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272. Half-faced. With so thin and sharp a figure that he looks
like the profile of a man. Cf. i Hen. IV. i. 3. 208 : " half-fac'd

274. foeman. Steevens says : "This is an obsolete term for an
enemy in war." It is in common use in our day, at least in poetry.

278. Ca liver. A kind of musket. Cf. i Hen. IV. iv. 2. 21.
Steevens quotes The Masque of Flowers, 1613 : "The serjeant of
Kawasha carried on his shoulders a great tobacco-pipe as big as
a caliver." He adds: "It is singular that S., who has so often
derived his sources of merriment from recent customs or fashion-
able follies, should not once have mentioned tobacco, though at a
time when all his contemporaries were active in its praise or its
condemnation." Some have suspected such an allusion in i Hen.
IV. i. 3. 41 : " took it in snuff ; " but probably perfumed powder
is there meant. Judge Hosmer, author of a " Baconian " book,
believes that the iveed in Sonn. 76. 6 is tobacco !

280. Traverse. March. Cf. 0th. i. 3. 378 : " traverse, go," etc.

283. Chopt. The reading of the early eds. for which the modern
ones generally substitute " chapt" or "chapped," which means the
same. Shot is used for shooter. We still speak of " a good shot,"
etc. Cf. Stowe's Annates, 1631 : " men with armour, . . . the

Scene II] Notes 217

greater part whereof were shot, and other were pikes and halberts,
in faire corslets."

284. Scab. A term of contempt, here used with quibbling ref-
erence to Wart's name. Cf. the play on the word in Much Ado,
iii. 3. 107 and Cor. i. i. 169.

285. Tester. Sixpence ; as in M. W. i. 3. 96 : " Tester I '11
have in pouch," etc. Cf. testril in T. N. ii. 3. 34. We find the
verb iestern ( = give a tester) in T. G. of V. i. i. 153.

287. Mile-End Greenr The place in the suburbs of London for
public sports, and also for military drill. According to Stowe, 4000
citizens were trained and exercised there in 1585. In Barnabie
Riches Soiddiers Wishe (see on 135 above), we find contemptuous
mention of " a trayning at Mile-end greene."

28S. Lay — resided. Cf. iv. 2. 97 below.

Sir Dagonet. The story of Sir Dagonet is to be found in La
Morte d'Arthure, where he is the king's squire. Arthur's Show was
an exhibition of archery by a society who styled themselves "The
Auncient Order, Society, and Unitie laudable of Prince Arthure
and his Knightly Armory of the Round Table." The members,
fifty-eight in number, took the names of the knights in the old
romance, and their usual place of meeting was Mile-End Green.

289. Quiver. Nimble, active ; used by S. nowhere else. Hen-
derson quotes Bartholotneus, 1535: "There is a maner fishe that
hyght mugill, which is full quiver and swifte."

292. Bounce. Bang. Cf. K. John, ii. I. 462: "He speaks
plain cannon fire, and smoke and bounce."

306. At a word. In a word ( = briefly, but what I mean). Cf.
M. W. i. 3. 15 : "I am at a word ; follow" (that is, I am not of
many words).

311. Fetchoff. " Fleece, make a prey of " (Schmidt). In IF. T.
i. 2. 334 it is = make away with.

315. TiirnbiiU Street. A corruption of Turnmill Street, a dis-
reputable quarter in London. Steevens quotes Ram Alley : " You
swaggering, cheating, Turnbull-street rogue ; " and Beaumont and

2 1 8 Notes [Act III

Fletcher, Scornful Lady : " Here has been such a hurry, such a
din, such dismal drinking, swearing, &c., we have all lived in a per-
petual TurnbuU-street."

322, Invincible. " Not to be evinced, not to be made out, inde-
terminable " (Schmidt). Some eds. change it to "invisible."

326. "Fancies and Good-nights were the common titles of little
poems. One of Gascoigne's Good-nights is published among his
Flowers^'' (Steevens).

This Vice's dagger. Alluding to the w^ooden dagger of the Vice
in the old moralities. Cf. T. N. iv. 2. 136 and i Hen. IV. ii. 4.


328. Sworn brother. Alluding to the fratres jurati of the times
of chivalry. Cf. A. V. L. v. 4. 107, Much Ado, i. i. 73, etc.

330. Burst. Broke. Cf. T. of S. ind. 1.8: " the glasses you
have burst," etc.

332. His o'vn name. That is, a gaunt fellow. Cf. Gaunt's
death-bed playing on his own name in I\ich II. ii. i. 74 fol. See
also on iv. 5. 129 below.

2,^^. Eel-skin. Cf. IC. John, i. i. 141.

335. Beefs. "Beeves" (the folio reading). Cf. M. of V. i. 3.
168 : "muttons, beefs, or goats."

337. A philosopher'' s two stones. That is, double the value of
the philosopher's stone, or "more than the philosopher's stone"
(Johnson). " Falstaff thus vaunts his power of transferring men's
money from their pocket to his own as surpassing that of the phi-
losopher's stone to transmute base metals into gold ; and the result
proves his boast to be no empty one, for he afterwards succeeds in
obtaining 'a thousand pound' from Master Shallow" (Clarke).
See V. 5. 12 below.

338. If the young dace, t\.c. "That is, if the pike may prey upon
the dace, if it be the law of nature that the stronger may seize upon
the weaker, Falstaff may, with great propriety, devour Shallow "
(Johnson). Vaughan remarks: "The piscatorial metaphor of
F"alstaff seems peculiarly natural to one born on the banks of the

Scene I] Notes 219

Avon, where probably the best kind of angling was trolling for pike
with dace or gudgeon for bait."

340. And there an end. And there's no more to say about it.
Cf. R. and J. iii. 4. 28, Jiich II. v. i. 69, etc.


Scene I. — 2. Gaultree. So spelled in the folios. Holinshed
(see p. 161 above) has " Galtree." The forest of Galtres anciently
extended to the north of the city of York, and comprised nearly
100,000 acres of land. It remained a royal forest until 1670, when
an act of parliament was obtained for its division and enclosure.
It is the " Calaterium Nemus " of Geoffrey of Monmouth, who
makes it the scene of his story of Arthegal and Elidure.

3. Discoverers. Scouts.

8. New-dated. Of recent date. S. is fond of compounds with
new. Cf. i. 2. 149 above.

10. Here doth he wish, etc. He wishes he could have been here
in person, etc. Yox poivers = forces, cf. iv. 2. 61 below.

11. Hold sortance. Be in accordance. CLsort within M. N. D.
v. I. 55 and Hen. V. iv. I. 63.

13. Ripe. Ripen, mature ; as in K. John, ii. i. 472, etc.

15. Overlive. Outlive, survive ; used by S. only here.

16. Opposite. Opponent, adversary; as in i. 3.55 above. Cf.
T. N. iii. 2. 68, iii. 4. 253, 293, etc.

23. Gave them out. Declared them, said they were.

24. Sivay. "This verb has excellent effect thus employed, to
give the idea of a military movement, a body of forces sweeping
heavily, yet impetuously, on in a given direction" (Clarke).
Johnson compares the use of the noun in Milton, P. L. vi. 251
(which he misquotes) : " with huge two-handed sway Brandish'd
aloft," etc.

34. Bloody. " Sanguine, or full of blood and of those passions

220 Notes [Act IV

which blood is supposed to incite or nourish " (Johnson). Malone
compares M. IV. v. 5. 99: "Lust is but a bloody tire." For
guarded = UimraGd., decked, cf. M. of V. ii. 2. 164, Hen, VI I I.
prol. 16, etc.

42. Civil. Well-ordered ; or perhaps, as Steevens makes it,
"grave, solemn." Cf. R. and J.\\\. 2. 10: "Come, civil Night,"

45. White investmeftis. Dr. Grey says that formerly all bishops
wore white (the episcopal rochet) even when they travelled.

50. Greaves. Steevens's conjecture for the "graves" of the
early eds. According to some, the latter is only another way of
spelling greaves. Herford attempts to defend " graves " thus :
' As books result from the exercise of the graceful ' speech of peace,'
so ' graves ' from the exercise of the boisterous tongue of war ; "
but this seems a forced interpretation.

52. Point. "A signal given by the blast of a trumpet"
(Schmidt). Many passages in the old dramatists confirm this

55-79. And . . . wrong. Omitted in the quarto.

57. Bleed. That is, be bled. Cf. Rich. II. i. i. 157: "Our doc-
tors say this is no month to bleed."

60. I take not on tiie here as a physician. I do not profess to be
a physician. Cf. C. of E. \. i. 242 : —

" this pernicious slave,
Forsooth, took on him as a conjurer," etc.

69. Griefs. Grievances; as in 77 and no below.

71. Sphere. Warburton's correction of the " there " of the folios,
and generally adopted ; but some editors retain " there," making
most (/?</(?/= greatest quiet (cf. M. for M.Av. i. 44 : "my most
stay," etc.) and "there "= therein, referring to the stream of life.

72. Occasion. A quadrisyllable here. See on ind. 26 above.
Cf. commission in 162 below.

83. Instance. Proof, illustration. See on iii. i. 103 above.

Scene I J Notes 221

84. Ill-beseeming. Unbecoming. CL R. ajtd J. i. 5. 76, iii. 3.
113, etc. We have well-beseeming in I Hen. IV. i. i. 14.

90. Grate on. Vex, worry. Cf. M. W. ii. 2. 6 : "I have grated
upon my good friends," etc. The metaphor is similar to that in

93. Commotion = insurrection ; as in 36 and ii. 4. 342 above.
For edge = sword, cf. I. I/en. IV. i. I. 17 : "The edge of war ; "
Kick. III. V. 5. 35 : " the edge of traitors," etc.

This Hne and 95 below are omitted in the folios and in some
copies of the quarto. It is the opinion of some of the critics that
several lines have been lost here and the remaining ones displaced.
Various attempts at rearrangement and emendation have been

94. My brothe}-, etc. This speech, as it stands, is thus explained
by Clarke : " The grievances of my brother general, the common-
wealth, and the home cruelty to my born brother, cause me to
make this quarrel my own." The archbishop's brother had been
beheaded by the king's order. Cf. i. He7i. IV. i. 3. 270 : —

" who bears hard
His brother's death at Bristol, the Lord Scroop."

97. Redress. This favours the supposition that something has
been lost above, " since it is said in reply, and as if redress had
been one of the words used by the archbishop."

98. Not. For the transposition, cf. Tenip. ii. i. 121 : "I not
doubt," etc. See also 107 below.

103-139. O, my good . . . the king. Omitted in the quarto.

104. To. According to.

107. Yet for your part, etc. " Whether the faults of govern-
ment be imputed to the time or the king, it appears not that you
have, for your part, been injured either by the king ox the time''

116. Force perforce. A more emphatic form ol perforce, and like

222 Notes [Act IV

that sometimes = by force, sometimes = of necessity (see on i, 3. 72
above). Cf. iv. 4. 46 below, where it has the latter sense.
117. For the events referred to, see Rich. II. i. 3.

120. In charge. "In rest" for the charge or encounter. For
beaver (= the movable front of the helmet), cf. Ham. i. 2, 230 :
"his beaver up," etc.

121. Sights. The eye-holes of the helmet.

125. Warder. Truncheon or staff of command. Cf. Rich. II,
i. 3. 118 : "Stay, the king hath thrown his warder down."

127. Then threiv he dmvn himself, etc. Cf. Antony's speech in
J. C. iii. 2. 195 : "Then I, and you, and all of us fell down," etc.

129. Miscarried. Perished, been lost ; the most common sense
in S. Cf. iv. 2. 46 below.

131. Earl. He was Duke of Hereford (Malone). See Rich.
II. Elsewhere (see .4. IV. iii. 5. 12, 19, Hen. V. iv. 8. 103, R. and
J. iii. 4. 21) S. uses earl loosely of foreign noblemen (= count).

135. Coventry. The place where the lists were held. See
Rich. II. i. 3.

145. Every thing set off. The phrase is ambiguous, and thus
serves the speaker's purpose. 5(?/ <^ may be = cast out, ignored,
or = rendered account for.

149. Overween, Think arrogantly, CL T. A.W. \. 2<^, Rich. II.
i. I. 147, etc. See also Milton, Sonn. 4. 6: —

"and they that overween,
And at thy growing virtues fret their spleen," etc.

151. Within a ken. Within sight. Cf. Cyi)i/>.m. 6. 6 : "Thou
wast within a ken ; " R. of L. 1 1 14 : " 'T is double death to die in
ken of shore," etc.

154. Battle. Army. See on iii. 2. 155 above, and cf. 179 below.
Names = great names, or men of note.

161. Handling. A trisyllable here.

164. Determine. Followed by of; as in T, C. of V. ii. 4. l8l,
Rich. Ill, iii. 4. 2, R. and J. iii. 2. 51, etc.

Scene I] Notes 223

166. Intended. Understood, implied (Fr. entendu).

167. / 7niise, etc. I wonder that you can ask a question so
frivolous. For muse, cf. K.John, iii. i. 317, Cor. iii. 2. 7, etc.

172. Insitiewed. Joined, allied. Ci. K. /ohii,v. 2. 6;^: —

" so nobles, shall you all
That knit your sinews to the strength of-mine."

See also 177 below.

1 73. By a true substantial for j)i. " That is, by a pardon of due
form and legal validity" (Johnson).

174. Present. Immediate ; as often. Cf. iv. 3. 73 below.

175. ConJi)i\i. "What they demand is, a speedy execution of
their wills, so far as they relate to themselves, and to the grievances
which they proposed to redress" (Mason). Some editors adopt
Johnson's conjecture of " consign'd." He explained the amended
passage thus : " Let the execution of our demands be put into our
hands, according to our declared purposes." Malone followed
Johnson, but made " consigned " = "sealed, ratified, confirmed"
(cf. V. ii. 143 below).

176. Our awful banks. "The proper limits of reverence"
(Johnson). For awful ^= filled with awe or reverence, cf. Rich. II.
iii. 3. 76 : "To pay their awful duty to our presence."

187. Consist. Either = stand, rest (as explained by Malone) or
= " insist," which Rowe substituted. Cf. Per. i. 4. 83 : " Welcome
is peace, if he on peace consist." The context (cf. 165 and 184
above) favours the former interpretation.

189. Our valuation. That is, the king's estimate or opinion of us.

191. Alee. Trivial. Cf R. and J. iii. i. 159: "The letter was
not nice, but full of charge."

192. Action. A trisyllable. See on 72 above, and cL partition
in 196 just below.

193. T/iat. So that. See on i. i. 197 above, and cf. 216 below.
Our royal faiths — our faith or fidelity to the king. For the plural,
see on ii. 3. 25 above.

224 Notes [Act IV

196. Partition. Cf. Cymb. i. 6. 37 : —

" and can we not
Partition make with spectacles so precious
'Twixt fair and foul ? "

198. Picking. Petty, insignificant. Schmidt explains it as
"sought industriously (German gesiicht).'" Cf. picked = re.fme.d,
fastidious {^Ham. v. i. 151). Herford makes it = " capricious."

201. Tables. Tablets, note-book. See on ii. 4. 242 above.

203. History. The only instance of the verb in S.

206. Misdoubts. Suspicions. The noun is found again in
2 Hen. VI. iii. i. 332. For occasion, see on 72 above.

208. Plucking, etc. White notes the allusion to the parable of
the tares and the wheat.

211. Hitn on. The pronoun gives "the double effect of the
husband who is implied in the word wife, and the king who was
mentioned at the beginning of the speech."

213. Hangs. That is, suspends it, in a figurative as well as a
literal sense. Cf. T. and C. iv. 5. 188 : —

" When tliou hast hung thy advanced sword i' the air,
Not letting it decline on the declin'd."

Resolv'd correction = the chastisement he has resolved or de-
termined upon. Cf. K.John, ii. i. 585: "a resolv'd and honour-
able war." The meaning of the whole passage is: and checks or
restrains the purposed chastisement in the hand already raised to
execute it. The passage does not strike me as a difficult one, but
Hudson (school ed.) obscures it by the following note : " The
meaning is rather obscure. The antithesis is between correction
and execution. Resolv'd has the sense of assured, a frequent use
of the word in S. In the case supposed, the arm upreared to strike
is sure to be arrested." The antithesis is not between correction
and execution, and resolv'd cannot possibly mean " sure to be

216. That. See on 193 above.

Scene II] Notes 225

219. Offer. Menace, or assail. Cf. i He^i. IV. iv. i. 69: "the
offering side."

221. Atonement. Reconciliation; the only sense in S. Cf.
M. W. i. I. 33 and Rich. III. i. 3. 36.

225. Pleaseth. Cf. iv. 2. 52 below, and see on i. i. 5 above.

Scene II. — l. You are well e7icotmter''d. We are glad to meet

8. An iron man. Hohnshed (see p. 161 above) describes the
archbishop as " clad in armour."

14. Set abroach. Cause; but only in a bad sense. Cf. i'??V//. ///.
i. 3. 325 and R. and J. i. i. iii.

20. Intelligencer. Mediator, agent ; asm Rich. III. u. ^."Ji'. —

" Richard yet lives, hell's black intelligencer,
Only reserv'd their factor, to buy souls
And send them thither."

26. Ta'enup. Levied; as in ii. i. 184 above. For other senses
of the expression, see on i. 2. 41 and i. 3. 73 above.

27. Zeal of God. Pious zeal ; devotion to God's cause.
33. iMisorder'd. Disordered ; used by S. nowhere else.
36. Grief. See on iv. i. 69 above.

39. Whose dangerous eyes, etc. Alluding to the dragon charmed
to rest by the spells of Medea.

45. Supplies. Reserves, reinforcements. See on i. 3. 12 above.
47, Success. Succession. Cf. IV. 7". i. 2. 394 : —

" our parents' noble names,
In whose success we are gentle," etc.

49. Whiles. Used interchangeably with T^////^. ¥ox generation,
see on ind. 26 above.

52. Pleaseth. Let it please. See on i. i. 5 and iii. i. 98 above.
54. Allow. Approve. Malone compares Zmr, ii. 4. 194: —

" if your sweet sway
Allow obedience."

2 HENRY IV — 15

126 Notes [Act IV

The meaning, however, may be, I readily admit or grant them. Cf.
i. 3. 5 above.

56. Mistook. S. uses both mistook and mistaken (or mista'eii)
as the participle. Cf. lien. V. ii. 4. 30 with Id. iii. 6. 85.

61. Discharge your powers. Dismiss your forces. It was West-
moreland, according to Ilolinshed (see p. 162 above), who made
this deceitful proposal, Yox powers, see on iv. i. lo above.

70. Part. Depart ; as often.

79. In very happy season. Cf. J. C. ii. 2. 60 : "in very happy time."

81. Against ill chances men are ever merry. Thus Romeo feels
an unacc7cstomed degree of cheerfulness just before he hears the
news of the death of Juliet. See A", and J. v. i. i fol.

85. Passing. Exceedingly ; used only before adjectives and

93. Otir. Changed by Capell to " your " ; but, as Clarke re-
marks, " it is just one of those fair-sounding proposals that this
perfidious son of tricking Bolingbroke makes ; he proposes to let
the forces on each side march by, that each party may see those
that were to have contended with them, well knowing that no such
thing will take place, having evidently had an understanding with
Westmoreland as to what was to be really done."

94. Peruse. Survey, examine. Cf. Ham. iv. 7. 135: "Will not
peruse the foils," etc.

97. Lie. Occupy the same house or lodgings. Vaughan re-
marks that the same expression occurs rather quaintly in Holin-
shed, who says of Edward Balliol after his expulsion from Scotland,
" After this he went and laie a time with the Lady of Gines, that
was his kinswoman." Cf. iii. 2. 288 above.

109. Attach. Arrest ; as in C. of E. iv. i. 6, 73, iv. 4. 6, Rich.
II. i. 3. 196, etc.

112. Pawn''d. Pledged. <Z{. K. John,\\\. \. ()%: "Have I not
pawn'd to you my majesty ? "

119. Fondly. Foolishly; as in Rich. II. iii. 3. 185, Rich. III.
iii. 7. 147, etc.

Scene III] Notes 227

121. God, and not we, G.\.z. " This sickening hypocrisy of daring
to ascribe to Heaven so glaring an act of treachery and faithless-
ness is thoroughly in keeping with Prince John's cohl-natured and
treacherous character — as inherited from his oily, crafty father"

Johnson remarks : " It cannot but raise some indignation, to find
this horrid violation of faith passed over thus slightly by the poet,
without any note of censure or detestation." Verplanck adds : " In
this indignation most commentators have joined. I do not see
why. Chief-Justice jNIarshall is said to have observed to a prolix
counsel, who had entered upon a demonstration of some familiar
elementary doctrine, that ' he ought to presume that the court
knew something!' Shakespeare always presumes his readers to
have the first principles of morals and human feelings in their
hearts, and does not enter into declamatory demonstration to show
the baseness or guilt of the deeds he represents in his scenes.
Here he portrays the political craft of Bolingbroke and his cold-
blooded son, whom he has thought fit, for his dramatic purpose,
with little warrant from history, to place in contrast with his nobler
brother. He took it for granted that, when Mowbray asks, ' Is
this proceeding just and honourable ? ' his audience would find an
unhesitating and unanimous nega'tive and indignant reply in their
own hearts, without hearing a sermon upon it from the deceived
archbishop, or a lecture from some bystander."

Scene III. — 8. Place. Tyrwhitt proposed to change place in
the next line to " dale ; " but Vaughan says : " In Falstaff's reason-
ing, the major premiss — that is, 'all places deep enough are dales'
— is understood without being expressed; the minor premiss, 'a
dungeon is a place deep enough,' is expressed. From the two
combined follows logically and strictly the conclusion, ' You, being
in a dungeon and of a dungeon, are in a dale and of a dale ! ' "
That Falstaff was a logician we might infer from l Hen, IV. ii. 4.
544 : " I deny your major."

228 Notes [Act IV

15. Observattce. Homage. Cf. AI. W. ii. 2. 203: "a doting
observance," etc.

21. Indifferency. Moderate measure; used again \n K. John,
ii. I. 579. S. does not use indifference.

22. Womb. Used jocosely by Falstaff, but in Old English
equivalent to belly. Wiclit's Bible, in Luke, xv. 16, has, "he
coveted to fill his womb of the cods that the hogs did eat."

24. The heat is past. The race is over ; referring to the pursuit
of " the scattered stray" (iv. 2. 120). Johnson explained heat ^^
" the violence of resentment, the eagerness of revenge." Schmidt
makes heat = " haste, urgency."

31. Chech. Reproof; as often. Cf. the verb in i. 2. 198 and
iii. I. 68 above.

33. Poor and old motioji. " Sir John's wit can make his age as
good a plea here as he made his youth answer the purpose on
another occasion " (Clarke). Cf. i. 2. 175 fol. above.

36. Posts. Post-horses. Clarke remarks : " Falstaff's fine exag-
gerations have so rich an excess that they proclaim their own im-
munity from censure as lies. They at once avow innocence of
intention to deceive ; they are uttered for the pure pleasure of
wit-invention. . . . He never proves his case ; but he so ably
defends his cause that he invariably gains the day. No one can
condemn, though no one acquits him ; he is left unjudged, and
suffered still to go at large, and in triumph — the victor ever."

47. /;/ a particular ballad. According to the fashion in Shake-
speare's time of making important or interesting events of the day
the subjects of ballads. Cf. W. T. iv. 4. 186, 188, 262, 263, etc.

52. The element. The sky. Cf. /. C. i. 3. 128, Lear, iii. i. 4,
etc. Vaughan remarks: "This old signification is still retained
by the folk of South Pembrokeshire. A peasant recently said to
me: 'I thought this morning that we should have rain, for I saw,
as I came along, a weather-gall in the element.' A ' weather-gall '
is a kind of half-rainbow, and is regarded as a sign of wet weather
by the country people."

Scene III] Notes 229

62. Colevile. Here, as in 72 below, the word appears to be a
trisyllable, and it may have been intended to be regularly so. Lines
60 and 6 1 might then be a Une of verse; but they are generally
made prose, as here.

73. Present. See on iv. i. 174 above.

80. My lord, etc. Some editors print this speech as verse, ex-
plaining Falstaff's use of it as due to " the seriousness of the

82. Stand 7ny good lord. Be my kind patron, befriend me. Cf.
ii. I. 63 above.

83. In my condition. " In my official capacity " (Schmidt). It
often means rank or social position ; as in Temp. iii. i. 59, i Hen.
IV. iv. 3. I, etc.

87. A man cannot make him laugh. "A quality deeply dis-
tasteful to Shakespeare, to his finest characters, and to all those
who know how essentially a sense of humour is allied to the finest
sensibilities of humanity. . . . The man who could see and hear
Falstaff unmoved was the very man to coolly order ' those traitors
to the block of death,' after having cheated them by fair-sound-
ing promises — cold, hard, impervious to feeling throughout"

90. Come to any proof. Prove to be worth anything. Cf.
Holinshed, Chron. : " a vehement frost . . . destroyed up all the
seed almost that was sowne, by reason whereof small store of
winter corne came to proof in the summer following."

94. Sherris-sack. Sherry wine ; called simply sherris just be-
low. Sack was "the generic name of Spanish and Canary

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