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wines" (Schmidt). Malone quotes Minsheu, Span. Diet., 1617:
" XSres, or Xeres, oppidum BceticK, i.e. Andalusioe, prope Cadiz,
unde nomen vini de Xeres. A. [Anglice] Xeres sacked Cole, who
m 1679 renders sack "vinum Hispanicum," defines Sherry-sack zs
" vinum Eseritaiium."

Ascends me. The me is the expletive. See on iii. 2. 269 above.
Verplanck thinks that S. here " was indebted to the conversation

230 Notes [Act IV

of his friend Ben Jonson, borrowing this from his tall<, without
meaning that the resemblance went any further." He adds: "It
seems, from lately discovered manuscripts of old Ben's, that he had
precisely this opinion of excellent ' sherris,' in making the brain
' apprehensive, quick, forgetive, full of nimble, fiery, and delectable
shapes,' etc. In an unpublished sort of diary of Ben Jonson's,
preserved at Duluich College, quoted by Ilughson (^History of
London'), he says : ' Mem. I laid the plot of my Volpone, and wrote
most of it, after a present of ten doz. of Paitn sack, from my very

good lord T ; that play, I am positive, will last to posterity,

when I and Envy are friends with applause.' Afterwards he speaks
of his Catiline in a similar way, but adds that he thinks one of liis
scenes flat ; and thereupon resolves to drink no more water with
his wine. The Alchemist and Silent Woman he describes as the
product of much and good wine ; but he adds that his comedy
The Devil is an Ass 'was written when I and my boys drank bad
wine.' "

96. Crudy. Crude, raw; used by S. only here. Crude does
not occur in his works.

97. Forgetive. Inventive, imaginative ; horn forge. The word
is found nowhere else.

102. 7'he liver white, etc. Cf. M. of V. iii. 2. 86 : " How many
cowards . . . have livers white as milk ; " 7'. and C. ii. 2. 50 :
" Make livers pale and lustihood deject," etc. Cf. also lily-livered
{Macb. v. 3. 15, Lear, ii. 2. 18), milk-livered (^L. L. L. iv. 2. 50),
white-livered {//en. V. iii. 2. 34, /\ich. ///. iv. 4. 465), etc.

106. This little kingdom, man. Cf. A'. John, iv. 2. 246 : —

"this fleshly land,
This kingdom, this confine of blood and breath ; "

and see also T. and C. ii. 3. 185,/. C. ii. i. 58, and Macb. i. 3. 140.

108. Muster me. Cf. 94 above.

112. A-work. To work ; used only with set. Cf. R. of L, 1496,
T. and C. v. 10. 38, Ham. ii. 2. 510, and Lear, iii. 5. 8.

Scene IV] Notes 23 1

113. Kept by a devil. Alluding to the old superstition that
mines of gold, etc., were guarded by evil spirits. Steevens quotes
Fenton, Secrete Wonders of Nature, 1569: "There appeare at this
day many strange visions and wicked spirites in the metal-mines of
the Create Turke ; " and again : " In the mine at Anneburg was a
mettal sprite which killed twelve workmen ; the same causing the
rest to forsake the myne, albeit it was very riche."

Commences it and sets in act and use. The critics generally
agree with Tyrwhitt that there is an allusion here " to the Cam-
bridge Commencement s.T\d the Oxford ^<r// for by those different
names the two universities have long distinguished the season at
which each gives to her respective students a complete authority
to use those hoards of learning \vh\ch have entitled them to their
several degrees."

119. Tliat. So Ihat. See on i. I. 197 above. Fertile = ievtWhing.

120. Hniuane. Omitted in the folios. Johnson changed it to
" human." Humane is the only spelling of the word in the early
eds. even when it is equivalent to the modern human, and the
accent in verse is regularly on the first syllable.

127. Tempering. An allusion to the old use of soft wax for
sealing. Steevens quotes Middleton, Any Thing for a Quiet Life :
"You must temper him like wax, or he '11 not seal;" and Your
Five Gallants : " Fetch a pennyworth of soft wax to seal letters."
See also V. ajid A. 565.

Scene IV. — 5. Address'd. Prepared, ready. Cf./. C. iii. i.
29, Af. N. D. v. I. 107, etc. Po-wer= army; as in i. i. 133, i. 3.
29, 71, etc.

6. IVcll invested. Properly installed, or invested with author-
ity. Cf. Macli. ii. 4. 32 : "gone to Scone To be invested."

9. Pause us. The only instance of the reflexive use of the verb


20. Ho'ci) chance, etc. How chances it, etc. Cf. Kich. If. iv. 2.

99. etc.

232 Notes [Act IV

27. Omit. Neglect ; a sense which it has elsewhere (as in
Temp. i. 2. 183, ii. i. 194, Cor. iii. i. 146, etc.), though this is the
only instance w ith a personal object.

30. Observ'd. Treated with due obse7-vance or deference; as in
T. and C. ii. 3. 137, T. of A. iv. 3. 212, etc.

33. Being iticens V, he ^s flint. " If any thing be done to pro-
voke him, he breaks out in angry and transient sparks like a flint"
(Vaughan). Cf. _/. C. iv. 3. in : "That carries anger as the flint
bears fire."

34. Humorous. Wayward, capricious. Cf. A. Y. L. i. 2. 278,
ii. 3. 8, etc. The simile as winter would seem natural enough in
New England, but is not so appropriate in Old England. Malone
suggests \\\2X htimoroiis may jje used equivocally: "he abounds in
capricious fancies, as winter abounds in moisture." "As humor-
ous as April" (cf. T. G. of V. i. 3. 85) occurs in The Silent
Woman and elsewhere.

35. As flaws congealed, etc. " Alluding to the opinion of some
philosophers that the vapours being congealed in the air by cold
(which is most intense towards the morning), and being after-
wards rarefied and let loose by the warmth of the sun, occasion
those sudden and impetuous gusts of wind which are C3.\\c([ flaws"
(Warburton). Edwards says ih^i flaw sometimes means a blade
of ice seen on edges of water in winter mornings ; and Dyce adds
that he has heard the word similarly used. S. may use the word
in this sense.

39. Being moody. When he is out of humour.
41. Confound. Exhaust. It often means to wear away or de-

44. The imited vessel of their blood. The vessel of their united
blood. Such transposition of epithets in S. is.not uncommon.

45. Mingled with venom of suggestion. Malone makes this =
" though their blood be inflamed by the temptations to which youth
is peculiarly subject." I am inclined to agree with Vaughan, who
says : " The whole tenor of the king's address to Clarence is that

Scene IV] Notes 233

of an exhortation to keep the brotherhood of the princes free from
fatal dissensions. Youthful temptations under any point of view
are not alluded to." He interprets the passage thus : "even al-
though that blood shall be mingled with the venomous infusion of
all such provocatives of discord as the persons and circumstances
of the age in which we live are certain to pour into it despite of
every precaution, and although, further, that infusion work like
aconite or gunpowder."

46. Force perforce. See on iv. i . 116 above.

48. Aconituin. Aconite. The Latin form is the one regularly
used by writers of the time. Steevens cites Hey wood, Brazen Age,
1613: "With aconitum that in Tartar springs," etc. I\ash =
quickly ignited ; as in Kick. II. ii. i. t^t, : " His rash fierce blaze of
riot cannot last ; " and I Hen. IV. iii. 2. 61 : "rash, bavin wits,
Soon kindled and soon burnt."

53. And other his. Cf. M. IV. ii. 2. 259 : "and a thousand other
her defences ; " and Lear, i. 4. 259 : " Of other your new pranks."

64. Lavish. Loose, licentious.

65. Affections. Propensities, inclinations. Cf. R. and J. i. i.
118, Ham. iii. i. 170, etc.

67. You look beyond him. You misjudge or misconstrue him.
Schmidt compares Ham. ii. i. 115 : "To cast beyond ourselves in
our opinions." The idea seems to be that of " overshooting the
mark " in our estimate.

74. Perfectness. The word occurs again in L. L. L. v. 2. 173 :
" Is this your perfectness ? "

79. Seldom when. Seldom that. Cf. M. for M. iv. 2. 89 : —

" This is a gentle provost ; seldom when
The steeled jailer is the friend of men."

Johnson paraphrases the passage thus : " as the bee, having once
placed her comb in a carcase, stays by her honey, so he that has
once taken pleasure in bad company will continue to associate with
those that have the art of pleasing him."

234 Notes [Act IV

90. In his pa7-ticular. In its detail.

92. l^he haunch. The latter part, the close.

loi. Please it you. May it please you. See on i. i. 5 and on ill.
I. 98 above.

105. Stomach. Appetite. Cf. Much Ado, i. 3. 16, M. of V. iii.
5. 92, etc.

119. Hath wrought the inure. Hath worn the wall. The past
tense of work is regularly wrought in S. The " workcnl " in T. of
A. V. I. 116 is "an inadmissible substitution of modern editors"
(Schmidt). Mure (Lat. iiiurus) is used by S. nowhere else.
Steevens cites, among other examples of the word, Heywood,
Golden Age, 1611 : "Girt with a triple mure of shining brass."
We find the verb (= shut up) in Spenser, F. Q. vi. 12. 34 : —

" he looke a muzzel strong
Of surest yron, made with many a lincke:
Therewith he mured up his mouth along,
And therein shut up his blasphemous tong."

The same thought occurs in Daniel's Ci7Jil Wars, book iv., refer-
ring, as here, to the sickness of Henry IV. : —

" As that the walls worn thin permit the mind
To look out thorow, and his frailtie find."

The first four books of the Civil PVars were printed in 1595, and
S. had probably read them. In the tirst ed. the lines read : —

" Wearing the walls so thin, that now the mind
Might well look thorough, and his frailty find."

His here = its, referring to wall, not to mind (Malone).

121. Fear me. Make me fear, alarm me. -Cf. T. of S. i. 2. 211 :
" Fear boys with bugs," etc.

122. Loathly. Loathsome. Cf. Femp. iv. i. 21 : "weeds so
loathly." In 0th. iii. 4. 62, the ist quarto has " loathly," the other
early eds. " loathed,"

Scene V] Notes 235

Uitfaiher\i heirs = creatures supposed to be born without pro-
genitors ; and loathly births of nature = unnatural births, monstrosi-
ties. According to Staunton, the unfathe7-'' d heirs were certain
so-called prophets, who pretended to have been conceived by
miracle, like Merlin. Cf. Spenser, F. Q. iii. 3. 13 : —

" And, sooth, men say that he was not the Sonne
Of mortall Syre or other living wight,
But wondrously begotten, and begonne
By false ilhision of a guilefull Spright
On a faire Lady Nonne, that whilome hight
Matilda, daughter to Pubidius,
Who was the lord of Mathraval by right,
And coosen unto King Ambrosius ;
Whence he indued was with skill so merveilous."

See also Montaigne, Essays : " In Mahouiefs religion, by the easie
beleefe of that people, are many Merlins found ; That is to say,
fatherles children ; Spiritual children, conceived and borne devinely
in the wombs of virgins," etc.

123. The seasons change their manners, etc. Cf. J\f. N. D. ii. i.
106-114. As — as if.

125. The river, etc. Referring to the tides in the Thames. Cf.
ii. 3. 63 above. Steevens remarks : "This is historically true; it
happened on the 12th of October, 1411."

128. Sick'd. The only instance of the verb in S.

132. Exeunt. Omitted in ist Cambridge edition. See next

Scene V, — There is no new scene here in the early eds., and
the modern ones generally follow Capell in directing that the king
be " conveyed into an inner part of the room and laid upon a bed."
Dyce has the following stage-direction : " They place the King on
a bed ; a change of scene being supposed here." In a note he says :
"The audience of Shakespeare's time were to suppose that a change
of scene took place as soon as the king was laid on the bed."


Notes [Act IV

The Cambridge editors, who begin a new scene here, remark :
"Capell's stage-direction is not satisfactory, for it implies a change
of scene, though none is indicated in the text. The king's couch
would not be placed in a recess at the back of the stage, because
he has to make speeches from it of considerable length. He must
therefore be lying in front of the stage, where he could be seen and
heard by the audience." To my mind it is perfectly clear that the
king is now carried to another room. At the close of the scene
(see 233 below) he asks what was the name of the chamber in
which he "first did swoon " (see iv. 4. no above), and, being told
that it is the Jerusalem Chamber, he asks to be borne to it ; but if
there is no change of scene here, he is already in the Jerusalem
Chamber. No commentator, so far as I am aware, refers to this.
The Jerusalem Chamber is not a bedroom. The king is holding a
council there when he swoons ; and when he asks to be taken to
"some other chamber" (that is, to a bedroom), he is of course
obeyed, and the scene shifts to that chamber, where he remains
until he asks to be borne back to the Jerusalem Chamber, on
account of the prophecy concerning his death.

2. Dull. " Gentle, soothing " (Johnson) ; or rather, as Malone
and Schmidt give it, " producing dulness, disposing to sleep." Cf.
the use of dull — drowsy, in iii. i. 15 above. So dulness = drowsi-
ness in Temp. i. 2. 185.

24. Ports. Portals, gates; as in T. and C. iv, 4, 113, 138, Cor.
i. 7. I, v. 6. 6, etc.

27. Biggen. Nightcap. The word properly means a coarse
headband or cap like that worn by the Bcguines, an order of Flem-
ish nuns. Cf. Jonson, \''olpone : " Get you a biggin more, your
brain breaks loose."

31. With safety. That is, while it gives safety or protects from

2,2), Suspire. Breathe ; used by S, only here and in K. Jokuy
iii. 4. 80.

34. Perforce. Of necessity. See on i. I, 165 above.

Scene V] Notes 237

36. Rigol. Circle; a word found _only here and in R. of L.
1745: "a watery rigol." It is from the old Italian rigolo, a small


42. Immediate. Next in place. Cf. v. 2. 71 below. See also
Ham. i. 2. 109: "You are the most immediate to our throne."

64. Part. "Characteristic action" (Schmidt).

71. Eugross'ii. Amassed. Cf. i Hen. IV.m. z. i\^: "To en-
gross up glorious deeds on my behalf."

72. Strange-achieved. " Gained and yet not enjoyed " (Schmidt).
The hyphen is in the folio. Strange-achieved ma.y be = gained in
foreign lands. In canker'd the metaphor is taken from rust or
corrosion, and perhaps suggests the idea of disuse, like that of the
miser. Some make it = polluted.

76. Virtuous. Powerful (Schmidt) ; or perhaps = characteris-
tic. Cf. M. N. D. iii. 2. 367 : " Whose hquor hath this virtuous
property," etc.

79. Murthered. The folio reading ; not " murther'd."

80. Yield his engrossments. Do his accumulations yield.

82. Determined. Put an end to. Cf. the intransitive use (= end)
in Cor. iii. 3. 43, v. 3. 120, etc.

84. Kindly. Natural, "not feigned" (Schmidt). Cf. Much
Ado, iv. I. 75 : "fatherly and kindly power," etc.

87. By. As a consequence of.

91. Depart the chamber. Cf. Lear, iii. 5. I : "ere I depart his

house," etc.

94. By thee. " In thy opinion " (Schmidt) ; but by may be =

near or with.

104, SeaPd up. Confirmed fully. The up has an intensive

force, as often.

108. Which thou hast whetted, etc. Cf. M. of V. iv. I. 123 : —

" Not on thy sole, but on thy soul, harsh Jew,
Thou mak'st thy knife keen."

115. Balm. Referring to the anointing-oil used in the cere-


Notes [Act IV

niony of coronation. Cf. lien. V, iv. I. 277: "The balm, the
sceptre," etc.

129. Gild his treble guilt. Pope omitted this line, ami Warlnir-
ton declared it to be " evidently the nonsense of some fot)lish
player;" but compare Rich. II. ii. I. 73 fol. where tlie dying
Gaunt plays upon his name: "Old Gaunt indeed, and gaunt
in being old," etc. King Richard asks, " Can sick men play so
nicely with their names ? " and Coleridge answers the question
thus : " Ves ! on a death-bed there is a feeling which may make all
things appear but as puns and equivocations. And a passion there
is that carries off its own excess by plays on words as naturally, and,
therefore, as appropriately to drama, as by gesticulations, looks, or
tones. This belongs to human nature as such, independently of
associations and habits from any particular rank of life or mode
of employment ; and in this consists Shakespeare's vulgarisms, as
in Macbeth's 'The devil damn thee black, thou cream-fac'd loon ! '
etc. This is (to equivocate on Dante's words) in truth the nobile
volgare eloquenza. Indeed, it is profoundly true that there is a
natural, an almost irresistible, tendency in the mind, when im
mersed in one strong feeling, to coimect that feeling with every
sight and object around it; especially if there be opposition, and
the words addressed to it are in any way repugnant to the feeling
itself, as here in the instance of Richard's unkind language : ' Misery
makes sport to mock itself.'

"No doubt, something of Shakespeare's punning must be attrib-
uted to his age, in which direct and formal combats of wit were a
favourite pastime of the courtly and accomplished. It was an
age more favourable, upon the whole, to vigour of intellect than the
present, in which a dread of being thought pedantic dispirits and
flattens the energies of original minds. But independently of this,
I have no hesitation in saying that a pun, if it be congruous with
the feeling of the scene, is not only allowable in the dramatic dia-
logue, but oftentimes one of the most effectual intensives of passion."

For the play on guilt, cf Hen. J\ ii. chor. 26: "the gilt of

Scene V] Notes 239

France — O guilt indeed!" Malone quotes Nicholson, Acolasius
his Afterioit, 1600 : —

" O sacred thirst of golde, what canst thou not ?
Some terms \h&e.gylt, that every soule might reade,
Even in thy name, \hy guilt is great indeede."

141. Dear. Earnest. Cf. T. and C. v. 3. 9 : "loud and clear
petition," etc.

145. Affect. Desire, aspire to. Cf. Cor. iii. 3. i : " affects ty-
rannical power ; " Id. iv. 6. 32 : " affecting one sole throne," etc.

149. Teacheth. Prompts me to ; this prostrate and exterior
bending being in apposition with obedience, which is = obeisance

162. Carat. Here used in the modern sense as expressing the
degree of fineness in the gold; but in the only other instance in
which it occurs in S. it seems to express absolute weight. See
C. of E. iv. I. 28: "How much your chain weighs to the utmost

163. Medicine potable. Alluding to the auriini potabile, or pota-
ble gold, of the alchemists. Johnson remarl^s : " There has long
prevailed an opinion that a solution of gold has great medicinal
virtues, and that the incorruptibility of gold might be communicated
to the body impregnated with it." Cf. Chaucer, C. T. 443 : " For
gold in phisik is a cordial."

186. Met. Got, gained.

194. Assistances. For the plural see on iv. i. 193 above,

196. Supposed. That is, supposed to exist, " imaginary, not real "
(Johnson). Fears = causes or objects of fear. See on i. i. 95

200. Mode. "Th^for/n or state of things " (Johnson) ; the only
instance of the word in S. Purchased; " used in its legal sense,
acquired by a man's cwn act (perquisitio) as opposed to an acquisi-
tion by descent" (Malone). Cf. A. and C. i. 4. 14: —

" hereditary,
Rather than purchased."

240 Notes [Act IV

201. More fairer. See on iii. i. 28 above.

202. Successively. " By order of succession. Every usurper
snatches a claim of hereditary right as soon as he can" (Johnson).
Garland = crown ; as in v. 2. 84.

204. Griefs are green. Grievances are fresh; referring to the
recent rebellion. Vor griefs, see on iv. i. 69 above.

205. My friends. The early eds. have " thy friends." The
correction was suggested by Tyrwhitt. Perhaps Clarke is right in
retaining the old reading. " By the first thy friends the king means
those who are friendly inclined to the prince, and who, he goes on
to say, must be made securely friends."

208. By whose power. This of course modifies displac'd.

214. Giddy. " Hot-brained, excitable " (Schmidt) ; or, perhaps,
unsteady, unsettled.

2ig. H01V I came by the cro7vn, &X.C. "This is a true picture of a
mind divided between heaven and earth. He prays for the pros-
perity of guilt while he deprecates its punishment" (Johnson).

233. Doth any na>?ie, etc. See the extract from Holinshed,
p. 169 above. Steevens notes that a similar equivocal prediction
occurs also in the Cronykil of Androiv of Wyniown. Pope
Sylvester, having sold himself to the devil, is told that he shall live
to enjoy his honours until he sees Jerusalem. Soon afterwards his
duties call him into a church which he had never visited before;
and on his inquiring what the church is called, he is told that it is
" Jerusalem in Vy Laterane." Thereupon the prophecy is com-
pleted by his death. Boswell adds that the same story of Pope
Sylvester is told in Lodge's Devil Conjured, where, however, his
holiness manages to outwit the devil.

The Jerusalem Chamber, which adjoins the southwest tower of
Westminster Abbey, was built by Abbot Littlington between 1376
and 1386 as a guest-chamber, and probably"derived its name from
the tapestries of the history of Jerusalem with which it was after-
wards hung. Later it was used as a council-chamber (see p. 236
above), as it now is for the meetings of Convocation. The West-

Scene I] Notes 241

minster Assembly met here in 1643, having found the Chapel of
Henry VII. too cold. The existing decorations of the room are
of the time of James I., but the stained glass is older.


Scene I. — i. By cock and pie. A petty oath in common use
in the time of S. It occurs again in M. W. i. i. 316. Cock is
probably a corruption of God, as in Cock's passion {T. of S. iv. I.
121), Cock's body. Cock's ivoiinds, and many similar oaths found in
the plays of that day. The pie may refer to the Romish service-
book, which vk'as sometimes so called ; the word being more prop-
erly applied to a table or index in the book for finding out the
service to be read upon each day. In the preface to the English
Prayer-Book, this table is referred to as follows : " Moreover the
number and hardness of the rules called the Fie and the manifold
changes," etc. On the other hand. The Cock and Pie (with pic-
tures of the cock and the magpie) was a common sign for taverns
and alehouses. Blakeway gives an engraving of one at Bewdley.
Boswell quotes A Caiechisine by George Giffard, 1583, which seems
to show that cock and pie referred only to the birds or to the tavern-
sign : " Men suppose that they do not offende when they do not
sweare falsly ; and because they will not take the name of God to
abuse it, they sware by small ihinges, as by cocke and pye, by the
mouse foote, and many other suche like." Uouce endeavours to
prove that the oath had its origin in the grand feasts of the days
of chivalry, when a xoz.'sXe.A peacock was presented to each knight,
who then made the particular vow he had chosen. When this
custom had fallen into disuse, the peacock still continued to be a
favourite dish at the feast, and was served up in 2. pie. "The rec-
ollection of the old peacock vows might occasion the less serious,
or even burlesque, imitation of swearing not only by the bird itself,
but also by the pie." Even if the oath referred at first to God and

2 HENRY IV — 16

242 Notes [Act V

the service-book, this was doubtless forgotten in Shakespeare's
time (like the connection of i/iarry ! with the Virgin Mary), and
the cock and the pie came to be associated in the popular mind
with the birds. Not a few such " illusive etymologies " have found
pictorial illustration in the old tavern-signs.

II. IVilliam cook. Cf. i lien. IV. ii. I. 12: "since Robin
ostler died."

14. Precepts. "Justice's warrants" (Johnson). Cf. Hen. V.
iii. 3. 26: —

" As send precepts to the leviathan
To come ashore."

17. With red ivheat. Vaughan remarks: "This accords with
an old practice of sowing a later wheat on the headland than in
the rest of the field, because the headland, being used for turning
the plough, naturally came into condition for sowing later than the
rest of the field. It is still common in some parts to see red wheat
— that is, a spring wheat — on the headland, together with white
wheat — that is, winter wheat — in the field,"

21. Cast. Computed. Cf. i. i. 166 above.

26. Hinckley. A market-town in Leicestershire.

29. Kickshaws. We find kickshawses in T. N. i. 3. 1 22, the only
other instance of the word in S.

31. A friend /' co7irt, etc. Malone remarks that "A friend in
court is worth a penny in purse " is one of Camden's proverbial
sentences. Dr. Grey cites The Romaunt of the Rose, 5540: —

" For frende in courte aie better is
Than peny is in purse, certis."

37. Well conceited. A happy conceit ! " Justice Shallow ap-
plauds his servingman's grinning jest with the same expression that
Nym uses when he says, ' Is not the humour conceited?' in M. W.

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