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1 3^-15. n^-
FROM THE LIBRARY OF
GEORGE RICHARD BLINN
CLASS OF 1885
THE SHAKESPEARE LIBRARY.
GENERAL EDITOR PROFESSOR
I. GOLLANCZ, LITT.D.
[All right* rturvt&\
THE OLD-SPELLING SHAKESPEARE:
Being the Works of Shakespeare in the
Spelling of the best Quarto and Folio Texts
Edited by F. J. Furnivall and the late
W. G. Boswell-Stone.
LOUES LABORS LOST
F. J. FURNIVALL, M.A., Ph.D., D.Lrrr.
HONORARY FELLOW OF TRINITY HALL, CAMBRIDGE
FOUNDER AND DIRECTOR OF THE NEW SHAKSPERE SOCIETY, ETC.
FELLOW OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY
DUFFIELD & COMPANY
LONDON: CHATTO & WINDUS
\ 3 4-15, W4r
H.^vAr^ collect urmr
FKOM THE LILTATY OP
GECHGE P.iCKAHD BLINN
Richard Clat & Sons, Limited,
bread street hill, r.c, amd
p. vi. • a striking scene like that chronicled earlier by Holinshed,'
for earlier by Holinshed, read later by Stow. See
Stow's Annates, ed, 1605, p. 1281-2.
The 9. of Aprill, being good friday, in the afternoone, the lord maior
z596 and aldermen of London being in Powles church yard,
Soldiers pressed hearing the sermon at Paules crosse, were sodainelie
and discharged, called from thence, and foorthwith by a precept from her
maiestie and counsell, pressed 1000 men, which was done by 8. of the
clocke the same night ; and before the next morning they were purveied
of all maner of furniture for the wars, readie to haue gone towardes
Dover, and so to the aide of the French in Caleis against the Spaniardes ;
but in the afternoone of the same Saturday they were all discharged :
Souldiers pressed notwithstanding on the 11. of Aprill, being Easter daie,
on Easter Day about tenne of the clocke before noone, came a newe
[while in church), charge, so that all men being in their parish Churches
readie to haue receiued the Communion, the aldermen, their deputies,
constables, and other officers, were faine to close up the Church doores,
till they had pressed so manie men to be souldiers, that by twelue of the
clocke, they bad in the whole Citie 1000 men ; and those, forthwith
Souldiers sent to famisliexl of armour, weapons and all thinges necessarie,
Douer to haue were for the most part that night, and the rest on the
him transported next morning, sent awaie towardes Douer, as the like
ouer to Calais. out Q f other ^^ of tne Rgaime . but about a weeke
after they returned back againe, for the French had took Caleis.
The reader should try to realise how closely these French expeditions
were woven into London life.
For a contemporary account of the war in France, see Antony Cory-
net's "True History of the Civill Warres of France, betweene the
French King, Henry the IV, and the Leaguers, gathered from the yere
of our Lord, 1585, untill this present October, 1591." London, 1591.
p. 34. The edge of the plate was broken, so that ' Wha ' appears at
the end of 1. 91 for ' What* ; 1. 92, ' What ' for « What,' and in line 95
1 aomine ' for ' dotnine.'
Loues Labor's lost.
The metrical evidence settles at once that this is Shak-
spere's first complete play. It " has twice as many rymed
lines as blank- verse ones (i to 58) ; it has only one run-on
line in 18.14, and only 9 extra-syllable blank-verse lines ; it
has, in the dialogue, a sonnet (I. i. 80-93) besides those recited,
and seven 6-line stanzas, 1 and in Act IV. sc. iii. lines 220-287,
p. 43-5, no less than 17 consecutive 4-line verses of alternate
rymes, besides many other such verses singly and successively.
It has much i-line (short and long) antithetic talk, 194
doggrel lines of different measures, and only one Alexandrine
(6-measure, with a pause at the 3rd) ; it has hardly any plot ;
it is cram-full of word-play, quip, conceit, and chaff, without a
bit of pathos till the end 2 "; it belongs to the first or Mistaken-
Identity group of plays; it is formal in structure, and ill-
balanced in act-contents, the first Act being half as long again,
the fourth twice as long, the fifth three times as long, as the
second and third Acts, 3 — this last peculiarity arising from
Sbakspere's revision of the play, and additions to it, 4 when
1 IV. i. 2&-33, IV. iii. 214-19, V. ii. 410-415* 579-5^4, I- i. 74-79,
ab, ad, cc; two successively I. i. 147-152, 153-158.
2 See my Introduction to the Leopold Shakspere, p. xxii-iii.
4 Mr. Spedding says: " In the first Act I suspect Biron's remon-
strance against the vow to be an insertion. In the fourth, nearly the
whole of the close, from Biron's burst, ' Who sees the heavenly Rosaline Y
IV. iii. 219. In the fifth, the whole of the first scene between Holofernes
and Sir Nathaniel bears traces, to me, of the maturer hand, and may
have been inserted bodily. The whole close of the fifth Act, from the
entrance of Mercade (V. ii. 698) has been probably rewritten, and may
bear the same relation to the original copy which Rosaline's speech,
•Ofthaue I heard of you, my Lord Berowne' (V. il 817-847), bears tc*
Loues Labors lost.
it was acted before Q. Elizabeth at Christmas 1597, and
publisht in 1598 : its first version must have been written in
or soon after 1589. (I don't think 'the Plague* V. ii. 421 is
that of 1592.)
In this year, 1589, says Stow (Annals, 1605, p. 1264),
"About the 21st of September, the citizens of London
furnished a thousand men to be sent ouer into France, to
the aiding of Henry, late king of Nauar, then chalenging
the crown of France, as rightfull inheritor by lawful! suc-
cession. 1 Also diuers shires in England sent into France to
the same aide, — some shires a thousand, as Kent and other
shires, and some shires lesse, &c. All which companies were
sent ouer into France, vnder the conduction of Peregrine
Bartie, lord Willougby and Eresby." 2
Elizabeth having no standing army, these thousand Lon-
doners had to be prest in the different wards for service,
and Shakspere and many of his playgoers may well have been
present at a striking scene like that chronicled earlier by
Holinshed, 8 when in the midst of divine service the press-gang
of officials and soldiers enterd, lockt the doors, and demanded
their quota of men for the war. In the little London of the
day, a foreign expedition and the pressing of citizens for it
the original speech of six lines (798-803, p. 80 «.) which has been allowed
by mistake to stand. There are also a few lines (1-3) at the opening of
the fourth Act which I have no doubt were introduced in the corrected
Princesse. Was that the king, that spur'd his horse so hard
Against the steepe vp-rising of the hill ?
Forr. I know not ; but I thinke it was not he.
It was thus that Shakspere learnt to shade off his scenes, to carry the
action beyond the stage."
1 Henry III. had been assassinated.
a They were ' 6000 lustie souldiers,' and sent because King Henry
• thus distressed, sent speedily post to the Q. of England, as to his best
and surest friend, for Ayde.' — Annates, 161 5, p. 757, col. 2. But Crowe,
Hist. France, iii. 259, makes them 4000. For Lord Essex's like
expedition in 1591, see Stow, p. 1266 (1605) and p. 761/2 (1615).
It consisted ' of 4000 foote men and some number of Horsemen and
8 I've lost the reference, tho I formerly copied the passage out for both
Tennyson and Browning, in the vain hope that each of them would
write a poem on it.
came close to the notice of the inhabitants, while their then
strong Protestant sympathies were keenly excited by the suffer-
ings of their fellow-religionists in France, and the gallant fight
of the Protestant Henry of Navarre for his right, the throne
of France. 1
It was therefore certain that when the country-bred
Shakspere resolvd to begin his career as a comedian with a
bright open-air play on the topics of the day, Henry of
Navarre and his officers would be leading characters in it.
Other subjects were near at hand. Under a virgin queen
the relation of woman and man was an unfailing subject
of interest ; Academies for young men were also proposed
— see my edition of ' Queene Elizabethes Achademy * for the
Early English Text Society, — and, as a countryman, Shak-
spere would delight in quizzing the wits and faddists of
the city, and showing them the utter worthlessness of their
smart talk and quips when set beside the realities of life
(see Rosalin's words in V. ii. 817-45, p. 77).
In the play, then, King Ferdinand represents Henri IV. of
Navarre j Berowne, Marshal de Biron, under whom the
English contingent of 1589 generally served ; Longavill, the
Duke de Longueville, an officer in Henry's army 5 while
Dumaine, the Duke de Mayenne, was Henry's chief opponent,
and did not submit to him till 1595 or 1596 5 2 and the boy
Moth may be called after the French ambassador. La Mothe,
or La Motte. 8 Armado, 4 whom Shakspere calls *a Phan-
tasime, a Monarcho,* is the well-known ' Phantastical Mon-
arches' whose epitaph Churchyard wrote in 1580. The
embassy of Katherin and her ladies is founded on an actual
meeting between the French Queen-mother, Catherine de
Medici, and her most beautiful ladies, and Henri IV at San
Bris in 1586 to settle matters in dispute; and the visit of
Ferdinand and his nobles 'appariled like Muscovites or
1 In 1593 he turnd Roman Catholic to secure his kingdom, as he
thought Paris worth a Mass:
2 Crowe, Hist. France, iii. 318 (1863).
3 See Mr. Sidney Lee's Papers in the Gentleman's Magazine, Oct.
1878, and the New Shakspere Society s Transactions, 1887, part I. p. 6.
* This Braggart's name may well have reminded Londoners of the
Spanish boast about what their Armada would do to England in 1588.
Loues Labors lost.
Russians * (V. ii. iao-i) is got from the Czars mission to Q.
Elizabeth in 1583, when, in the gardens of York House,
the Russian ambassador courted Lady Mary Hastings 1 in a
ridiculously extravagant way, as the future Czaritsa. Holo-
fernes may or may not be a quiz of Florio who englisht
Montaigne's Essays, — he is to be compared with Rombus in
Sir Philip Sidney's Lady of May, written in 1578, — and
Rosalin may reflect the dark lady of Shakspere's Sonnets.
The making Berowne wait a year for her may be imitated
from Chaucer's Parlament of Foules.
The pledging of Aquitaine for two 'hundred thousand
Crownes * of which King Ferdinand speaks in II. i. 130 — 148,
may have been suggested by a passage in Monstrelet's French
Ghronicle, ch. xvii (Johnes's translation of 1807, i. 54 ;
Hazlitt's Shakspere's Library, i. 3) saying that, for the
Duchy of Nemours, and a promise of 200,000 gold crowns,
Charles, King of Navarre, surrenderd to the King of France,
the Castle of Cherbourg, the county of Evreux, and all his
other lordships in France.
As to the specialties of speech in the play, Dr. Landmann
showd in the New Shakspere Society's Transactions for
1882, p. 241 — 276, that the King and his nobles speak
Petrarchismj Armado, Gongorism, the inflated verbiage,
hyperbole and bombast borrowed from the Spanish Gongoraj
Holofernes and Nathaniel, Latin-English or Soraismus 5 while
Costard makes a mess of the Puritan jargon 3 and alliteration
is used by all.
In this first play of Shakspere's are to be noted 1. his
sound philosophy of life, 2. his conviction that Love is the
great changer and redeemer of men, and that Women are
their teachers, 3. his bringing Nature and the country 2 on to
the London boards, and mixing tragedy (the death of the
Princess's father) with his comedy, 4. his contempt for mere
word cleverness and wit, j. his disgust at women painting
1 The Czar first wanted Q. Elizabeth. Then he substituted Lady
Mary, and she ultimately refused him. See the extracts from Horsey
on p. xL
2 With three boys' games, 'more sacks to the mill,' and hide and
seek, ' all hid/ IV. iii. and ' push-pin.'
their faces and wearing sham hair, 1 6. his mastery of effective
situations (in the successive exposures of the King and his
nobles in IV. Hi.), 7. his getting fun out of mistaken identity
and miscald words, so often repeated in later plays, 8. his
letting quips and conceits now and then run away with him,
9. his occasional obscurity —
King. The extreme partes of time, extreamly formes
All causes to the purpose of his speede ;
And often, at his very loose, decides
That which long processe could not arbitrate. — V. ii. 721-4.
10. the freedom with which he treats even contemporary
history, for he makes Henry's rival and chief foe, the Due
de Mayenne, his friend, just as if a modern playwright had
made De Wet or Botha one of Lord Roberts's intimates
during the Boer war, 11. the signs of youth and inexperience,
in the want of a real plot, a strongly-markt leading character,
and clear-cutting of the secondary ones like Dumaine and
Longavill, Maria and Katharin ; in the overdoing, to tiresome-
ness, of the squibs and crackers of speech 5 in the want of
dignity in the King and nobles, who behave like overgrown
schoolboys when teaching Moth his speech in V. ii. 107-118,
just as Hermia and Helena quarrel like common schoolgirls
in the Dream (III. ii. 281-343), &c, &c. 12. The play did
for the Woman Question in Q. Elizabeth's day, what Tenny-
son's Princess did for it in Queen Victoria's.
The stage time of the play is two days, a Thursday and
Friday, as the Princess goes back to France on Saturday
(iv. i. 6).
We shall see Berowne and Rosalin developt in Benedick
and Beatris in Much Ado; Armado's love for Jaquenetta
reproduced in Touchstone's for Audrey in As You Like It ;
Dull in Old Gobbo in the Merchant; Verges in Much Ado,
&c, &c. Holofernes's proposal to 'play three' of the
Worthies himself, besides his own part (V. i. 1 jo) prepares us
1 Face-painting : Two Gent., II. i. 55-8 ; Meets* for Meas., III. ii.
80, IV. ii. 38 ; Hamlet, V. i. 201 ; Ant, and Cleop., I. ii. 18 ; Winters
Tale, IV. iii. 101. Sham hair: Merchant, III. ii. 92-6; Henry V.,
III. vii. 60 ; Sonnets, lx. 3-8.
Loues Labor $ lost.
for Bottom's desire to play Pyramus, a tyrant, Thisbie, and
'the Lyon too* (Dreame, I. ii. 26-71). We shall also see
the subplay within the original play reappear in the Dream
Loues Labors lost was first publisht in quarto in 1598,
and as its text is earlier, if not better l than that of the First
Folio of 1623, which was printed from it, but divided into
Acts, it has been taken as the basis of the present edition, but
the first sketches of Berowne's fine speech in IV. iii. p. 45, 46,
and of Rosalin's wise and admirable lecture to Berowne in
V. ii. p. 76, have been shifted to the foot-notes. When every
critic admits that the Quarto and Folio have both made a
mess of the two speeches, it is an editor's duty to clear the
mess up, and put the early and poorer stuff into his notes.
The modern reader is reminded that central u often stands
for v, and initial v for u ; that / sometimes represents Ay, as
then does than, and whither, whether ; and that initial i [is
sometimes used for j.
Loues Labor's lost was mentioned by both Robert Tofte 2
and Francis Meres in 1598. 8 Jaggard put two of its pieces 4
into his piratical Passionate Pilgrim of 1599; its line IV.
. • Reuels, Daunses, Maskes, and merrie houres,
was quoted in Englands Parnassus, 1600, 5 and its song, " On
a day, alacke the day ! " IV. iii. 1 01-120, in Englands Helicon
(collected by John Bodenham), 1600. 6 Sir Walter Cope
tells us in 1604, that Burbage
1 See my Forewords to Griggs's Facsimile of the First Quarto,
p. iii, iv, comparing the chief differences of the two prints.
2 ' The Months Minde of a Melancholy Lover,' sign. G 5 (Allusion
Books, Part I. New Sh. Soc. p. 184 ; Centurie of Praise, p. 15).
3 ' Pailadis Tamia' 281,— Centurie, p. 21.
4 Longavill's Sonnet to Maria, " Did not the heavenly Rethorique
of thine eye," IV. iii. 57-70, and Berowne's 6-measure Sonnet-Letter
to Rosalin, IV. ii. 103-116, "If Loue make me forsworne," &c.
* Centurie, p. 432. 6 Centurie, p. 438.
"saves ther ys no new playe that the quene [James L's Anne of
Denmark] hath not seene, but they have Revyved an olde one Cawled
Loves Lahore lost, which for wytt & mirthe he sayes will please her
exceedingly. And Thys ys apointed to be playd to Morowe night at
my Lord of Sowthamptons . ." — Centurie, p. 62.
it was one of the "Bookes red be me [Drummond of
Hawthornden] anno 1606." — Centurie, p. 71 ; and Dr.
Grosart, in his 1872 edition of Robt. Southwell's Poems,
contended that some lines of that writer on Christ's eyes, ab.
1 594 a.d., were suggested by Berowne's speech on women's
eyes in L. L. lost, IV. iii. : see the Centurie, p. 14.
The Czar; mission to Q. Elizabeth; and Lady Mary Hastings.
This Emperor . . was verie inquisitive with one Elizious
Bomelius . . Doctor of phizicke in England, a rare mati-
matician ' magicion/ and of others, what years Quen Elizabeth
was of 5 what likely of success ther might be, if he should
be a sh uter unto her for himself. 1 And though he was much
dishartned . . for that he had two wiflfes livinge . . . yet he
would give the assaye, and presently puts that Emperis, his
last wifF, into a nunrie, to live ther as dead to the world. —
Horsey* s Travels (Hakluyt Soc), 173-4.
p. 195-6  "Now was the Emperowr more ernest
to send into England about this longe conceated match and
marriage then ever: adre&sed one Feother Pissenopscoia, a
noble, grave, wise and trustie gentilman, to conferr and desier
of the Quen, the Lady Marye Hastings, daughter to that
noble Henry lord Hastings, errell of Huntington, whome he
haerd was her kyndsweoman, and of the bloud royall, as he
termed it ; and that yt would please her Majesty to send som
noble ambassador to treat with him aboute it. His ambassador
went forward j toke shippinge at St. Nicholas 5 arrived in
England 5 magnificently receaved; had audience of the
1 'It is believed that Anthony Jenkinson was, in the year 1567,
intrusted by Ivan with secret orders to negotiate a marriage with
Queen Elizabeth. See Hamel, p. 179 et seg.'— E. A. Bond.
Loues Labor s lost.
Quen; delivered his letters comendatory. Her Majesty
caused that lady to be atended one, with divers great ladies
and maieds of honnor, and yonge noblemen, the nomber of
each apointed, to be seen by the said ambassador in Yorcke
Howse garden. She put one a staetly countenance accord-
inglie. The ambassador, atended with divers other noblemen
and others, was brought before her Ladyship ; cast down his
countenance: fell prostrate to her feett, rise, ranne backe
from her, his face still towards her, she and the rest admiringe
at his manner. Said by an interpritor ' yt did suffice him to
behold the angell he hoped should be his masters espouse * ;
commended her angelicall countenance, state, and admirable
bewty. She after was called by her famillier frends in court
the Emperis of Muscovia." (Ivan soon after died.)
The two hundred thousand Crowns.
Charles, King of Navarre, came to Paris, to wait on the
King. He negotiated so successfully with the King and Privy
Council, that he obtained a gift of the castle of Nemours,
with some of its dependent castlewicks, which territory was
made a duchy. He instantly did homage for it, and at the
same time surrendered to the King the castle of Cherburgh,
the County of Evreux, and all the lordships he possessed within
the kingdom of France, renouncing all claims or profits in
them to the King and to his successors, on condition that,
with the Duchy of Nemours, the King of France engaged to
pay him two hundred thousand gold crowns of the coin of the
King our Lord. — The Chronicles of Enguerraud de Monstrelet 9
&c, translated by Thomas Johnes, Esquire, 8vo. 1810, vol. i.
This quotation is from the New Illustrations of Shakespeare,
by Joseph Hunter, 1845, i. 256, who first pointed out the
passage. He notes, on p. 257, that the King of Navarre, to
whom the King of France undertook to pay the two hundred
thousand crowns, died in 1425, so that Shakspere brought the
Princess downwards above two hundred years to get her into
his play. Time is a trifle to dramatists. Who bothers about
it in the theatre ?
[now added ~}
THE NAMES OF ALL THE ACTORS, 1
IN THE OBDEB OF THEIB ONCOMING.
(The References are generally to the 1st Speech of each Actor In each of his Scenes.
When he doesn't speak, • Is put.)
FERDINAND, King of Nauar, I.i.i, p. 5 ; II.i.90, p. 20 ; IV.iii.2x, p. 41 ; V.H.X84,
p. 61 ; V.U.3X0, p. 65.
LONGATJILL (a tall young Noble of Havar, the Looer of Maria) , Li. 24, p. 5 ;
II.i.195, p. 23 ; lV.iii.43, p. 41 ; V.ii.243, 604, p. 63, 74.
DUHAUfE (a young Noble of Havar, the Looer of Kaiherin), I.i.28, p. 6 ; ILL
192, p. 33; IV.iii.81, p. 42 ; V.ii.238, 390, 587, 798, p. 63, 68, 80.
BBBOWNE (an older Noble of Nam, the Looer of Roaalin), I.i.33, p. 6 ; ILL
1x3, p. 20 ; III. i. 127, p. 29 ; IV.iii.x, p. 40; V.ii.162, 3x5, 813, p. 60, 65, 8x.
A Constable, ANTHONY DULL, I.i.179, p. xo; I.ii.109, p. 15 ; IV.ii.ti, p. 35; V.i.