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Jov, Elog. Ixix.



OF LEO THE TENTH. 395

of this volume, of which very few copies are known chap.
to exist, has given rise to conjectures, that the ^^^^'
edition was suppressed by some of those persons 15 18.
in power who found themselves attacked by the -^t. 43.
satirical and pungent style of the author ; nor is it
unlikely that this circumstance may be attributed
to the freedom with which he had treated the Ro-
man pontiffs who preceded Leo X. " Of the me-
rit of his writings very different opinions have been
entertained. That they are to be ranked with the
polished productions of Fracastoro, of Vida, and
of Flaminio, cannot indeed be asserted ; but they
frequently exhibit passages of considerable merit,
and are, on the present occasion, entitled to par-
ticular notice, as having preserved to us many cir-
cumstances of the private life and character of
LeoX.

Among those who contributed by their wit and
vivacity to the amusement of the pontiff, in his

hours



" This volume is entitled,

GUIDI POSTHUMI SILVES
-' TRIS PISAURENSIS
ELEGIARUM
LIBRl II.

CUM gratia'et

PRIVILEGIO.

At the close,

Imfiressum Bononiae per Hieronymum de Benedictis Bib'
Uofiolam Bonomensem A7mo Domini m.d.xxiv. Calen.Jul.



396 LIFE AND PONTIFICATE

CHAP, hours of levity, was Giovanni Mozzarello, a native
^^^^- of Mantua ; but Leo had sufficient discernment to
1518. perceive, that Mozzarello, although very young,
Mt. 43. possessed superiour talents, which amidst his ap-
M^zTreiio. V^^^^^^ ncgligcncc, he had cultivated with uncom-
mon application. By his cheerful and friendly dis-
position, and the facility and elegance which he dis-
played in his Latin and Italian writings, he conciliated
in an eminent degree the favour of almost ail the
eminent scholars who then adorned the Roman
court. ° After havnig for some time observed his
character, and experienced his attachment, Leo
removed him from the dissipation of the city, and
appointed him governour of the fortress of Mon-
daino, the income of v/hich office affiDrded him an
ample competency, with sufficient leisure for the
prosecution of his studies. ^ In this situation he

undertook

" Bembo, writing to Ottaviano Fregoso, denominates
him, " Magnse spei adolescens, ut scis, aut etiam majoris
" quam quod scire possis. Magis cnim magisque sese in
" dies comparat, cum ad mores optimos, et ad omnem vir-
" tutem, turn ad poetices studia, adquse natus prsccipue
" videtur." jEJj. Fam, lib. v. £/i. vii.

P " Mutius Arelius Mantuanus, magno et eleganti ju-
" venis ingenio, lingua prius nostri temporis Italica sese
" exercuit ; mox latinam affectans jam adultus, brevi admo-
'' dum temporis curriculo magnum poetam professus est;
" quam juvenis promptitudinem admiratus Leo X. ne tali
" deesset ingenio, arci eum Mondulphix pra:fecit, quern
" locum Arelius studiis suis necessaria ubertim suppedi-
" tcvturum arbitrabatur." Valerian, de Literator. infel. lib,
i. fi, 34.



OF LEO THE TENTH. 397

undertook anepick poem, entitled For senna ^ which chap.
he was probably prevented from terminating by an ^vii.
untimely and calamitous death ; having been found, 1 5 1 8.
after he had been sought for in vain upwards of a -^t. 43.
month, suffocated, with his mule, at the bottom
of a well ; "^ a circumstance which confirmed the
suspicions before entert ained, that his death was
occasioned by the barbarity and resentment of those
persons over whom he was appointed to preside.
This event affected his numerous friends with real
soiTOw ; and Bembo in particular, has, in several
letters to the cardinal da Bibbiena, lamented his
fate in terms of the warmest affection, and the
sincerest regret. Under the name of Mut'io Are-
lio^ by which he chose to distinguish himself, Moz-
zarello produced several works, some of which
are yet preserv^ed in the Italian libraries, "" whilst
others, as well Latin as Italian, have been pub-
lished in different collections, and are entitled to
no inconsiderable share of approbation. '

The



I Valer. ut ^ujira.

■" In the ducal library of Modena is a work of Mozza-
rello, written by him whilst very young, in the manner of
the Arcadia of Sanazzaro', and dedicated to Elizabetta Gon-
zaga, dutchess of Urbino. v. T'irab. Scoria ddla Let, Ital.
■vol. vii. /far. iii. /?. 233.

' Ariosto has immortalized him, by enumerating \\\\w
among the great scholars of the age.

"Uno



398



LITE AND PONTIFICATE



CHAP. The efforts of the Italian Improi}visatort were
XVII. emulated by the extemporary recitations of the



1518. Latin poets ; and when Leo was not detained by
^t. 43. the correct and classical productions of Vida, of
Bembo, of Fracastoro, or of Flaminio, he might
listen with satisfaction to the spontaneous effusions
of Brandolini, of Morone, or of Querno, who often
attended him durina: his convivial entertainments
and intervals of leisure, and poured out their
verses on such subjects as the occasion supplied,
or were suggested to them by the pontiff; who
hesitated not at some times to lay aside his dignity,
and take a part himself in the entertainments.*^
Nor ought we to conclude, as it has too generally
been supposed, that these were always the illiterate
efforts of men without talents and without educa-
tion. Although recited extempore, it was re-
quired



" Uno elegante Castig-lione, e un culto
" Mutio Arelio."

Orl. Fur. Cant. 42, st. 87.

* " Namque ad mensam accumbere fere iiumquam
" visus est (Leo X.) nisi illustriorum poetarum corona cir-
" cumseptus, quos subitariis carminibus quamlibet rem
*' propositam vicissim persequi jubebat ; quo honestissimi
*' solatii genere et ipse mirum, inquam, in modum afficie-
« batur, et convivarum pascebat animos, exemplo Attici,
" apud quern nunquam sine aliqua lectione cenatum legi-
*' mus ; ut non minus animo, quam ventre convivai delec-
*' tarentur." Foliazzi, iri vita Rcfi/i. Brandolini. p. 47. Ed.
Vcn. 1753.



OF LEO THE TENTH. 399

quired by the pontiff, that the verse should not chap.
only be applicable, but correct, and Brandolini ^v^^-
has in particular left several works, which prove 1518.
him to have been a man of real learnin^^." To the -^t- ^^'
favours conferred upon him at Naples by Charles BrandoiLi.
VIII. in the year 1495, we have before had occa-
sion to refer,"" and he appears to have attached
himself to the cardinal Giovanni de' Medici before
his elevation to the pontificate."' Soon after that
event Brandolini took up his residence at Rome,
M^here he had apartments allotted him in the pon-
tifical palace, and acquired in an eminent degi'ce
the favour and friendship of the pope.'' These

obligations



" The Brandolini were of a noble family of Florence,
and were dislinguished at the close of the fifteenth century
by two men of considerable literary eminence. Jurelio and
RaJTaellc^ each of whom was known by the denomination
oi Lififio.) ov Lijifiiis Flnrcntinus. Of the former of these
writers, who died in the year 1497, a full account may be
found in Mazzuchelli, Scrittori d' Italia, vi. 2013, and a
Latin poem, which does honour to his talents, is given in
*the life of Lorenzo de' Medici, xwl.'n. apfiendix; p. 12,

^ Vcl. i. c/ia/i,iv./i. 325.

^ He collected together some of the works of his rela-
tion Aurelio ; one of which, entitled Be com/iaratio?ie Rei-
publirx et Repii he dedicated to the Card, de' Medici,
afterwards Leo X. \n an address which contains several
curious particuli'.rs olthe Medici family.

" On this account he is denominated by Gianantonio

Flaminio,



400 LIFE AND PONTIFICATE

CHAP, obligations he has in some degree repaid in his
^"^^i- elegant dialogue entitled Leo, to which we have
1518. had frequent occasion to refer in the course of the
Mt. 43. present work/ and where the author has preserved
many curious particulars respecting that pontiff,
and thrown considerable light on the general his-
tory of the times.



rene



Andrea Ma- Andrca Marone, another favourite attendant of
Leo X. was a native of Brescia, and had passed
some part of his youth in the court of Ferrara,
under the protection of the cardinal Ippolito d'
Este. On the journey which the cardinal under-
took into Hungary, Marone expressed a desire of
accompanying him, and on his being refused, he

quitted



Flaminio, Oculus Pontijicis^ although Brandolini was him-
self, in fact, nearly deprived of sight. It has already been
noticed that, at the desire of the -pontiff, Brandolini gave
instructions to the celebrated Mai-c-Antonio Flaminio, the
son of Gian Antonio, v. ante fu 374, to which it maybe
added, that the father has, on many occasions, expressed
his satisfaction that his son had obtained the assistance of
so accomplished a tutor ; who is said to have treated his
pupil with as much kindness and affection as if he had been
his own offspring, -v. J, A. Flamin. O/i. afi. Mazzuch,
Scrittori d' Ilal. torn, s'x.fi. 2019.

y This work was preserved in MS. until the year 1753,
when it was published at Venice, by Francesco Fogliazzi,
Doctor of Laws, accompanied by a life of the author, and
copious and learned notes.



1518.

Mi. 43.



OF LEO THE TENTH. 401

quitted Fcrrara and repaired to the court of Rome.* chap.
The facihty and promptitude with w hich Marone ^^^^'
expressed himself in Latin verse on any subject
that could be proposed to him, surprised and de-
liglited all his auditors. His recitals were accom-
panied by the musick of his viol, and as he piO-
cecded, he seemed continually to improve in
facility, elegance, enthusiasm, and invention. The
fire of his eyes, the expression of his countenance,
the rising of his veins, all bespoke tlie emotions
^vith which he was agitated, and kept his hearers
in suspense and astonishment.'' Having been de-
sired, at a solemn entertainment given by the pon-
tift' to several of the ambassiidours of foreign

powers,



^ Calcagnini Carm. /u 172. afi. Tirab. Storia della Let-
teratura Ical. vii. fiar. iii. fi. 211.

^ " Is, cum summa eruditorum admi ration e, ex tem^-
" pore, ad quam jusseris quxstionem, Latinos versus variis
" modis et numeris fundere consuevit. Audax profecto
" negotium, ac munus impudentijc, vel temeritatis plenum;
" nisi id a natura, impetu prope divino, mira felicitas se-
" queretur. Fidibus et cantu musas evocat, et quum semel
" conjectam in numeros mentem alacriore spiritu inflaverit,
" tanta vi in torrentis morem citatus fertur, ut fortuita et
" subitariis tractibus ducta, multum ante provisa, et medi-
" tata carmina videantur. Canenti defixi exardent oculi ;
" sudores manant ; frontis venx contumescunt ; et quod
" mirum est, eruditai aures, tanquam aliens et intentx,
" omnem impetum proflusntium numerorum exactissima
" ratione moderantur." Jov. in Elog, lxxii.

VOL. III. 3 E



iEt. 43.



402 LIFE AND PONTIFICATE

G H A P. powers, to deliAcr extempore verses on the league
XVII. ^yhich was then forming against the Turks, he
1518. acquitted himself in such a manner as to obtain
the applause of the \vhole assembly,'' and the pope
immediately afterwards presented him with a be-
nefice in the diocese of Capua. On the celebra-
tion of the feast of Cosmo and Damiano, the
tutelar saints of the family of Medeci, a subject
was proposed by the pope, on which all those
who aspired to the character of extempore Latin
poets, were to display their talents, and contend
for superiority. NotM'ithstanding many learned
competitors appeared, the prize was adjudged to
Marone ; but the circumstance that conferred on
him the highest honour, was, that, on this occasion,
Brandolini was one of his unsuccessful rivals. "

Of



^ Jovius, Vkho relates this incident, has preserved the
commencement of the verses recited by Marone.

'' Infeiix Europa, diu quassata tumultu
« Bellorum."

c " Celebvabatur magnificentissimo apparatvi Mediceo-
" rum Cosmiana solemnitas, quam in magni Cosmi proavi
" memoriam Leo X. quotannis celebrandam statuerat.
" Itaque ad illius celebritatis diem honestandum plurimi
" fama celebriores Poel^ convivio intererant, qui proposita
" de more argumenta referebant ex tempore ; verum cum
" Andreas quidam Maroy magni promptique vir ingenii?
'■ omnes quasi tlingues fecisset, cum Lippo nostro congredi
" a pontifice est jussus ; et cum valide utrimque certatum
" esset, Lippum tandem victum cessisse ferunt." Fogliazzi,
,vi vita Ra/i/u Bi-aJidoUnij/i, 48,



OF LEO THE TENTH. 403

Of the Latin poetry of Marone, very few speci- chap.
mens have been preserved ;'^ but the commenda- ^"^^^^
tions bestowed upon liis extemporary effusions, by 1518.
Jovius, Valerianus, and others, may be admitted -^t. 43.
as a sufficient proof of his extraordinary endow-
ments, and of the wonderful effects ^\hicIl they
were accustomed to produce upon the learned
audience by which he was generally surrounded.^

The arch-poet, Camillo Querno, was also an camiiio
extempore reciter of Latin verse, and his talents in ^""""*
this department have met witli high commendation

from



•1 Two Latin epigrams of Marone, which do no dis-
credit to his talents, are prefixed to the singular book of
Francesco Colonna, entitled La Hypnehotomachia di
PoLiPHiLo, printed by Aldus, in 1499, and again in 1545,
of which a full account may be found in the Menagiana,
torn. XV. fi. 70.

^ " Quid si ilium audieris, velut sodales
" Octo audivimus, optimum sodalem 1
« Nos audivimus, autUt hunc et omnis
" Doctorum manus in dies, canentem

" " Mille ex tempore carmina erudita ;
" Quis nil sit lutulentum, inexpolitum,
" Nil absurdum, et inane, nil hiulcum ;
" Tan«|uam \'irgilii mora et labore,
" Tanquam tempore culia sub novcnni."

Pier. Valerian, ad Duntem iii. Aligerum.
Hexam, is^c.fi. 127.



404 LIFE AND PONTIFICATE

CHAP, from some of his contemporaries ; * whilst others
xvii-^ have attributed the applauses which he received
1518. rather to his unblushing assurance, than to his
Mt. 43. extraordinary merits.*^ On the first arrival of
, Querno at Rome, he brought with him from
Monopoli, in the kingdom of Naples, of which
place he was a native, an epick poem entitled
Alexias^ consisting of twenty thousand verses.
With this and his lyre he presented himself at the
literary meetings of the Roman scholars, who soon
perceived that he was well qualified to afford them
a rich fund of entertainment. A day was appointed
on which Querno should recite his poem, for which
purpose his auditors repaired to a small island in
the Tiber. Here he alternately drank and sang,
and after he had proved himself equally qualified
for either of these tasks, a crown of a new kind was
prepared for him, interwoven with the leaves of
vine, of cabbage, and of laurel, which was imme-
diately placed on his head, and he was saluted by
his companions with the title of Archipoeta.^ This

incident



^ Particularly by Fr. Arsilli, in his poem de Poetis Ur-
hanisy to which we shall hereafter have occasion to refer.

£ Gyraldi de Poet, suoriim temp.

h *' Salve brassica virens corona

" Et lauro, Archipoeta, pampinoque,
" Dignus principis auribus Leonis."

Jov. ifi Elog. Ixxxii. /



<



or LEO THE TENTH. 405

incident soon reached the ears of the pontifF, who chap.
was highly dehghted with it, and desired that the ^"^^^'^
arch-poet might be introduced to him witiiout 1518.
delay. From this time he became a frequent at- -^t. 43.
tendant on the convivial entertainments of die pope,
who usually sent him a portion from his table,
which he consumed with a voracity equal to that of
the heroes of Homer ; but the ^vine was brought
to him only on the condition of his reciting a cer-
tain number of stanzas, and if he made an errour,
either in sense or in measure, it was mixed with
a due proportion of water." On some occasions
Leo is said to have amused himself with replying
to Quemo. Of this, instances have been preserved,
which if authentick, sufficiently show, that in the
extempore recitation of Latin verse, the pontifF
possessed a facility not inferiour to that with the
display of which in others he was himself so highly
delighted.^

In



i On one of these mortifying occasions, Querno is said
to have turned towards the pontiff, Avith the cup in his
hand, and to have addressed him in these Leonine verses :

" In cratere meo Thetis est conjuncta Lyxo
" Est Dea juncta Deo ; sed Dea major co."

Foresti Maji/iamondo Istorico.^ torn, iii.

J Of this the followinc: specimen has frequently been
quoted. Querno, complaining of his laborious office, ex-
claimed,

Archi-



406 LIFE AND PONTIFICATE

CHAP. In the same class with Quern o may be placed
xvii» Giovanni Gazoldo and Girolamo Britonio, both of
1518. whom aspired to the character of extemporary La-
-S,t. 43. tin poets, and if they failed in obtaining the applause,
Gaioido and frequently provoked the laughter of the pope and
his attendants. These exaibitions, were, however,
carried sometimes beyond the bounds of jocularity,
Gazoldo is said to have received a reward for his
bad verses in a serious bastinado, bestowed upon
him by the orders of the supreme pontiff, and the
arch-poet was so disfigured by a wound given him
in the face, by some person who took offence at
his intemperance and gluttony, that he was deter-
red from attending the banquets of the pontiff so

frequently



" Archipoeta facit versus pro miile poetis."

To which Leo instantly replied,

" Et pro mille aliis Archipoeta bibit."

Quei'no, who found some reenforcement necessary,
shortly afterwards subjoined,

" Porrige quod faciant mihi carraina docta : Falernum."
But Leo refused ; and added, as a reason,
" Hoc enim cnervat debilitatque pedes."

In which it has been supposed that he alluded to the

gout, with which Querno is 'said to have been afflicted;

but he certainly meant also to apply the v>'ord /ledes to the

/eet of the verse, which were not likely to be improved by

an additional quantity of wine.



OF LEO THE TENTH. 407

frequently as he had before been accustomed to c h a p.
do.'' Se\'eral other persons are mentioned by Jo- , xvii.
vius as having contributed" to the hilarity of the 1518.
pontiff" in his festive hours, among- x^ijom was -^t. 43.
Giovan-Francesco, one of the sons of Poggio Brac-
ciolini.' They were, however, more distinguished
by their devotion to the pleasures of the table, than
bv their intellectual endowments ; and the frugal
Batavian, Adrian VI. who, by an extraordinary
combination of circumstances, succeeded Leo X.
in the pontifical chiiir, was astonished at the luxury
of his predecessor, and particularly at the expenses
incurred in peacock sausages^ ^^ hich seem to have

' been



k Of these authors Giraldi thus expresses himself at
the close of his dialogue De Poelis suor. temfi. in ofi.fi, 547
;' Si hujusiiiodi lurcones verius quam poetas vobis affer-
" rem, ingiatum potius qnani gratum arbitrarer me factu-
" rum. An iicscids Gazoklum sa;pius, ob ineplos versus
" et claudicantes, male mvilctaUim a Leone flagris, et fa-
" bulam omnibus factum ? Archipoetam vero immania
" ingurgitantem pocula a ganeone Alex, auribus et psene
*' naribus deformatum ? Unde nunc parcius Pontificis men-
" setri adit. * * Cum quibus et Hieronymus Britonius
«' posset adscribi, de quo nolissimum illud lambicum Bap-
" tist. Sangx extat, et legitur,

Prxtor (^raviscas mittitur Britonius" l3^c,
- €t V. Mazzuchslli Scrittori d' Ilal. vol. vi. //. 2112.

I V. Shelihcrd's Life of Pogspo Bracciolini, c/ia/u xi. fi.
483.



408 LIFE AND PONTIFICATE

CHAP, been a favourite dish with these voracious frequent*
XVII. ers of the pontifical table.*"

1518.

^t. 43. But the most remarkable instance of folly and
Barabaiiodi of absurditj is prcscrved to us in the account given
of Baraballo, abate of Gaeta, one of that unfortu-
nate, but numerous class, who, without the talent,
possess the inclination for writing poetry, and who,
like the rest of his brethren, was perfectly insensi-
ble of his own defects. The commendations ironi-
cally bestowed on his absurd productions, had,
however, raised him to such importance in his own
opinion, that he thought himself another Petrarca,
and, like him, aspired to the honour of being
crowned in the Capitol. This afforded too favour-
able an opportunity for amusement to be neglected
. by the pontiff and his attendants ; and the festival
of SS. Cosmo and Damiano was fixed upon as
the day for gratifying the wishes of the poet. In

order



m u Mire quoque favit Pogio seni, Pogii historici filio,
*' itemque Moro nobili a gulx intemperantia articularibus
" doloribus distorto, et Brandino equiti, Marianoque san-
»' nioui cucuUato, facetissimis helluonibus, et in oinni ge-
" nere popinaliuiii delitiarum erudidssimis. Nam inter
" alia portenta insanientis eorum gulx, lucanicas concisis
" pavonum pulpis farctas commenti fuerant : quod obsonii
" genus, mox successor Hadrianus, vir Batav3e frugali-
" talis, mirabundus expavit, quum sumptuarias rationes
" Leonis inspiceret. Verum festivissimis eorum facetiis, et
" perurbanis scorn matibus, magis quam ullis palati leno-
" clniis oblectabatur." Jov, in vita Leon, x- lib, iv. /'. 85.



OF LEO THE TENTH. 409

order to add to the ridicule, it was resolved that chap.
the elephant, which had lately been presented to ^v^^*
the poatifF by the kin^^ of Portugal, should be 15 18.
brouj^ht out and splendidly decorated, and that ^t- '*3.
Baraballo, arrayed in the triumphal habit of a
Roman conqueror, should mount it, and be con-
veyed in triumph to the Capitol. The preparations
on this occasion were highly spleiidid and expen-
sive ; but before they were completed, a deputa-
tion arrived from Gaeta, where the relations of
Baraballo held a respectable rank, for the purpose
of dissuading him from rendering himself an object
of laughter to the whole city. Baraballo, however,
construed their kindness into an illiberal jealousy
of his good fortune in having obtained the favour
of the pontiff, and dismissed them ^^ ith reproaches
and anger. Having then recited several of his
poems, replete with the most ridiculous absurdi-
ties, until his hearers v/ere no longer able to main-
tain their gravity, he was brought to the area of
the Vatican, where he mounted the elephant, and
proceeded in great state through the streets, amidst
the confused noise of drums and trumpets, and
the acclamations of the populace." " I should

" scarcely



" To this event Angelo Colocci refers in one of his
epigrams, entitled,

De Abante Baraballa.

" Littore de curvo vicina cadentibus Euris

" Cajeta hue celebres misit alumna viros,
VOL. HI. 3 F " ^ncau



410 LIFE AND rONTIFICATE

CHAP. " scarcely have believed," says Jovius," " unless

^"^^^- " I had myself been present at the sight, that a

1518. " man not less than sixty years of age, of an

Mt. 43. " honourable family, and venerable by his stature
" and his grey hairs, should have suffered himself
" to be decorated with the toga palmata and the
*' latum claMim of the ancient Romans, and be-
*' decked with gold and purple, to be led in a
" triumphal procession before the publick, with the
" sound of trumpets." His triumph was not,
however, of long continuance. On arriving at the
bridge of S. Angelo, the sagacious quadruped re-
fused to contribute any longer to the ungenerous
mirth of the crowd, and the hero of the day was
glad to descend in safety from his exalted station. ^

The



« ^nean mentem TroJK, et te maxime vatum,
" Qui nunc Assaraci nomen Abantis habes.

" Claims Abans cantu, ter dextra clarus, et armis ;
" Ilium pax redimit, hunc grave Martis opus.

" At nos Nutrici tantum debebimus omnes,
" Quantum Roma sux debet alumna Lupse."

Colocciy o/i. Lat./i, 109.

o Jov. ill vita Leon. x. lib. iv. p. 85.

V Several writers have erroneously supposed that Bara-
ballo and the arch-poet Querno were the same person, v,
Botiari, Note al Fasari, torn. ii. fi. 120. Lancelotto., in ofi.
lat. ylngeli Colocci, notis, fi, 109. Baraballo was of Gaeta,
Querno of Monopoli, in Appuliu. Both these authors cite
the authority of Jovius, in Elog. who makes no such asser-
tion. Bottari is also mistaken in relating that Leo X. actu-
ally



OF LEO THE TENTH. 411

The remembrance of this important incident was, chap.
by the orders of the pope, perpetuated by a piece ^VJ^-
of sculpture in wood,'^ which yet remains upon the 1518.
door of one of the inner chambers in the Vatican. ^"^^ '^2*

Among the inhabitants of Rome, one of the Giovanni go.

T • •11 n t t rizio a pa-

most distniguisned patrons oi learned men was a tionofieam-
noble and opulent German, named Giovanni Go- '"'"' ''°"'-


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