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with a diagram on one end divided into nine partitions marked
with the nine digits. The coin (at first the silver ^r<7a/, afterwards
the shilling) was shoved or slid from the other end of the board,
the aim being to land it in one of the numbered spaces. Cf.
Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, iii. 5 : " run as smooth off the
tongue as a shove-groat shilling ; " and The Roaring Girl: "and
away slid my man, like a shovel-board shilling." See also M. W.
i. I. 159: "and two Edward shovel-boards, that cost me two
shillings and twopence apiece." Taylor the Water Poet calls the
game shove-board, and in a note he says that Edward \T. shillings
were then generally used in playing it. He makes one of these
coins say : —

" You see my face is beardlesse, smooth, and plaine,
Because my soveraigne was a child 't is knowne,
When as he did put on the English crowne ;
But had my stamp beene bearded, as with haire,
Long before this it had beene worne out bare ;
For why, with me the unthrifts every day,
With my face downward, do at shove-board play."

175. Imbrue. Thisbe also uses the word in M. N. D. v. i. 351 :
" Come, blade, my breast imbrue."

176. Then death, etc. Steevens says that this is a fragment of
a song supposed to have been written by Anne Boleyn : —

" O death rock me on slepe,

Bring me on quiet rest," etc.

Reed adds, from Arnold Cosine's Ultimum Vale to the Vaine
World, an elegie written by himselfe in the Marshalsea, after his
condemnation, for murthering Lord Brooke, 1 591 : —

204 Notes [Act II

" O death, rock me asleepe ! Father of heaven,
That hast sole power to pardon sinnes of men.
Forgive the faults and follies of my youth."

178. Airopos. The Sisters Three are apostrophized by Thisbe
in M. N. D.\. I. 343 ; and in the same speech she alludes to the
" shears " of Atropos, but the name of the goddess occurs in S.
only in the present passage.

179. Toward. At hand, in preparation. Cf. M. N. D. iii. i. 81 :
" What ! a play toward ? "

184. Tirrits. Mrs. Quickly 's own word, and " probably =
terrors'''' (Schmidt).

190. Shreivd. Evil, mischievous; the original sense. Cf«
A. V. L. \. 4. 179: "shrewd days," etc.

197. Chops. Poins applies the same epithet to Falstaff in
I Hen. IV. i. 2. 151 : "You will, chops?"

200. The Nine Worthies. These were commonly said to be
three Gentiles: Hector, Alexander, Julius Ccesar ; three Jews:
Joshua, David, Judas Maccabaeus ; and three Christians : Arthur,
Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon. In L. L. L.v. I. 125 fol. and
v. 2. 486 fol. Pompey and Hercules are reckoned among the nine.

205. Quicksilver. Used as a simile for swiftness in the only
other instance of the word in S., Ham. i. 5. 66 : " swift as quick-

207. Tidy. The word occurs nowhere else in S., and its mean-
ing here is disputed. It means fat in a passage from an old trans-
lation of Galateo on Manners and Behaviour, 1578, cited by Reed;
and Gawin Douglas uses it in the same sense in his Virgil. It was
sometime? = nimble, agile, and Malone believes that to be the
meaning here.

Roast /?^ was one of the attractions of Baj'tholomeiv Fair. " A
more appropriate image for representing the appearance of the
rotund Falstaff, hot, glistening, reeking, from his encounter with
the pestiferous Pistol, could hardly be devised " (Clarke).

208. Foining. Thrusting. See on ii. I. 16 above.

Scene IV] Notes 205

214. Pantler. The servant who had charge of the pantry. Cf.
W. T. iv. 4. 56 : " This clay she was both pantler, butler, cook," etc.

218. Tewkshiiry mustard. Tewksbury (or Tewkesbury), in the
county of Gloucester, was formerly noted for mustard.

222. Conger. A kind of eel. Y or fennel, cf. Ham. iv. 5. 180.
" The fennel was perhaps used as a dressing for the conger, as
parsley is now for other fish" (White). Beisly says it was used
" with fish hard of digestion." Why the dish is mentioned has not
been satisfactorily explained.

223. Flap-dragons. '' K flap-dragon is some small combustible
body, fired at one end, and put afloat in a glass of liquor. It is an
act of a toper's dexterity to toss off the glass in such a manner as to
prevent ihe flap-dragon from doing mischief" (Johnson). Rides
the wild wrt;-f = plays at see-saw (Schmidt). Joined-stools, or
joint-stools, were a kind of folding-chair. Cf. i Hen. IV. ii. 4. 418
and R. and J. i. 5. 7.

226. Sign. That is, a sign over the shop-door of a boot-maker.

227. Breeds no bate, etc. " Creates no disturbance by telling
decent stories ; the inference being that, in the company frequented
by the Prince and Poins, indecent stories would be preferred, and
decent ones resented as inappropriate " (Clarke). For bate (= con-
tention), cf. the Countess of Pembroke's Antonins : —

" Shall ever civil bate
Gnaw and devour our taste ? "

and Mirror for Magistrates : " She set my brother first with me at
bate." The word occurs elsewhere in S. only in the compounds
bate-breeding (in V. and A. 6sS- "this bate-breeding spy") and
breed-bate (in M. IV. i. 4.' 12 : " no tell-tale nor breed-bate "). Cf
make-bate in Tlie Countess of Pejnbroke's Arcadia : " So that love
in her passions, like a right make-bate, whispered to both sides
arguments of quarrel."

233. Nave of a wheel. Alluding to " Sir John's combined
knavery and rotundity."

2o6 Notes [Act II

239. Saturn and Venus, etc. " This was, indeed, a prodigy.
The astrologers, says Ficiiius, remark that Saturn and Venus are
never conjoined " (Johnson).

241. Fiery Trigon. A trigon is a triangle. The astrologers
divided the zodiacal signs into four trigons or triplicities : one
consisting of the three fiery signs (Aries, Leo, and Sagittarius) ;
the others, respectively, of three airy, three watery, and three earthy
signs. When the three superior planets were in the three fiery
signs they formed a Jiery irigon ; when in Cancer, Scorpio, and
Pisces, a watery one, etc.

242. Lisping to his master'' s old tables. Making love to his
master's old mistress, Steevens says : " Bardolph was very proli-
ably drunk, and might lisp a little in his courtship ; or he might
assume an affected softness of speech, like Chaucer's Frere : —

' Somewhat he lisped for his wantonnesse,
To make his English swete upon his tonge.' "

Malone remarks that lisping is " saying soft things," and compares
M. IF. iii. 3. 77 : " Come, I cannot cog and say thou art this and
that, like a many of these lisping hawthorn-lDuds, tliat come like
women in men's apparel, and smell like Bucklersbury in simple
time ; I cannot, l)ut I love thee," etc.

For tad/es = table-book, or memorandum-book, cf. iv. i. 201
below, and Ham. i. 5. 107.

244. Busses. The only instance of the noun in S. For the
verb, see K.John, iii. 4. 35, T. and C. iv. 5. 220, etc.

250. Kirtle. A garment concerning which the commentators
have much disputed. See nearly two pages on the subject in the
Variorum of 1821. It seems to have been made sometimes like a
petticoat, sometimes like an apron, sometimes like a tunic, some-
times like a cloak. Schmidt defines it as *"' a jacket, with a petti-
coat attached to it ;" and the half-kirtle (see v. 4. 18 below) as
either the jacket or the petticoat attached. The words occur
nowhere else in S. We find kirtle in P. P. 363, but the song is
Marlowe's, not Shakespeare's,

Scene IV] Notes 207

256. Hearken the end. The meaning seems to be " wait, and
judge when all is done." Schmidt is doubtful whether it means
this or "listen to the end of the piece of music."

258. Anon, anon, sir. The usual answer of the drawers. See
I Hen. IV. ii. 1.5 fol.

260. Poins his brother. Ritsou explains this as = Poins's brother,
and the editors generally adopt the interpretation. It may be the
right one, but perhaps there is quite as humorous a sarcasm in
calling Poins the Prince's brother.

261. Continents. Probably used as carrying out the metaphor
in globe.

272. By this light flesh, etc. Rowe added here the stage direc-
tion, " Leaning his hand upon Doll." Light = wanton ; as often.

276. Take not the heat. That is, strike while the iron is hot.
Cf. Lear, i. 1. 312: "We must do something, and i' the heat."
Clarke makes the expression = " get the start of him, get ahead of

278. Candle-mine. Mine or magazine of tallow.

284. When you ran away, t'i.c. See i //d-w. /F. ii. 4. 295 fol.

305. To close ivith us. In order to make your peace with us.
Cf./. C. iii. 1.202: —

" It would become me better than to close
In terms of friendship with thine enemies."

See also IV. T. iv. 4. 830: "Close with him (make terms with
him), give him gold," etc.

309. Dead elm. Poins calls him so " perhaps on account of the
weak support which he had given to Doll" (Schmidt). Cf. the
only other instances of elm in S. : C. of E. ii. 2. 176 and AI. N. D.
iv. I. 49.

310. Pricked down. Marked down. Cf. iii. 2. Ill, 1 15, I43»
146, etc. below.

312. Malt-wortns. Ale-topers. Cf. i Hen. IV. ii. i. 83.
317. Burns, poor soul. That is, with disease. The early eds.
have " burns poor souls," which some eds. retain.

2o8 Notes [Act III

323. Contrary io the law. Several statutes of the time of Eliza-
beth and James I. forbade victuallers to furnish flesh during Lent.

329. //is grace. Falstaff plays upon the vi'ord^raci?.

331. .U door. A contraction still in provincial use, according to
Clarke. Bardolph also uses it in 351 below; but Falstaff (348)
says "at the door."

342. The south. The south wind, always represented by S. as
damp and disagreeable. Cf. A.Y.L. iii. 5. 50: "like foggy south,"

343. Borne. Laden, freighted.

346. Tlie siveetest morsel of the night. Cf. v. 3. 49 below : "now
comes in the sweet o' the night."

362. PeascoJ-time. The time of year when peas are in pod.

But an honester and truer-Jiearted man, — . " These valedictory
words (printed also in the folio with a dash, to indicate a broken
speech, as if unfinished from incapacity to express all she feels of
admiration) uttered by hostess Quickly after nearly thirty years'
experience of Sir John's honesty and truth, serve better than pages
of commentary upon his powers of fascination to show how strong
is the spell he exercises upon the judgment and affections of those
with whom he associates" (Clarke).

369. \^She comes blubbered.'] The quarto reads: "come, shee
comes blubberd, yea? wil you come Doll?" The speech in the
foHo is simply, ''/lost. Oh runne Dol, runne: runne, good Dot."
Dyce was the first to see here that a stage-direction (as not un-
frequently happened) had got into the text. For blubbered, cf.
R. and J. iii. 3. 87 : "Blubbering and weeping."


Scene I. — The whole scene is omitted in some copies of the
quarto. See p. 10 above.

2. O^er-read. Read over, peruse; as in Sonn. 81. 10, y. C. iii.

Scene I] NoteS 200

I. 4, and Lear, i. 2. 38. So over-read \ry M. for M. iv. 2. 212. Cf.
36 below.

3. Co7isider. Often followed by of, as here. Cf. Hen. V. ii. 4.
113, iii. 6. 133,/. C. iii. 2. 114, Macb. iii. i. 75, etc.

17. A zvatch-case. A sentry-box. Hanmer says : "This alludes
to the watchman set in garrison-towns on some eminence, attend-
ing upon an alarum-bell, which was to ring out in case of fire or
any approaching danger." Holt White makes it refer to an alarm-
watch or clock. Lariiin is the uniform spelling in S., not " 'larum,"
as usually given in modern eds. Alarum also occurs ; as in Heit. V.
iv. 6. 35, etc.

19. Ship-bo/ s. The word is found also in K.John, iv. 3. 4 and
Hen. V. iii. chor. 8. Cf. shipman in Alacb. i. 3. 17, etc.

24. The clouds seem to be called slippery as not being able to
retain the billows thrown up to them (Steevens).

25. That. So that. See on i. i. 197 above. For hiirly (= tu-
mult), cf. K.John, iii. 4. 169 : " I see this hurly all on foot," etc.

28. Most stillest. Double comparatives and superlatives are
frequent in S. Cf. iv. 5. 201 below.

30. Then, happy low, lie doiun I The quarto reads : " then
(happy) low lie downe ;" the folio: "Then happy Lowe, lye
downe." As Steevens remarks, the sense seems to be : " You
who are happy in your humble situations, lay down your heads
to rest ! the head that wears a crown lies too uneasy to expect
such a blessing." Various alterations have been proposed.

T)^. Is it good morrow? Is it morning? The salutation was
used only before nocfn. Cf. R. and J. i. i, 166: "Is the day so

35. All. Again applied to two persons in 2 Heti. VI. ii. 2. 26:
" as all you know," etc.

41. It is but as a body yet distemper'' d. It is as yet only a body
disordered, or out of health. Transpositions of jt/ are common.

43. Little. That is, a little, Cf. T. A^. v. i . 1 74.

50, Ocean. A trisyllable ; as in T. G. of V. ii. 7. 32, K. John,
2 HENRY IV — 14


Notes [Act III

ii. I. 340, etc. See on ind, 26 above. On the passage, cf. Sonn.
64. 5 : " When I have seen the hungry ocean gain," etc.

53-56. O, if this . . . and die. Omitted in the folios, where
the imperfect line '7" is not teti years gone fills out 53. White
remarks of the lines: "If S. ever wrote them, I believe that he
omitted them because of their weakness ; but I more than doubt
that he did write this feelile whine, which seems all the feebler
because it is made the needless sequent of the manly and majestic
aspiration that precedes it. . . . It is a square block of puling
commonplace let into a grand and vigorous passage."

64. To the eyes. To the face ; as in M. for M. v. i. i6i : " Her
shall you hear disproved to her eyes." Cf. Id. i. i. 69.

65. But which of you, etc. "He refers to Rich. II. iv. 2 ; but
whether the king's or the author's memory fails him, so it was,
that Warwick was not present at that conversation" (Johnson).

66. Nevil. As Steevens notes, the earldom of Warwick was
then in the family of Beauchamp, and did not come into tliat of
the Nevils till many years after, in the latter part of the reign of
Henry VI., when it descended to Anne Beauchamp (the daughter
of the earl here introduced), who was married to Richard Nevil,
Earl of Salisbury.

68. Checked. Reproved. See on i. 2. 198 above.

72. Had no such intent, etc. " He means ' / should have had
no such intent, but that necessity,' etc.; or S. has here forgotten
his former play, or has chosen to make Henry forget his situation
at the time mentioned. He had then actually accepted the crown "
(Malone). Cf. Rich. II. iv. I. 1 13: "In God's name, I '11 ascend
the regal throne."

74. To kiss. Cf. A. W. i. i. 238: "To join like likes, and kiss
like native things."

75. Shall come. Changed by Johnson to " will come," to corre-
spond with the next line. Clarke remarks : " The present forms a
notable instance of that purposed variation in repeated phrases that
S. occasionally gives with so much naturalness of effect. Here the

Scene II] Notes 211

variation occurs in a repeated sentence uttered by the selfsame
speaker, and one following immediately upon the other ; but in
repeating it he varies one word of it, just as persons do in actual
life, and just as Shakespeare's people do."

85. Intreasured. Laid up. Q,l.entreaszired'\\\Per.\\\.2.(i<^.

86. Hatch. Cf. Ham. iii. I. 174: "the hatch and the disclose,"

87. This. Used in a general way, referring to " this history of
the times deceased " (Henley) or "the instance which the king has
been recounting of Northumberland's previous conduct" (Clarke).

98. Please it. May it please. See on i. i. 5 above.
103. htstance. Proof. Cf. iv. I. 83 below.
105. Unseasoii''d. Unseasonable; as in J/. ?F. ii. 2. 174: "this
unseasoned intrusion." Yox perforce, see on i. i. 165 above.

Scene II. — 3. Rood. Cross, crucifix. Cf. Rich. III. iii. 2. 77,
iv. 4. 165, etc.

9. Otisel. Blackbird; as in M. N. D. iii. i. 128: "The ousel
cock so black of hue." There it is spelt "woosel" in the early
eds., as it is here in the quarto. " Master Silence speaks with
mock-modest disparagement of his pretty dark-haired daughter "

15. Cletnenfs Inn. One of the " Inns of Chancery," which were
subsidiary to the " Inns of Court." See on 31 below.

16. Alad. Madcap, merry; as in 32 below.

22. Cotstvold man. The quarto has " Cotsole man," and the 1st
folio "Cot-sal-man; " both of which indicate the common pronun-
ciation of the word. Cotswold (open downs in Gloucestershire) was
celebrated in the poet's time for athletic sports and the skill of the
natives therein. Cf. Rich. II. ii. 3. 9.

23. Swinge-bucklers. Roisterers. Swash-bucklers was used in
the same sense. Steevens quotes Nash, addressing Gabriel Harvey,
1598: " Turpe senex miles, 't is time for such an olde foole to
leave playing the swash-buckler." Qi. swashers in lien. V. iii. 2. 30.

212 Notes [Act III

24. Page to Thomas Mowbray, etc. One of the points of evi-
dence that Falstaff was originally called Oldcastle in i and 2 Hen.
IV., Sir John Oldcastle having actually been in his youth page to
the Duke of Norfolk.

29. Slogan's head. There were two noted persons of the name,
the one a poet and the other a jester, and there has been much
controversy as to which of them is here referred to. John Sco-
gan, " being an excellent mimick, and of great pleasantry in con-
versation, became the favourite buffoon of the court of King
Edward IV." (Warton). Henry Scogan, the poet, is described
by Ben Jonson, in The Fortunate Isles, as

" a fine gentleman, and master of arts
Of Henry the Fourth's times, that made disguises
For the king's sons, and writ in ballad royal
Daintily well."

A book of " Scogin's Jests " was published by Andrew Borde in
1565, and may have suggested the name to Shakespeare. The
subject is discussed to the extent of nearly three pages in the
Variorum of 1 82 1.

30. Crack. A pert boy. Cf. Cor. i. 3. 74 : —

" Valeria. Indeed, la, 't is a noble child.
Virgilia. A crack, madam."

31. Grafs Intl. One of the four great "Inns of Court," which
are " incorporations for the study of law, possessing by common
law the exclusive privilege of calling to the bar." In the Hall of
Gray's Inn (built about 1560) Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors
was acted in 1594.

37. Hoiv a, etc. How go a, or how sell a, etc. Cf. 48 below,
and the answer to the question.

45. Clapped V the clout. Hit the white mark in the target. Cf.
Z. L. L. iv. I. 136: "Indeed, a' must shoot nearer, or he '11 ne'er
hit the clout." At twelve score = twelve score yards.

46. A forehattd shaft. A kind of shaft referred to — not very

Scene II] Notes 213

clearly — by Ascham, in his Toxophihis, z.% follows: "Agayne the
bygg-brested shafte is fytte for hym which shoteth right afore him,
or els the brest, being weke, should never wythstande that strong
piththy kinde of shootynge; thus the underhande must have a
small breste, to go cleane awaye out of the bowe, the forehande
must have a bigge breste, to bere the great myghte of the bowe."

Fourteen and a half. That is, two hundred and ninety yards.
Malone remarks: "The utmost distance that the archers of ancient
times reached is supposed to have been about three hundred yards.
Old Double therefore certainly drew a good bow." To hit a mark
at twelve score was, however, a more extraordinary feat than merely
sending a shaft fourteen and a half. Instances are recorded of
shots at eighteen score.

49. Thereafter as they be. According as they turn out. The
good which follows is emphatic. The price mentioned is that of the
poet's time.

60. Tall. Stout, sturdy. Cf. A. and C. ii. 6. 7: "much tall
youth," etc.

63. Backsword man. "Fencer at single-sticks " (Schmidt).

70. Accommodated. "This was one of the words that were
fashionably affected and brought in upon every occasion by gal-
lants in Shakespeare's time, and which affectation he has satirized.
Its favour among would-be martial men is indicated by Bardolph's
affirming it to be a soldier-like word; while the absurd way in
which it was hacked and introduced upon all occasions, pertinent
or not pertinent, and without the slightest idea as to what was its
real meaning, is shly shown by Bardolph's floundering in his at-
tempted definition of the word " (Clarke). Cf. Jonson, Discoveries :
" You are not to cast or wring for the perfumed terms of the time,
as accommodation, complement, spirit, &c., but use them properly
in their places as others." He ridicules it also in Every Man in
his Humour (quoted by Steevens) : —

" Hostess, accommodate us with another bedstaff. —
The woman does not understand the words of action."

214 Notes [Act III

86. Surecard. " Surecard wa.s used as a term for a booti cojii-
panion so lately as the latter end of the last [iSth] century"

III. Prick him. Mark him, put him on the list. See on ii.
4. 310 above.

121. Ot/te}-. Others; as in T. and C. i. 3. 91: "Amidst the
other," etc. See also quotation from Stowe in note on 283 below.

130. Son. There is a play on the word, in antithesis to shadow.

132. Much. The expression is ironical. Cf. A. Y. L. iv. 3. 2:
" Is it not past two o'clock? And here much Orlando ! "

135. Shadows to fill up, Qic. "That is, we have in the muster-
book many names for which we receive pay, though we have not
the men" (Johnson). Steevens quotes Barnabie Riches Sonldiers
IVishe to Britons Welfare, 1604 : " One speciall meane that a shift-
ing captaine hath to deceive his prince, is in his number, to take
pay for a whole company, when he hath not halfe."

151. A woman's tailor. Cf. T. of S. iv. 3. 61 : —

"Come, tailor, let us see these ornaments;
Lay forth the gown."

See the whole dialogue that follows. Cf. also Clitus, Character of
a Zealous Neighbotir : " Hee buyes his wive's gownes ready made,
fearing (belike) some false measure from the tayler."

155. Battle. Battalion, army. Cf. A', yb/^;;, iv. 2. 78 and I //<?«.
IV. iv. I. 129.

167. Put him to. Put \vvm.for, employ him as.

168. So many thousands. " In several instances where his con-
temporary playwrights would have made occasion for coarse ex-
pression, S. has managed to word allusions with comparative
decency ; as witness Falstaffs hint at the Swarming condition of
Wart's ragged garments" (Clarke). Cf also Lear, iii. 4. 164.

187. Take such order. Take such measures, give such orders ;
as in 0th. v. 2. 72, etc.

190. Two more. " Five only have been called, and the number

Scene II] Notes 215

required \sfour. The restoration of the sixth man would solve the
difficulty that occurs below ; for when Mouldy and Bullcalf are set
aside, Falstaff gets but three recruits" (Malone). S. was careless
in these little matters. '

196. Since. When. Cf. 31. N. D.W. i. 149: —

" Thou rememberest
Since once I sat upon a promontory," etc.

204. Could axvay with me. Could endure me. Reed remarks
that the expression had not become obsolete even in the time of
Locke. Cf. his Conduct of the Understanding : "with those alone
he converses, and can away with no company whose discourse goes
beyond what claret or dissoluteness inspires." See also Isaiah,
i. 13.

210. Cannot choose but be. Cannot help being. Cf. i Hen. IV.
i. 3. 278, V. 2. 45, etc.

214. That ''s fifty-five year ago. If Falstaff was then " a boy and
page to Thomas Mowbray" (see 24 above), he must now be at
least seventy. For the plural year, cf. pound in i. 2. 228 above
and 251 below, and mile in v. 5. 65 below.

217. Said I well? Cf. M. IV. i. 3. 11 : "said I well, bully
Hector ? "

222. Hem, boys! Cf. Much Ado, v. i. 16: "Bid sorrow wag,
cry hem," etc.

225. Corporate. A blunder for Corporal.

226. Harry ten shillings. There were no ten-shilling coins
until the time of Henry VII. (Douce).

227. Had as lief. See on i. 2. 42 above.

241. Bear a base niijid. For bear a 7iiind= have a disposition,
cf. V. and A. 202, A', of I. 1148, 1540, Temp. ii. I. 266, T. A'', ii.
I. 30, etc.

242. So. A common use of the word = so be it. Cf. i Hen. IV.
ii- 4- 545. V. 3. 60, 64, etc.

244. Quit. Exempt ; as in Hen. V. iv. i. 122, etc.

2 1 6 Notes [Act III

250. Three pound. Johnson says : " Here seems to be a wrong
computation. He had forty shillings for each. Perhaps he meant
to conceal part of the profit." Of course he did. The amount
paid was above the average for that day. See i Hen. IV. iv. 2. 13.

266. Theivs. Muscle. Cf. /. C. i. 3. 81 and Ham. i. 3. 12.

267. Assemblance. That is, tout ensemble. S. uses the word
only here.

269. Charge you. The you is the " expletive " pronoun. Cf.
Put Die in 278 below.

271. Swifter than he that gibbets on the brewer's bucket. Refer-
ring to the quick motion with which brewers' men sling the beer-
bucket on each end of the gibbet (or yoke across the shoulders) in
carrying beer from the vat to the barrel.

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