletes distinguished themselves at the
Olympic Games of 1896 and 1906 : a Greek won
the Marathon race at the former, another Greek
delighted the spectators by his graceful quoit-
throwing at the latter. But the little Greek
loves his books far more than does the little
Briton, and it is pathetic to see the small boot-
blacks of Athens poring over manuals at night-
schools. For one class, the clergy, intellectual
education is far behind ours. The late Metro-
politan, a Cypriote bishop, resolved to raise the
educational level of the Greek priest who is often
a mere peasant, but perhaps for that reason,
especially as he is married, better able to enter into
the lives of his parishioners. There are few traces
in Greece that learning prevents men from excelling
in commerce ; it has, however, a tendency to
make the Greeks regard it as the one thing necessary
to success and to judge less learned Balkan races
The language question has handicapped the
development of a modern literature of the imagina-
tion ; but, after King Constantine's deposition*
the " vulgar " tongue was ordered to be the
medium of elementary instruction, and Venizelist
journals ridiculed Royalist " smart " society for
talking French. But the historical studies of
THE EUROPEAN CRISIS 169
Lampros (who would have written better if he had
written less), Sathas, Meliarakes, Kampouroglos
and Philadelpheus have illuminated the Mediaeval
and Turkish periods, while Paparregopoulos wrote
a masterly " History of the Greek Nation."
Professor Andreades is an eminent economist,
known far beyond Greece. Bikelas and Drosines
produced good novels and devoted themselves
to the diffusion of useful knowledge by a series of
popular handbooks. British readers can form
some idea of the short story from " Tales of a
Greek Island," by Julia Dragoumis, and " Modern
Greek Stories," translated by Demetra Vaka.
Roides and Zampelios published popular historical
novels, Bernardakes and Rangabes classical and
historical plays. " Jean Moreas " was a Greek
of Paris. Greek, like Italian, authors suffer from
the popularity of translations from the French,
which all educated Greeks read. In Soures Athens
lost a modern Aristophanes, for his weekly journal,
Romeos, written entirely by himself in verse, was
a genial satire on contemporary events. But
modern, like Byzantine, Greek literature is rather
instructive than original, learned than popular,
historical than romantic.
There remains journalism, which flourishes to
an extent unknown in other countries of the same
size. The Greek press is intensely political, and
very well written. Every one reads it, many
believe it. It has played an important part in
political history, and the " conversion " of many
170 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
newspapers during the war was one obstacle to
the Allies. In normal times, when there is no
censorship, it keeps the people well-informed
about the political affairs of " mankind from
China to Peru," and especially about what the
Briton " intends, and what the French." Its
caricatures have sometimes been excellent, but
latterly the paper famine has curtailed its space.
Unfortunately, those who write in Greek suffer
in " Europe " from the mediaeval maxim : Grcecum
est, non legitur.
The territorial acquisitions of the last nine
years should greatly increase the economic progress
of Greece. In 1914 the cultivable area of " Old "
Greece, largely rocky, was only 24 per cent., even
after the draining of the Copai'c lake. The
annexation of Macedonia will ultimately increase
this percentage, when that troubled province finally
enjoys peace, and its plains can be scientifically
cultivated and its marshes drained. Still more
is hoped from Thrace and the Asiatic territory,
where, under favourable conditions, the Greek
is content to till the soil. Elsewhere, he prefers
the sea or the shop. Goats and intentional forest
fires have diminished the woods ; but the last
sixty years have witnessed considerable activity
in mining, in which British capital has participated ;
but Greek industries are crippled by the lack of
coal, and Greece is not, therefore, a manufacturing
country. A result of this is the tardy appearance
of Socialism as a political party. Class distinctions
THE EUROPEAN CRISIS 171
are, for historical reasons, less important among
Greeks than elsewhere. The mediaeval archontes
have left no successors ; titles are confined to the
Ionian Islands ; and, although a certain halo
invests the descendants of Revolutionary families,
men like Admiral Koundouriotes and M. Za'imes
the Greek equivalents of our Russells and
Cavendishes Greece is a country in which a career
is essentially open to talent. Possibly that fact
makes Greece more difficult to govern than
countries where the vast mass occupies itself
with politics only at elections.
The present moment is scarcely propitious to
an optimistic survey of Greece's future. Her
barometer, after a sudden rise, has as suddenly
fallen ; her European influence, based upon that
of one man, has declined with his decline. That
is the usual lesson of Balkan history, for in South-
Eastern Europe the individual has always been
the determining factor. Had such a man arrived
earlier in the last century, before rival competitors
to the Turkish heritage had had time to grow up,
had, for example, Kolettes been a Venizelos,
Greece would have to-day a less disputed position
in the Near East. The Turk has now practically
disappeared from Europe, but the Greek has not
sole possession of his abandoned territories. The
late war has left Roumania and Jugo-Slavia far
larger than Greece, while Bulgaria has not aban-
doned her aspirations to Thrace and Macedonia.
Roumania, doubtless, is more a Danubian and
Carpathian than a Balkan state, and Jugo-Slavia
(if she holds together) should look Westward
rather than Southward, to the Adriatic rather than
to the ^Egean. But experience shows that no
Balkan settlement is durable, that the Eastern
question is insoluble. Long before the Turks
entered Europe, Greeks, Serbs and Bulgars fought
for the hegemony of the peninsula, in which their
historic lots have been cast ; nor is there reason
for believing that their rivalries will cease, now
that the Turks have practically retired from the
A Balkan Confederation is a dream ; even a
Balkan Alliance, projected by Trikoupes and
realized by M. Venizelos, lasted but a few months.
Racial antipathies in the Balkans are so strong
and so deep, human life is held in so little account,
and historical traditions play so important a part
in inter-Balkanic politics, that reason and common-
sense, or, in other words, compromise, can rarely
prevail over Chauvinism, even when there is no
Great Power behind the scenes to encourage dis-
cord or keep some running sore open. And such
sores still exist witness the uncertainty whether
Albania can live, and the interest that some have
that she shall live precariously or not at all. Yet,
could the Balkan races but be left alone to manage,
or even mismanage, their own affairs, and could
they come to a lasting settlement with each other,
it would be difficult to find a more talented com-
bination. The Greeks would contribute the
THE EUROPEAN CRISIS 173
intelligence and the superior civilization, the
Bulgarians the rude tenacity of purpose and
strength of character, the Jugoslavs the romantic
element, and, in the case of the Croats, the valuable
experience gained from a long period of Western
administration. The Greeks have learned in
recent times the lesson, inculcated by Byron, to
" trust not for freedom to the Franks," but to
their own exertions, to think less of their remote
ancestors and more of themselves, to realize that
Marathon should not eclipse Kilkich, and that
foreign Governments do not direct their policy
mainly for the furtherance of Hellenic interests,
unless those happen to coincide with their own.
And here Greece possesses an advantage, denied
to all her neighbours, the existence of powerful
and patriotic Greek colonies in foreign capitals,
able to collect and impart information for, and
about, Greece. Probably her greatest obstacle is
politics in the parliamentary sense of the word :
the personal rivalry of politicians for power
money is not a consideration to the Greek states-
man, who serves his country for a pittance and
usually leaves office poorer than he entered it.
Long, stable administrations thus become difficult ;
and, in the new system of arranging international
affairs by direct contact between Premiers, a
nation loses influence when it often changes its
representative. For this reason a Greek Republic
seems unthinkable ; what Greek would command,
and keep, the support of a large majority of his
174 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
fellow-countrymen ? Yet the late war showed
that in Greece monarchy has its disadvantages,
and it is unfortunate that there can be no system
for the spontaneous generation of Crown Princes,
so that Balkan monarchs need not seek consorts
in countries whose interests are widely different.
But the personal monarchy in Greece is only a
transient phenomenon : the half-century of George
is the rule, the early years of Otho and Constantine
the exception. The present is an uncertain period
of transition ; whereas Hellenic democracy is
" half as old as time."
NOTE. The Paris Conference of March, 1922, revised
the treaty of Sevres by moving the Greek frontier in
Thrace back to a line drawn from near Ganos on the Sea
of Marmora to the Bulgarian frontier on the west of the
Stranja Mountains, and restoring Smyrna with its Hin-
terland to direct Turkish rule. This decision has so far
(July, 1922) not been executed.
aitd under <3relc administration (Sttvyrna.
and Hiatcrlaad) . /
KetrocededtDTurkeyJfarchlSZZ, by the?-
GREEK ACQUISITIONS BY TREATY OF SEVRES, AUGUST, IQ2O
A complete bibliography would fill many pages. For
that of the Prankish period reference may be made to
the author's work, The Latins in the Levant (London,
1908), and for that of Modern Greece before 1913 to his
book, The Ottoman Empire, 1801-1913 (London, 1913).
For this second period the following may be specially
Abbott, G. F. [Editor]. Greece in Evolution. London,
Bickford- Smith, R. A. H. Greece under King George.
Christmas, W. King George of Greece. London, 1914.
Driault, E. La Question cTOrient. 8 e ed. Paris, 1921.
Fairchild, H. P. Greek Immigration to the United States.
New Haven, 1911.
Finlay, G. A History of Greece. Ed. by H. F. Tozer.
Vols. vi, vii. Oxford, 1877. (The standard work for
the period up to 1864.)
Freese, J. H. A Short Popular History of Crete. London,
Gordon, T. History of the Greek Revolution. 2 vols.
Jebb, Sir R. C. Two Lectures on Modern Greece. London,
Jervis, Henry Jervis- White. History of the Island of
Corfu and of the Republic of the Ionian Islands.
Kerofllas, C. Eleftherios Venizelos. London, 1915.
Kirk wall, Viscount (Editor). Four Years in the Ionian
Islands. 2 vols. London, 1864.
176 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
Luke, H. C. Cyprus under the TUT ks, 1571-1878. Oxford,
Luke, H. C. and Jardine D. J. The Handbook of Cyprus.
Martin, P. F. Greece of the Twentieth Century. London,
Miller, W. Greek Life in Toivn and Country. London,
Orr, C. W. J. Cyprus under British Rule. London, 1918.
Parish, H. H. The Diplomatic History of the Monarchy
of Greece from the year 1830. London, 1838.
Pashley, R. Travels in Crete. 2 vols. London, 1837.
Samuelson, J. Greece ; her Present Condition . London,
Sergeant, L. Greece in the Nineteenth Century. London,
Spratt, T. A. B. Travels and Researches in Crete. 2 vols.
Stephanopoli, J. Z. Les lies de VEgee. Leurs Privileges.
Strong, F. Greece as a Kingdom ; or a Statistical Descrip-
tion of that Country. London, 1842.
Thery, E. La Grece actuelle au point de vue economique
et financier. Paris, 1905.
Thouvenel, L. La Grece du Roi Othon. Paris, 1890.
Tuckerman, C. K. The Greeks of to-day. Ed. 2. New
Xenos, S. East and West, a Diplomatic History of the
Annexation of the Ionian Islands to the Kingdom of
Greece. London, 1865.
The treaties affecting Greece up to 1881 may be found
in Holland's European Concert in the Eastern Question
(Oxford, 1885), that of 1897 for the retrocession of
Thessaly in " Turkey No. 2 (1898)."
For the period 1913-21 the following may be con-
Anonymous. Handbooks prepared under the direction
of the Historical Section of the Foreign Office, Nos.
18,19, 96. Greece, Macedonia, Islands of the Northern
and Eastern JEgean. London, 1918-19.
Anonymous. The Greek Army and the recent Balkan
Offensive. London, 1919.
Cassavetti, D. J. Hellas and the Balkan Wars. London,
Chester, S. B. Life of Venizelos. London, 1921.
Cinq Ans d'Histoire Grecque, 1912-1917. Paris-Nancy,
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Gauvain, A. The Greek Question. New York, 1918.
Kenneth Brown, Mrs. Constantine, King and Traitor.
Lawson, J. C. Tales of Mgean Intrigue. London, 1920.
Maccas, L. L" 1 Hellenisme de VAsie-Mineure. Paris-
Melas, Major G. M. Ex-King Constantine and the War.
Price, Crawfurd. Venizelos and the War. London,
Sarrail, General. Mon commandement en Orient (1916-
1918). Paris, 1920.
Seligman, V. J. The Victory of Venizelos. London,
Trapmann, Capt. A. H. The Greeks Triumphant.
Tsouderos, E. J. Le Relevement economique de la Grece.
Villari, L. The Macedonian Campaign : a History of the
Salonica Expedition (1915-1918). London, 1922.
The London and Bucharest treaties of 1913 (ending
the first and second Balkan wars) are printed in the above
Handbooks of the Foreign Office, No. 15, Eastern Question.
Documents Diplomatiques, 1913-1917. Athens, 1917.
Documents Diplomatiques (Supplement). Athens, 1917.
[The 2nd Greek edition of 1920 contains some
178 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
Greece before the Peace Congress. 1919. [M. Venizelos 1
official statement of the Greek case.]
Greece before the Conference. By Polybius [D. Kalo-
pothakes]. London, 1919.
Memoire sur 1'Epire du Nord, 1919. [The Northern
Epeirote case for the Conference.]
Greek Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Persecutions of
the Greek Population in Turkey since the beginning
of the European War. London, 1918.
Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated
Powers and Bulgaria and Protocol. Signed at
Neuilly-sur- Seine, November 27, 1919. London,
Treaty of Peace with Turkey. Signed at Sevres, August
10, 1920. London, 1920.
Treaty Series. No. 13 of 1920. Cmd. 960. [Greece.
Sevres.] London, 1920.
Aali Pasha, 131
Abdul Hamid I, 128
Aberdeen, Lord, 18
Achaia, Principality of, 7-8
Acheloos, The, 17
Adam, Sir F., 62
Adrianople, 15, 16, 86
Albania (-ans), 2, 81, 89-90,
136, 138, 142, 144-48, 153,
Alexander, King, 159-60, 163
Alfred, Prince (Duke of Edin-
burgh), 48-49, 78
AH Pasha of Joannina, 11, 21,
40, 56, 60, 146
Amalia, Queen, 28, 44
Ambrakia, Gulf of, 19, 47,
Ameglio, General, 132
" Anathema," The, 159
Andreades, Prof., 169
Angeloi, The, 7
Argyrokastron, 138, 146-48
Arkadion, 77, 110
Armansperg, Count von, 22,
24, 27, 30-31
Armenia (-ans), 93, 149, 162
Arta, 16, 19, 52, 91
Asia Minor, 149, 153, 160-61,
164, 166-67, 170
Astypalaia, 94, 128-29
Athens, 7, 10, 27 et sqq., 35, 51,
Athos, Mount, 10, 137, 142, 162
Balkan League, The, 128, 135
Balkan War, First, 137-42, 146
Basil II, 6, 143
Beaconsfield, Lord, 16, 88-89,
Berlin, Treaty of, 88-89
Conference of, 89-90
Bismarck, 79, 166
Bosdari, Count, 154
Boulgares (Greek Statesman),
Boulgaris, Eugenics, 10
Bourchier, J. D., 136
Bucharest, Third Treaty of,
Bulgaria (-ans), 6, 28, 39, 79-
81,86-88,97, 106, 117-20,
128, 135-36, 143-44, 150,
153, 155-57, 160, 165, 171
Byron, 2, 13, 15, 59, 173
Byzantine Greece, 5-6
Campbell, Sir. J., 55
Candia, 73, 109, 111
Canea, 73, 78, 92, 104-05, 109,
Canning, G., 14
Sir Stratford, 19
180 A HISTORY OF THE GREEK PEOPLE
Capo d'Istria, Agostino, 21
Count John, 12, 16, 20, 55,
Cephalonia, 61-62, 64-66
Chatalja, 137, 160
Cheimarra, 137, 143, 146-47
Chios, 7-8, 19, 45, 149
" Chronicle of the Morea," 3
Clarendon, Lord, 77, 131
Codrington, Admiral, 14
Constantino, King, 31, 48, 107,
124, 127, 137-38, 141-43,
151 et sqq.
Constantinople, Conference of,
Treaty of, 108
Copaic Lake, 170
Corfu, 3, 52 et sqq., 73, 89, 142-
43, 145-46, 151, 157
Corinth, 27, (Canal) 99
Cornaro, Family of, 129
Crete, 6-8, 18-19, 36, 38, 73-
79, 87-88, 90, 92, 97,
103-13, 120-23, 136-37,
142, 144-45, 167
Crusades, The, 6
Currant Crisis, 100-01
Currency Crisis, 100-02
Cyclades, The, 17
Cyprus, 7, 9, 69, 93-96, 134,
156, 165, 167
Dangles, General, 158
Deligiannes, Th., 40, 87-88,
96-98, 102, 104, 107, 114,
The, 10, 69, 128-34, 140,
160, 165, 167
Don Pacifico, 42-43, 65
Douglas, Sir H., 62-63
Dousmanes, General, 154
Dragoumes, S., 125-26, 137
Dragoumis, Julia, 169
Drama, 143, 153
Droz, Numa, 109
Durazzo, 24, 147
Dushan, Stephen, 117, 161
Epeiros, 7, 36, 38, 44-45, 49,
86, 88-89, 91, 137-38,
144-48, 152, 156, 164-65
Eubcea, 17, 45, 92
Exarchate, The Bulgarian, 26,
Ferdinand of Bulgaria, 120
Ferrero, General, 147
Finlay, G., 43
" Florence Protocol," The, 146
Gen. Ricciotti, 107
Gattilusj, The, 8
George, King, 22, 50 et sqq.,
Prince, 105, 110-13, 125
German Emperor William II,
Giolitti, Sig., 133
Gladstone, 15, 66-67, 79, 89
Gounares, M., 154, 164
Grammata, Bay of, 142
Grey, Sir E., 95, 133
Gueshov, M., 136
Hadji Ali, 28, 159
Hagia Lavra, 13
Halepa, Pact of, 92-93, 103-04
Heideck, General von, 22
Hydra, 21, 31, 71
Hypselantea, Prince Alexander,
Ikaria, 128, 140
Imbros, 144, 147, 160, 167
Ionian Islands, 8, 11, 19-20, 42,
44, 46, 49-50, 52-70, 72,
Ismail Kemal Bey, 138
Ithake, 53, 62
Jews, 42, 53, 118, 129, 145
Joannina, 10-11, 90, 138, 145,
John Asgn II, 161
Jonnart, M., 159
Jugo-Slavia, 39, 171-72
Kalamas, The, 89-90
Kallerges, 33, 45, 75
Kalogeropoulos, M., 157, 164
Kampouroglos, M., 169
Kanares, 48, 86
Kanlijeh, Treaty of, 45
Kastellorizon, 128-29, 144, 147,
Kavalla, 143-45, 151, 153-54,
Kemalists, The, 160
Kilkich, 143, 173
Kolettes, 20-21, 31, 38-42, 96,
Kolokotrones, 29, 31
Koumoundouros, 77, 79, 86
Koundouriotes, Admiral, 158,
Koutzo-Wallachs (" Macedon-
ian Roumanians "), 39,
Lampros, Prof., 158, 169
Language Question, 168
Larissa, 83, 107-08
Law, Sir E., 101
Lausanne, Treaty of, 133, 135
Leopold of Saxe-Coburg,
Lesbos, 8, 149
Leuchtenberg, Duke of, 49
Lloyd George, Mr., 161
London, Treaty of (1913), 142,