thography, though it has no connection with the etymology of the word.
Cf. the quibble in 2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 55 : " he hath the horn of abundance,
and the lightness of his wife shines through it." The lantern, like the
bill and bell, was a part of the regular equipment of the watch. Cf.
Wit in a Constable, 1639 :
" You 're chatting wisely o'er your bills and lanthorns,
As becomes watchmen of discretion. "
31. No noise. Cf. R. and J. i. 4. 40 : "Dun 's the mouse [apparently
keep still], the constable's own word."
38. Bills. The bill was a kind of pike or halberd, formerly the weap-
on of the English infantry. See Rich. II. p. 190. Johnson says that it
was still carried by the watchmen of Lichfield in his day. Steevens
quotes Arden of Fever sham, 1592 :
Are coming toward our house with glaives and bills."
44. Not the men, etc. Halliwell says that this was the usual excuse
made by the constables when they had searched innocent persons.
53. They that touch pitch. A popular proverb, found in Ecclesiasticus^
xiii. I : " He that toucheth pitch shall be defiled therewith."
60. If you hear a child cry, etc. Steevens remarks : " It is not impos-
sible but that part of this scene was intended as a burlesque on The
Statutes of the Streets, imprinted by Wolfe in 1595. Among these I find
the following :
'22. No man shall blowe any home in the night, within this citie, or
whistle after the hour of nyne of the clock in the night, under paine of
'23. No man shall use to goe with visoures, or disguised by night, un-
der paine of imprisonment,
'24. Made that night-walkers and evisdroppers, have like punish-
'25. No hammer-man, as a smith, a pewterer, a founder, and all ar-
tificers making great sound, shall not worke after the houre of nyne
at night,' etc.
'30. No man shall, after the houre of nyne at night, keep any rule,*
whereby any such suddaine outcry be made in the still of the night, as
making any affray, or beating his wyfe, or servant, or singing, or revyl-
ing in his house, to the disturbaunce of his neighbours, under payne of
iiis. iiiid.,' etc."
Ben Jonson is thought to have ridiculed this scene in the induction to
his Bartholomew Fair: "And then a substantial watch to have stole in
up'on 'em, and taken them away with mistaking words, as the fashion is
in the stage practice." Yet, as M. Mason observes, Ben himself, in his
Tale of a Tub, makes his wise men of Finsbury speak in the same blun-
dering style. Gifford believes it very improbable that Jonson refers to
S., as these "mistaking words" were common in the plays of the time,
and are elsewhere put into the mouths of constables.
69. Present. Represent ; but not one of Dogberry's blunders. Cf.
Temp. iv. i. 167 : "when I presented Ceres ;" and see M. N. D. p. 156.
73. Statues. The folio reading ; the quarto has " statutes." It is
impossible to decide whether the blunder is Dogberry's or the folio
78. Keep your fellows'* counsels and your cnvn. This is part of the oath
of a grand juryman, and is one of many proofs of the poet's familiarity
with legal formalities and technicalities.
85. Coil. Bustle, confusion. Cf. v. 2. 83 below: "yonder 's old coil
at home ;" and see M. N. D. p. 168.
92. Scab. There is a play on the word, which sometimes meant a
contemptible fellow. Cf. T. N. ii. 5. 82 : " Out, scab !" For the quib-
ble, cf. T. and C. ii. I. 31, Cor. i. I. 169, and 2 Hen. IV. iii. 2. 296.
95. Pent-house. A porch or shed with sloping roof, common in the
domestic architecture of the time. There was one on the house in
which S. was born, as is shown in the accompanying view copied from
an old print.
* Keep any rw/<?=pursue any line of conduct. Cf. night-rule in M. N. D. iii. 2. 5,
and see note in our ed. p. 160.
ACT III. SCENE ///.
JOHN SHAKESPEARE'S HOUSE.
96. Like a true drunkard. Malone suggests that S. may have called
him Borachio from the Spanish borracho, a drunkard, or borracha, a
leathern bottle for wine.
103. Villany. Warb. wished to read "villain" here; but it is natural
that Borachio should repeat the word, and the use of the abstract for
the concrete is a familiar rhetorical figure.
106. Unconfirmed. Inexperienced; as in Z. Z. Z. iv. 2. 19: "his un-
dressed, unpolished, uneducated, unpruned, untrained, or, rather, unlet-
tered, or, ratherest, unconfirmed fashion."
115. This seven year. A common phrase for a long time. See on i.
i. 75 above, and cf. i Hen. IV. ii. 4. 343, etc.
120. Bloods. Young fellows. Cf. j. C. iv. 3. 262: "I know young
bloods look for a time of rest." Elsewhere it means men of spirit or
mettle ; as in J. C. i. 2. 151 : "the breed of noble bloods." See also A".
John, ii. i. 278, 461.
122. Reechy. Reeky, smoky, dirty. See Ham. p. 240.
123. In the old church window. That is, in the painted glass. There
were threescore and ten of the god BeVs priests, as we learn from the
124. Smirched. Smutched, soiled. Cf. iv. i. 131 below: "smirched
thus and mir'd with infamy." See also A. Y. L. i. 3. 114 and Hen. F.
iii. 3. 17.
The shaven Hercules is probably the hero shaved to look like a
woman while in the service of Omphale, his Lydian mistress (Stee-
vens). Warb. thought that the reference was to Samson whom some
Christian mythologists identified with Hercules. Sidney, in his De-
fence of Poesie, tells of having seen " Hercules painted with his great
beard and furious face in a womans attire, spinning at Omphales com-
132. Ale. See on i. 3. 53 above.
135. Possessed. Influenced (Schmidt). Cf. i. i. 169 above : " pos-
sessed with a fury." In 141 just below it has much the same sense.
153. A lock. It was a fashion with the gallants of the time to wear a
pendent lock of hair over the forehead or behind the ear, sometimes tied
with ribbons, and called a love-lock. Fynes Moryson, in a description
of the dress of Lord Mountjoy, says that his hair was " thinne on the
head, where he wore it short, except a lock under his left eare, which he
nourished the time of this warre [the Irish War, in 1599], and being
woven up, hid it in his neck under his ruffe." When not on service he
probably wore it displayed. The portrait of Edward Sackville, Earl of
Dorset, painted by Vandyck, shows this lock with a large knot of rib-
bon at the end of it hanging under the ear on the left side. See on
i. I. 65 above, and cf. The Return from Parnassus, 1606 :
" He whose thin fire dwells in a smoky roofe,
Must take tobacco, and must wear a lock."
157. Masters. In the quarto and the folio this speech and the next
are both given to Conrade. In the folio, it reads thus : " Conr. Masters,
neuer speake, we charge you, let vs obey you to goe with vs." The
correction, which is generally adopted, was made by Theo.
1 60. We are like to prove, etc. " Here is a cluster of conceits. Com-
modity was formerly, as now, the usual term for an article of merchan-
dise. To take up, besides its common meaning (to apprehend], was the
phrase for obtaining goods on credit. ' If a man is thorough w r ith them
in honest taking up,' says Falstaff [2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 45], 'then they must
stand upon security.' Bill was the term both for a single bond and a hal-
berd" (Malone). For the quibble, cf. 2 Hen. VI. iv. 7. 135 : "My lord,
when shall we go to Cheapside, and take up commodities upon our bills?"
162. In question. That is, subject to judicial examination (Steevens).
Cf. 2 Hen. IV. i. 2. 68 : " He that \vas in question for the robbery ?"
SCENE IV. 6. Rabato. Collar, ruff. Cf. Dekker, Guls Hornbook,
1609 : " Your stiff-necked rebatoes (that have more arches for pride to
row under, than can stand under five London-bridges) durst not then,"
etc. Cotgrave, in his Fr. Diet., as quoted by Nares, has "Rabat a re-
batoe for a woman's ruffe." Cf. Marston, Scourge of Villanie:
" Alas her soule struts round about her neck ;
Her seate of sense is her rebato set."
8. By my troth, J s not so good. This is the reading of botja quarto and
folio, as in 17 just below. It is a contraction for "By my troth, it 's,"
etc. So this is is shortened into this\ as in Lear, iv. 6. 187: "This' a
good block" ("This a" in the folio). See Gr. 461.
12. Tire. Head-dress. Cf. Sonn. 53. 8: "And you in Grecian tires
are painted new ;" T. G. of V. iv. 4. 190 : " If I had such a tire," etc.
16. Exceeds. For the intransitive use, cf. Per. ii. 3. 16 : "To make
some good, but others to exceed." The participle is often so used ; as
in T.G.ofV. ii. i. 100 : " O exceeding puppet !"
ACT III. SCENE IV. 149
17. Night-gown. Dressing-gown, or "undress" gown. See Macb. p.
/// respect of='m comparison with ; as in L. L. L. v. 2. 639 : " Hector
was but a Troyan in respect of this," etc.
18. Cuts. Schmidt defines cut as "a slope in a garment," whatever
that may be, and compares T. of S. iv. 3. 90 : " Here 's snip and nip and
cut and slish and slash ;" but it is doubtful whether it there has this
technical meaning. Petruchio seems to be merely referring in a profane
thy master cut out the govu. ,
Perhaps this dialect of the mantua-maker is beyond the ken of the male
19. Down sleeves. " Hanging sleeves" (Schmidt). As side-sleeves un-
doubtedly means long or hanging sleeves, Steevens reads "set with
pearls down sleeves." In Laneham's Account of Queen Elizabeth's En-
tertainment at Kenelworth- Castle, 1575, the minstrel's "gown had side-
sleeves down to the mid-leg." Stowe, in his Chronicle, describes these
sleeves as worn in the time of Henry IV., some of which, he says, "hung
downe to the feete, and at least to the knees, full of cuts and jagges,
whereupon were made these verses :
' Now hath this land little neede of broomes,
To sweepe away the filth out of the streete,
Sen side-sleeves of pennilesse groomes
Will it up licke be it drie or weete.' "
Side or syde is said to be used, in the North of England and in Scot-
land, in the sense of long when applied to garments. A side-gown "A.
long one ; as in the Paston Letters : "a short blue gown that was made
of a side-gown." Cf. Fitzherbert's Book of Husbandry : "Theyr cotes
be so syde that they be fayne to tucke them up whan they ride, as wom-
en do theyr kyrtels whan they go to the market."
W. remarks here : " The dress was made after a fashion which is il-
lustrated in many old portraits. Beside a sleeve which fitted more or
less closely to the arm and extended to the wrist, there was another, for
ornament, which hung from the shoulder, wide and open." If this ex-
planation is correct, down sleeves would mean the inner close sleeves,
side-sleeves the outer loose ones.
Underborne. According to Schmidt and Halliwell, this is = trimmed,
20. Quaint. Fanciful, or elegant. Cf. T. of S. iv. 3. 102: "a gown
more quaint, more pleasing," etc.
29. Saving your reverence. "Margaret means that Hero was so prud-
ish as to think that the mere mention of the word husband required an
apology " (Camb. ed.).
33. Light. S. is fond of playing on the different senses of light; as
here on that of light in weight and that of wanton (as in "a light wom-
an "). Cf. C. of E. iii. 2. 52, M. N. >. iii. 2. 133, M. of V. iii. 2. 91, Rich.
II. iii. 4. 86, T, and C. \. 3. 28, Cymb. v. 4. 25, etc.
I5 o NOTES.
39. Light o" 1 love. A popular old dance tune, referred to again in T.
G. of V. i. 2. 83 : "Best sing it to the tune of 'Light o' love.'" Cf.
Fletcher, Two Noble Kinsmen : " He gallops to the tune of * Light o'
41. Yea, light o 1 love. The early eds. have " Ye light o' love," which
Halliwell and the Camb. ed. retain. The former says that light o 1 love
was a common term for a woman of light character.
42. See. The folio has " look." In barns there is a quibbling refer-
ence to bairns = children. Cf. W. T. iii. 3. 70 : " Mercy on 's, a barne !
a very pretty barne !" A. W. i. 3. 28 : "they say barnes are blessings."
44. / scorn that with my heels. A common expression, which is play-
ed upon by Lancelot in M. of V. ii. 2. 9 : " scorn running with thy heels."
47. Ready. Dressed. See Macb. p. 202, note on Put on manly readi-
48. For a hawk, etc. Heigh ho for a Husband was the title of an old
ballad. See on ii. i. 287 above.
49. For the letter, etc. Referring to ache which was pronounced aitch^
as explained in Temp. p. 119. Cf. Hey wood, Epigrammes, 1566 :
"// is worst among letters in the crosse-row ;
For if thou find him either in thine elbow,
In thine arm. or leg, in any degree ;
In thine head, or teeth, or toe, or knee ;
Into what place soever //may pike him,
Wherever thou find ache thou shalt not like him ;"
and Wifs Recreation, 1640 :
" Nor hawk, nor hound, nor horse, those hhh,
But ach itself, 't is Brutus 1 bones attaches. '
It was only the noun, however, that had this pronunciation ; the verb
was pronounced and often spelt ake. In V.and A. 875 and C. of E. iii.
I. 58, the verb rhymes with brake and sake. The noun is of course dis-
syllabic in the plural, as is evident from the measure in Temp. i. 2. 370,
T. of A. i. i. 257, v. i. 202.
50. Turned Turk. A proverbial expression completely changed for
the worse. Cf. Ham. iii. 2. 287 : " if the rest of my fortunes turn Turk
with me;" Cook, Greenes Tti Quoque : "This it is to turn Turk, from
an absolute and most compleat gentleman, to a most absurd, ridiculous,
and fond lover."
52. Trow. That is, I trow \ wonder (Schmidt), or trow jy<? = think
ye (Halliwell). Cf. M. W. \. 4. 140 : " Who 's there, I trow ^ Cymb. i. 6.
47 : " What is the matter, trow t" In affirmative sentences, I trow is
often = " I dare say, certainly" (Schmidt). Cf. Rich. II. ii. I. 218, i Hen.
VI. ii. I. 41, v. I. 56, R. and J. i. 3. 33, etc.
55. Gloves. Presents of gloves were much in fashion in the time of
6 1. Professed apprehension. Set up for a wit; as the answer shows.
66. Carduus Benedictus. The blessed thistle, or holy thistle, an annu-
al plant from the south of Europe, which got its name from its reputa-
tion as a cure-all. It was even supposed to cure the plague, which was
the highest praise that could be given to a medicine in that day. Stee-
ACT III. SCENE V. 15!
vens quotes Cogan, Haven of Health, 1595 : "This herbe may worthily
be called Benedictus, or Omnimorbia, that is, a salve for every sore, not
knowen to physitians of old time, but lately revealed by the speciall
providence of Almighty God." The Vertuose Boke of Dystillacyou of the
Waters of all maner of Herbes, 1527, says that " Water of Cardo Bene-
dictus . . . heleth al dysseases that brenneth." Hayne, in his Life of
Luther, 1641, states that about 1527 Luther "fell sick of a congealing
blood about his heart," but " drinking the water of carduus benedictus,
he was presently helped." The plant retains little of its ancient repu-
tation in our day ; though, according to Sweringen's Pharmaceutical
Lexicon (Phila. 1873), ^ ^ s naturalized in this country and "considered
tonic, diaphoretic, and emetic."
71. Moral. " That is, some secret meaning, like the moral of a fable "
(Johnson). Cf. T. of S. iv. 4. 79 : " to expound the meaning or moral of
his signs and tokens."
80. Eats his meat without grudging. " And yet now, in spite of his
resolution to the contrary, he feeds on love, and likes his food" (Malone).
82. Look with your eyes, etc. " That is, direct your eyes toward the
same object, namely, a husband " (Steevens).
84. A false gallop. Cf. A. Y. L. iii. 2. 119 : "the very false gallop of
verses." It is apparently = " forced gait" (i Hen. IV. iii. i. 135). See
A. Y.L. p. 171.
SCENE V. 9. Off the matter. Astray, away from the subject. Cf.
Cymb. i. 4. 17 : "a great deal from the matter." Off\s Capell's emen-
dation for the " of" of the early eds.
II. Honest as the skin between his brows. A proverbial expression.
Cf. Gammer Gtirtorfs Needle, 1575: "I am as true, I would thou knew,
as skin betwene thy brows ;" Cartwright, Ordinary, v. 2 : "I am as
honest as the skin that is between thy brows," etc. t
15. Palabras. That is, pocas palabras, Spanish- few words. Cf. T.of
S. ind. i. 5 : "Therefore paucas pallabris ; let the world slide: sessa!"
Henley cites The Spanish Tragedy: "Pocas pallabras, milde as the
lambe." Palabras has become naturalized in palaver.
17. Tedious. The tediousness of constables was proverbial. Cf. B. J.,
Cynthia's Revels: "Ten constables are not so tedious."
19. The poor duke's officers. For the blundering transposition, cf. M.
for M. ii. i. 47 : "I am the poor duke's constable " (cf. 185).
23. A thousand pound. See on i. i. 75 above. The folio has "times"
33. When the age, etc. An obvious blunder for the old proverb,
"When the wine is in, the wit is out." Heywood, in his Epigrammes,
gives it " When ale is in, wit is out."
34. A world to see. " A treat to see " (Schmidt) ; " wonderful to see "
and in the Myrrour of Good Manners compyled in Latin, etc., " Est ope-
rae pretium cloctos spectare colonos" is rendered "A world it is to se
wyse tyllers of the grounde." Many other examples of the expression
might be given.
35. God V a good man. Another proverbial expression. Steevens
quotes the old morality of Lusty Juventus :
" He wyl say, that God is a good Man,
He can make him no better, and say the best he can ;"
A Mery Geste of Robin Hoode : "For God is hold a righteous man;"
Burton, Anat. of Melancholy : "God is a good man, and will doe no
47. Suffigance. That is, sufficient.
54. Examine those. The folio reading ; the quarto has " examination
these." W. remarks : " The blunder in the quarto is entirely out of
place in Dogberry's mouth ; it is not of the sort which S. has made
characteristic of his mind. Dogberry mistakes the significance of
words, but never errs in the forms of speech ; he is not able to discrim-
inate between sounds that are like without being the same, but he is
never at fault in grammar ; and this putting of a substantive into his
mouth for a verb is entirely at variance with his habit of thought, and
confounds his cacology with that which is of quite another sort." It
may be added in support of the folio reading that Dogberry has just
used the verb correctly. See 44 above.
57. Non-come. " To a non compos mentis, put them out of their wits ;
or, perhaps, he confounds the term with non plus" (Malone).
SCENE I. 6. No. t \Ve must agree with Gervinus (see p. 17 above) that
the behaviour of Claudio here is " heartless." We do not know that Mr.
Charles Cowden Clarke is too hard upon him when he says (Shake-
speare-Characters, p. 306): "Claudio is a fellow of no nobleness of
character, for instead of being the last, he is the first to believe his mis-
tress guilty of infidelity towards him, and he then adopts the basest and
the most brutal mode of punishment by casting her off at the very altar.
Genuine love is incapable of revenge of any sort I hold that to be a
truism still less of a concocted and refined revenge. Claudio is a
scoundrel ingrain." Miss Constance O'Brien (" Shakespeare's Young
Men," in the Westminster Review, Oct. 1876) classes Claudio with Tybalt
and Laertes. She says : " The young men of the fifth type . . . have all
certain good points, but they are unbalanced men, and easily hurried
into excesses through over-confidence in their own judgment. Tybalt,
Claudio, and Laertes belong to this class, and they have all the same
peculiarity. They are so fully persuaded of the justice and right of
their own ideas that they take any means to gain their object, quite dis-
regarding the cruelty, treachery, or meanness which they perpetrate. . . .
Claudio is an accomplished and gallant gentleman, much liked by his
friends, and really attached to Hero ; but he is so bent on avenging his
ACT IV. SCENE I. 153
own fancied wrong, so sure that he has the right to do so, that he quite
ignores the cruel injustice of condemning his bride unheard. There is
no real sense of justice about any of this class; their feeling of honour
is touched, and they are wild for revenge, but they do not care how un-
justly they get it. There is a little touch of affectation about Claudio,
not so strong as in Tybalt ; but Don John talks of * the exquisite Clau-
dio,' and Benedick jeers at his fantastical language and the love of finery
which he develops after falling in love." Of Benedick, on the other
hand, she says : " Benedick tries hard to appear to have neither heart
nor feeling, but they come out in spite of him. His mocking laugh dies
into silence when people are in real trouble ; he cannot resist trying to
take Hero's part, and believes in her innocence more readily than her
own father ... It is curious with what cool contempt he treats Claudio
when Beatrice makes him quarrel with him, as if there had been a lurk-
ing feeling in his mind that a weak nature was concealed under his
friend's taking exterior."
12. If either of you know^ etc. Douce remarks: "This is borrowed
from our Marriage Ceremony, which (with a few slight changes in phrase-
ology) is the same as was used in the time of Shakespeare."
21. Some be of laughing, etc. A quotation from the old grammars.
Cf. Lyly, Endymioii, 1591, where one of the characters exclaims " Hey-
ho !" "What's that?" another asks; and the reply is : "An interjec-
tion, whereof some are of mourning : as eho, vah."
23. Stand thee. The thee is probably = thou. See on iii. I. I above.
29. Render. Give. Cf. A. Y. L. i. 2. 21 : "What he hath taken away
from thy father perforce, I will render thee again in affection," etc.
30. Learn. Teach. Cf. Temp. i. 2. 365 : " For learning me your lan-
guage," etc. See also A. Y. L. p. 141.
37. Comes not, etc. Is not that modest blush the evidence of artless
41. Luxurious. Lustful ; as in Macb. iv. 3. 58, etc. It is the only
sense in which S. uses either the adjective or the noun. See Hen. V. p.
1 66, note on Luxury.
44. Knit. Cf. M. N. D. i. i. 172 : " By that which knitteth souls and
prospers loves ;" Cymb. ii. 3. 122 : "to knit their souls," etc.
Approved. See on ii. I. 340 above.
45. In your own proof . In your own trial of her (Tyrwhitt).
47. Defeat. Ruin, destruction. Cf. Hen. V. \. 2. 107: "Making de-
feat on the full power of France ;" Ham. ii. 2. 598 :
" Upon whose property and most dear life
A damn'd defeat was made."
49. Large. Free, licentious. Cf. ii. 3. 181 above : "large jests."
53. Out on thy seeming! The old eds. have "Out on thee seeming, I
will," etc. K. and V. have " Out on the seeming !" W. gives " Out on
thee ! Seeming !" The reading in the text was suggested by Pope,
and is adopted by D., H., Halliwell, and others.
/ will write against if, etc. Cf. Cymb. ii. 5. 32 :
"I '11 write against them,
Detest them, curse them."
55. As is the bud. " Before the air has tasted its sweetness " (John-
58. Rage. The Coll. MS. has "range," and in the next line "wild"
for wide. On the latter word, cf. T. and C. iii. I. 97, Lear, iv. 7. 50, etc.
61. Gone about. Endeavoured. Cf. i. 3. n above.
62. Stale. See on ii. 2. 23 above.
63. Are these things, etc. Cf. Macb. i. 3. 83 : " Were such things here
as we do speak about ?"
65. Nuptial. S. uses only the singular in this sense, except in Per.
v. 3. 80.. See Temp. p. 143, and cf. J. C. p. 183, note on His funerals.
True ! O God ! This probably refers to what Don John has just said.
Some eds. print " True, O God !" as if it were a reply to Benedick ; and
perhaps it is.
70. Move one qtiestion. Cf. T. and C. ii. 3. 89 : " We dare not move
the question of our place."
71. Kindly. Natural. Cf. 2 Hen. IV. iv. 5. 84: "kindly tears," etc.
In A. and C. ii. 5. 78, "kindly creatures "=such as the land naturally
produces. Cf. " kindly fruits of the earth " in the Prayer-Book.
89. Liberal. Licentious. See Ham. p. 258.
90. Encounters. Meetings ; as in iii. 3. 136 above. See also Temp.
iii. i. 74, v. i. 154, etc.
93. Spoke. We have had spoken in 63 above. Gr. 343.
96. Misgovernment. Want of self-control, misconduct. S. uses the
word only here, but he has misgoverning in the same sense in R. of L.
On thy much, cf. M.for M. v. I. 534 : " thy much goodness," etc. See
also Matt. vi. 7.
97. What a Hero, etc. Johnson says : " I am afraid here is intended
a poor conceit upon the word Hero ;" but, as Halliwell remarks, this is
103. Conjecture. Suspicion. Cf. W. T. ii. i. 176: "as gross as ever
touch'd conjecture ;" Ham. iv. 5. 15 :
"she may strew
Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds."
105. Gracious. Lovely, attractive ; as in T. N. i. 5. 281, K. John, iii. 4.