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for it has some interesting points besides the
allusion which led to the question. It is
written, I should add, in Latin.)



In the Name of God, Amen. The 27th day of
January, 1488, 4 H. VII.

I Richard Danvers of Prescote, in Co. Oxford,
Gent., do make my last will as follows : I give to
John Henyngham, Knight, ;io, because I sold to
him at too high a price (nimis care) a certain weight
of wax called Polyn wax. I give to the works of the
body or nave of the Cathedral Church of the Blessed
Mary of Lincoln 100s. To Sir Henry Sergeantson,
Chaplain, to pray for my soul, I give 20s. , and to Sir
Ranulphus, Chaplain of the Chapel of St. Frethmund,
20s. to pray for my soul. I give 100s. to the works
of the body or nave of the Prebend Church of
Cropredy ; 20s. towards the repairs of the Chapel of
St. Fremund, where his shrine is situated ; 100s. to
the works of the body or nave of the Parish Church of
Culworth ; 20s. to the works of the Church of Claydon
in the Parish of Cropredy ; 20s. to the works of the
Church of Molyngton, 20s. to the works of the Church
of Wardington, and 20s. towards the works of the
Chapel of Burton. To the Prior and Convent of
Clatcote I give 100s. to pray for my soul ; to the
Prior and Convent of Wroxton, ^10 ; to the Prior
and Convent of Osney 20 marks ; to the Prior and
Convent of the house or Priory of Shene ^10 to the
repair of the said Priory, to be expended according to
the discretion of Henry Tracy, one of the monks
there ; and 5 marks towards the repair of a small
place where I used to dwell within the Priory of
Byrcester. The residue of all my goods I bequeath
to my executors, Thomas Englefield and John Danvers
my son, that they may dispose of the same for my soul
and for the souls of my relations and friends, and for
the souls of all the faithful deceased.

Proved at Lambeth the 20th day of February of the
year above said.

Before proceeding further, I may as well
say, by way of explanation, that Richard
Danvers lived at the manor of Prescote, in
the parish of Cropredy, then a prebendal
rectory in the cathedral church of Lincoln,
in which diocese it was included ; that Clay-
don, Molyngton, Wardinton, and Burton are
churches in the prebend, Clattercote and
Wroxton priories in the immediate neigh-
bourhood, and Culworth the seat of a branch
of the Danvers family. What their connec-
tion may have been with Osney or Shene I
do not know.

But who was " St. Frethmund," and where
was his shrine ?

No place is here clearly defined for its
locality. Lincoln disclaimed any knowledge
of the saint or his resting-place, and the prob-
lem was complicated by finding that an
altar was dedicated to him in the thirteenth
century in the priory church of Dunstable,
with which the family of Danvers did not
appear to have any connection.

Meanwhile some fresh light was thrown on
the saint and his connection with the Dan-
vers by the following :

Sir John Danvers, son of the Richard
mentioned above, married Ann Stradling.
By this marriage he became possessed of
large property at Dauntsey in Wiltshire, and
was buried in thechancel of Dauntsey Church.
Above his tomb, in a four-light window in
Aubrey's time, was some stained glass con-
nected with the legend of St. Fremund. In
the upper part of one light were to be seen
the arms of Danvers and Dauntsey. Below
this was " a king holding the head of a young
king in his hands." Beneath were repre-
sented Sir John's four sons, and on a scroll
above their heads, "Sancte Fredismunde,
ora pro nobis." Aubrey had evidently not
heard of the legend, of which, as will be seen,
the above picture was a memorial. Further,
the same Sir John, who died in 15 14, left by
will 20s. each to Cropredy Church, St. Frethe-
mund's Chapel, Culworth and Dauntesey
Churches ; while his wife Ann, by will dated
1539, bequeathed " a cowe " each to the
churches of Cropredy and Cowleworth, and
" ten ewes " to " the Chapel of Say nte Fredys-
munde in Cropredy."

I may remark, in passing, that there still
exists what is apparently a relic of the pious
bequest of Ann Danvers, in the screen sepa-
rating the Prescote chapel from the south
aisle in Cropredy Church, which bears her
initials, " A. D.," on the moulding over the
panelling, with stops of roses and paterae of

But how came there to be a " Chapel of
Saynte Fredysmunde in Cropredy "? Was it
in the church, or, hard by, at the Danvers'
manor-house of Prescote? We shall, per-
haps, be able to come to some conclusion
presently, but it may be noted here that
Walter Gorstelowe, a.d. 1650, a hare-brained
enthusiast, whose father and grandfather
lived at Prescote and are buried at Cropredy
Church, in his singular book called Charles
Stewart and Oliver Cromwell United, men-
tions incidentally of Prescote, " Some Reli-
gious House I conceive it to have been ; an
altar and chappel I have known in it."

We must now begin at the other end, and
see what we can learn of St. Fremund and
his history from old legends and chronicles.

p 2



Baring-Gould, in his Lives of the Saints,
calls him son of Offa, King of the Mercians,
" about 796," says that he fought against the
Danes, and was murdered by Oswy, an officer
of his father's (vol. v., p. 154).

But none of the old chroniclers, such as the

well-known antiquary, Mr. James Parker, for
most of the following information.

The earliest known author who gives us
the legend appears to be William of Ramsey,
a compiler of lives of saints and others, and
who seems to have been a monk of Croyland.


A. S. Chron., Henry of Huntingdon, William
of Malmesbury, Matthew Paris, etc., record
his name at all, though all treat of the reign
of Offa. Nor, though Offa's children and re-
lations sign charters, does the name of Fre-
mund anywhere occur.

I am indebted to the kindness of that

He wrote in Latin verse, and probably there-
fore derived his materials from some prose
" acta " then in existence. We get at his
date thus. In his life of Earl Waltheof
(printed in Francisque Michel's Chroniques
Anglo- Nor mandes) events are brought down
to 1 2 1 9. His Life of St. Guihlac is dedicated



to Abbot Longchamp, of Croyland, abbot
from 1191-1236. That of Birinus to Peter de
Rupibus, Bishop of Winchester, 1205- 1238.
He is therefore writing, early in the thirteenth
century, a version in Latin verse of a legend
which probably belonged to the twelfth cen-
tury. An early MS. of lives of St. Guthlac.
St. Edmund, and St. Fremund was in the
Cottonian Library (Vitellius, D. 14), and ab-
solutely perished in the fire, but a copy of
the Fremund life in verse, apparently of the
thirteenth century, still exists in the Cam-
bridge Library (Dd., ii. 78).
The poem begins :

Anglorum Rex Offa foit, Regina Botilda,

and consists of some 550 lines.

Camden, in his Britannia, at the beginning
of his account of Warwickshire, quotes ap-
parently from William of Ramsey's poem,
probably taking the verses from the Cotton
copy. He writes :

" Vehindon (now Long Itchingdon) and
Harbury. These two last are memorable
only for the death of Fremund, son of King
Offa, basely slain by surprize between them ;
a person of great renown and singular piety,
envied only because, in a most unhappy
crisis, his good fortune had given the enemy
a check. But this his undeserved fate turned
to his greater glory. For being buried at
his father Offa's Palace, now called Offchurch,
he still survives to posterity, having been
ranked among the saints, and had Divine
honours paid to him by the common people,
and his Life written in tolerably elegant verse
by an ancient author, from which I may,
without offence, subjoin these few lines as
to the murderer, whose ambition to reign
prompted him to this deed :

" Non sperans vivo Fremundo regis honore
Optato se posse frui, molitur in ejus
Immeritam tacito mortem, gladioque profanus
Irruit exserto servus, dominique jacentis
Tale nihil veritum savo caput amputat ictu.
Talis apud Wydford* Fremundum palma coronat,
Dum simul et fortes occidit et occidit insons."

So far Camden.

But, besides the poem, we have a prose
version of the fourteenth century, which may
well include much of the original twelfth-cen-
tury version, though probably simplified.

* A note adds, " Some copies read Radford."

It occurs in the splendid collection of
Lives of Saints compiled by John of Tyne-
mouth* in 1366, from which Capgrave chiefly
printed his Nova Legenda Anglia. There is
apparently another version of the same in
the series of lives in the Lansdowne MS.,
No. 436. They both begin :

"Temporibus regum antiquorum fuit in
Anglia quidam Rex nomine Offa."

The MS. Cotton (John of Tjnemouth)
ends :

"in prioratu Canonicorum Regularium de
Dunestapl sanctum ejus corpus requiescens
in magno honore habetur."

The Lansdowne ends :

"oratorium fabricavit, ad laudem Domini
nostri Jesu Christi qui cum Patre et Spiritu
Sancto vivit et regnat Deus per omnia secula

The following summary of the legend as
it runs in John of Tynemouth's version is
given by Hardy :

" Fremund was the son of a pagan king
who reigned in England, named Offa, and
his queen Botilda, t his birth being foretold
by a child, who died when three days old.
He is baptized by Bishop Heswi.j performs
many miracles, and converts his parents.
Offa resigns his kingdom to his son, who,
after governing a year and a half, forsakes
the throne to serve God in a desert place,
accompanied by Burchard (who afterwards
wrote his life) and another attendant. He
then embarks in a vessel, and is driven to a
small island called Ylefage,|| infested by
demons. Here he lives seven years on fruits
and roots. Hinguar and Hubba ravage Eng-
land and put King Edmund to death.tl Offa
sends twenty nobles to seek his son through-
out England, and, finding him, they implore
his aid, and he assents in consequence of a

* The chief MS. is Cotton Tib. E. 1 ; it is much
injured by the fire.

t The name Botilda is nowhere mentioned in any
charter or by any chronicler.

% ** Oswy " is the name given in Lydgate's Metrical
Legend. Neither name can be identified.

Offa died July 29, 796, and was succeeded by his
son Egferth, "who had been anointed king in his
lifetime" (W. of Malmesbury). Egferth died the
same year. None of the legend, therefore, on this
point will fit the history.

|| " Ilefaye" in Lydgate.

H This was in a.d. 870. Edmund was martyred
November 2a



vision in which it is revealed that each of his
companions shall appear a thousand to his
enemies. He attacks and defeats 40,000 of
the enemy with the twenty who have come to
seek him, in addition to his two companions;
and, while he is prostrate in thanksgiving for
the victory, Oswi, formerly one of Offa's
commanders, but who had apostatized and
joined the pagans, cuts off his head. Blood
spurts over Oswi, who implores absolution
and forgiveness, which the head pronounces.
Fremund rises and carries his head some
distance, when, a spring bursting forth, he
washes his wound, falls prostrate and expires.
His body is buried at the royal mansion of
Offechurch about the year 865, and is re-
moved to a place between Charwell and
Bradmere sixty-six years after his death. His
body is again discovered by a divine revela-
tion in the time of Birinus, Bishop of Dor-
chester.* It is then removed to a place
called Redic, and a chapel constructed over
it. In later times it is again removed to

Leland (in Henry VIII. 's time) had pro-
bably seen one of the Latin prose texts already
referred to. In his Itinerary (vol. viii., fol.
97a) he gives some rough notes as follows :

" Ex vita Fremundi.

" Fremundus Offae Regis et Batildae filius.
Fremundus uno anno et dimid. successit
patri suo Offae viventi in regno. Fremundus
relicto regno ad quandam insulam, heremiti-
cam acturus vitam, navigavit, sumptis secum
duobus Presbyteris, Burghardo, qui ejus
vitam conscripsit, et Edbritho.

" Inguar et Hubba in Angliam venientibus,
Offa Fremundum late quaerit et invenit.

" Fremundus divino consilio Danis se
opponit et vincit.

" Oswy, Dux exeratus Offae, invidens gloriae
Fremundi, capurei in sicliis amputavit quinto
Id. Maii circa annum Dom. 866 inter Ut-
chington et Hareburebyry. Fremundi cor-
pus sepultum apud Offa Churche intra domus
regiae septum.

" Sepulchrum Fremundi, inventum in loco
quo confluunt Charwelle et Brademere.

* Birinus was the first Bishop of Dorchester,
A.D. 634. The writer had enough learning to know
the places were in the diocese of Dorchester (and not
Lincoln) at the time of the legend, but not enough to
know the name of any other bishop than Birinus.

" Ecclesia S. Sacerdotum in ripa Cherwell
prope sepulchrum Fremundi, unde a quodam
Adelberto translatus est una cum S. Pres-
byteris ad Redicum ubi ab eo facta est

Such is a brief sketch of the legend from
Mr. Parker's notes. It remains to take some
cognisance of the longer form which Lydgate
has preserved for us in English verse.

Lydgate, as is well known, was a monk of
the great abbey of Edmondsbury, who ver-
sified (and at the same time probably ampli-
fied and adorned) various legends of the
saints, among others the life of St. Alban,
at the request of John Whethamstede, the
Abbot of St. Albans in 1439, and, more par-
ticularly, the lives of St. Edmund and his
nephew, St. Fremund.

The latter book was presented by him to
King Henry VI. when on a visit to Bury.
The identical copy, splendidly illuminated, is
in the British Museum, and is taken as the
text for the edition of Old English Legends^
by Horstmann (Heilbronn, 1881), from which
I quote. Lydgate tells us how, that

Whan sixte Herry in his estat roial

With his sceptre of Yngland and of France

Heeld at Bury the feste pryncipal

Of Cristemesse with ful gret habundance

And after that list to haue plesance,

the Abbot William,

Gaf me in charge to do myn attendaunce
The noble story to translate in substaunce
Out of the latyn aftir my kunnyng,
He in full purpos to yeue it to the kyng.

Accordingly, after relating the life of St.
Edmund at great length in two books, he
prays the saint to " quyken his penne, en-
lumyne his rudnesse," that he may do the
same for St. Fremund, "thyn owyn cosyn
dere," and

Induce a story longing to this mateer.

In this he announces that he shall follow
his author,

that wrot his liff to fore
In frensh and latyn ;

and, again, towards the end of his prologue,
he adds :

Off Burchardus folwe I shall the style,

That of seyn Fremund whilom was secretarye ;

Which of entent dide his liff compile,



Was his Registrer and also his notarye
And in desert was with him solitarye,
With him ay present, remembryng euery thyng
Wrot liff and myracles of this holy kyng.

It would seem from this as if the text
which Lydgate had before him, " in frensh
and latyn," professed to be the actual com-
pilation of Burchard.

I may remark here that Leland's brief
notices quoted above have very much the
look of quotations from some illustrated life
of Fremund, either as serving for letterpress
under pictures, or as descriptions of scenes
painted in fresco or sculptured in a church.
One can well imagine such round about a
shrine or in some chapel where the legend
was depicted.

( To be cotitinued. )

iftic&liorotigi) ann tfje CassiteriDes,

By A. Hall.

HE ancient Rutupium near Sand-
wich, in Kent, now called Rich-
borough, appears to have been
the prehistoric port of Britain for
mercantile traffic with the Continent ; and
it became an important military and naval
station under the Romans. Ptolemy,
writing circa 120 a.d., knows nothing of
Dover or Lympne, but names Rutupia.

We there find remains of the usual solid
Roman wall of flint and rubble, flooded with
concrete and bonded with tile ; it was used
as a fortified camp, with an adjacent circus
or amphitheatre, a suburb or external city
without the walls, once extremely populous,
and a native village for labourers ; all placed
on an elevated sand-hill, sloping down to the
water, and completely insulated at high tide ;
for the river Stour, which then formed a
navigable ship-way running up to Canterbury
and out at Reculvers, has gradually silted
up during the intervening centuries.

The position of Rutupia thus resembled
that of St. Michael's Mount in Cornwall,
minus its solidity ; numerous coins, much
pottery, marble slabs, and many domestic
foundations attest the opulence of its citizens.

This interesting site encloses an enigma on
which I now venture to dilate, it being a
puzzle that for more than a century has
exercised antiquarian ingenuity, and hitherto
defied imagination and excavation for its
solution ; but yet, though sufficiently re-
markable to deserve such notice, may for
all that be a simple necessity of the situation.
The enigma consists of a concrete platform,
supported by a solid core of flint boulders
about 80 feet square ; the sand has been
excavated for about 30 feet deep, the flints
deposited most carefully, layer by layer, and
flushed with hot cement ; the sides of the
upper platform spread out like flaps for
several feet beyond the central core, thus
forming a solid flooring on the treacherous
sand ; and the spreading sides or ledges, as
I suggest, would resist any tendency to sink
or, if settling as a whole, still preserving its
superficial level.

In the centre of this flooring is a slightly-
elevated superstructure in the form of a
cross ; it consists of a broad, central
parallelogram, with two long narrow wings
or transepts ; and the whole appears to have
been surrounded by a dwarf wall of similar
formation. Taking the work as a whole, the
scheme is costly and complete. All sorts of
conjectures have been hazarded as to its
meaning, object, or purpose ; even that it is
a sort of puzzle treasure-chest, the secret of
access to which has not been elucidated ; a
stone safe. I do incline to think that all
this labour was not thrown away, but, that
like all Roman work, it had its value ; and I
therefore connect it with commerce, as a
necessary adjunct to the collection of
revenue. My suggestion is that it was
erected to give perfect stability to an
enormous weighing - machine, with lift or
crane, answering to what in mediaeval
London was called the "great beam"; the
central parallelogram would sustain the
standard, the weight scale and the goods
scale would drop on to the limbs of the
cross, just above the reach of trespassing
feet ; in sight of all, and giving a guaranteed
result against which there could be no
appeal very necessary, when rude tribes
settled all money disputes with a fight.

In this sense it resembles a Steel, i.e.,
staple-yard, such as we had at Dowgate, for



goods reaching London by ferry from
Southwark ; or later, a king's weigh-house,
such as existed at Fish Street Hill, available
for goods entering by old London Bridge.
Further, it would thus represent the modern
dottane or custom-house ; viewed thus, we
may explain -ff/'^-borough by the German
reichs, representing the " dues " claimed by
Imperial Rome.

Let anyone reflect on the constant
trampling that goes on round a modern
public weighing-machine when in use ; how
the damp soil would sodden, how goods fall
and suffer damage; apply this to the
crumbling sand of Richborough, and admit
how necessary, therefore, is a suitable
foundation ; how sadly any loosely-placed
scale would oscillate if the standard shook.

But also it is now generally thought that
Kent was the district whence the tin of
Cornwall reached Europe and the far East ;
Rutupia shows among her ruins scorched
wheat in abundance ; so grain was shipped
here, which must be weighed to do justice
to vendor and contractor. It is recorded
that grain fleets, numbering three or four
hundred transports, have sailed hence with
convoys for Rome ; if tin, lead, iron also
came here for shipment, we shall see still
further necessity for a sure foundation being
laid. I am told that when the Carron Works
were first opened, their pigs of iron got
buried 7 or 8 feet deep in the local soil,
having to be dug out again at great cost for
labour and delay ; assuming such business
concentrated on a sand-blown hillock like
Richborough Hill, we can realize the motive
that forced these labour-loving Romans to
construct this unique fabric.

It is also found that this construction had
a solid roadway of similar formation, extend-
ing to the cliff's edge, where vessels could
anchor at high-tide or ground at low-water ;
but much of this side of the fortress has
been washed away by landslips, and the wall,
if ever it existed here, has been destroyed.

We suppose that the British Isles were
first discovered by Phoenicians for purposes
of trade ; that the Greeks, having founded
Marseilles, organized an overland route
across Gaul, to avoid the sea voyage round
Spain and the stormy Bay of Biscay ; that
the ingots of tin and pigs of lead were slung

across the backs of mules, thus reaching the
Mediterranean ; all this fell to the Romans,
and here, just at the opening of the Channel,
the estuary of the Stour would afford shelter
for any amount of shipping.

On the mainland of Kent, closest to Rich-
borough, we meet with a site called " Each
End "; here, to the south-west, was a junction
of the main roads from Dover and Canter-
bury on Watling Street. The word each is
Gaelic for " horse," so here, it would appear,
the sumpter horses were turned back after
depositing their consignments ; the latter
being transferred to tide-waiters or local
porters to carry over to the custom-house
at low water, they acting like gangs of dock-
labourers. If tin raised in Cornwall ever
came to Kent for shipment, this was the
port of departure.

It is well known that Herodotus, writing
circa 450 B.C., mentions the Cassiterides or
Western Islands in a dubious fashion ; the
word xaesLTtpo; is pure Greek for tin, and
its application must date from the Greek
occupation of Massilia circa 600 B.C. ; here
is ample time for Herodotus to pick up a
word preserved in Sanskrit as kastira, the
suffixes os and ides, being sufficiently ex-
plained. So if, as we have surmised, tin
raised in Cornwall reached Gaul from Kent,
it follows that the name Cassiterides or
" tin islands " should apply to Great Britain
as a whole, not to any mere section, or even
to any surrounding islets apart from Britain

jftotes on arcfjaeolocjp in
Provincial epuseums.


(Continued from p. 121, vol. xxvii.)
By Robert Blair, F.S.A.

HE lower room is the same size as
the upper, and is lighted in the
same way by windows in the east
and north walls. Along these
walls there are sloping cases lettered A to W.
Against the west wall and down the centre



of the room there are tall cases, the latter
lettered AA to EE, the former FF to II.

In the sloping top of case A there is a fine
series of Greek, Etruscan, and Roman lamps
and phaskons, or oil-pourers, one of these with
fine mask in relief. Amongst the lamps in
this case is a large specimen with a green
metallic glaze, and another has two wick-
holes. Several have designs on the top, one
with Cupid on horseback. One of the lamps
is from Castle Acre in Norfolk, another from

In top of case B there are more lamps,
both Greek and Roman, some of the former,
with inscriptions on the bottom, are mask-
shaped. One fine lamp has seven wick-holes
side by side ; another with four radiating,
another represents a sandalled foot. There is
a lamp suspended by bronze chains issuing
from a negro's head, also of bronze.

Amongst the designs on Roman lamps
are : Victory ; a female standing before a
seated female; cock's head (potter's name
twice, pup, on foot-shaped stamp) ; a soldier
with shield and short sword ; bust of Cupid
(name anchiai on bottom) ; bust of bearded
male and eagle holding thunderbolt ; Bacchus
in relief; negro's head; two Cupids holding
grapes and border of leaves (on back
laesa) ; Cupid playing on a pipe, an animal
and crescent in front (inscription eyt) ;
large bird attacking a soldier ; scrolls round
edge, inscribed on back vetti | Crispin | vs
(found in London); fish in centre (Christian?);
circles and triangles alternately, round
edge ; hearts and crosses round edge, etc

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