William Shakespeare.

The dramatic works of William Shakspeare... embracing a life of the poet, and notes, original and selected (Volume 4) online

. (page 31 of 38)
Online LibraryWilliam ShakespeareThe dramatic works of William Shakspeare... embracing a life of the poet, and notes, original and selected (Volume 4) → online text (page 31 of 38)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

Forces, at one side ; at the other, with Forces also,
Old CLIFFORD and his Son.

* See, where they come ; I ll warrant they ll make it


* Q. Mar. And here comes Clifford, to deny their


4 Clif. Health and all happiness to my lord the king!

c York. I thank thee, Clifford. Say, what news

with thee?

Nay, do not fright us with an angry look :
We are thy sovereign, Clifford ; kneel again ;
For thy mistaking so, we pardon thee.


4 Clif. This is my king, York ; I do not mistake ;
But thou mistak st me much, to think I do.
To Bedlam 1 with him! Is the man grown mad?

K. Hen. Ay, Clifford; a bedlam and ambitious

Makes him oppose himself against his king.

Clif. He is a traitor ; let him to the Tower,
c And chop away that factious pate of his.

Q. Mar. He is arrested, but will not obey ;
His sons, he says, shall give their words for him.

York. Will you not, sons ?

Edw. Ay, noble father, if our words will serve.

4 Rich. And if words will not, then our weapons

* Clif. Why, what a brood of traitors have we here !

* York. Look in a glass, and call thy image so ;

* I am thy king, and thou a false -heart traitor.
i Call hither to the stake my two brave bears, 2

* That, with the very shaking of their chains,

* They may astonish these fell lurking curs.
*Bid Salisbury, and Warwick, come to me.

Drums. Enter WARWICK and SALISBURY, with Forces.

4 Clif. Are these thy bears ? we ll bait thy bears to


4 And manacle the bcarward in their chains,
If thou dar st bring them to the baiting-place.

* Rich. Oft have I seen a hot, o erweening cur

* Run back and bite, because he was withheld ;
*Who, being suffered with the bear s fell paw,

1 This has been thought an anachronism ; but Stowe shows that it is
not : " Next unto the parish of St. Buttolph is a fay re inne for receipt of
travellers ; then an liospitall of S. Mary of Bethlehem, founded by Simon
Fitz-Mary, one of the Sheriffes of London, in the yeare 1240. He founded
it to have beene a priorie of cannons with brethren and sisters, and king
Edward the Thirde granted a protection, which I have scene, for the
brethren Milicite beata Marife de Bcthlem, within the citie of London, the
1 4th yeare of his raigne. It teas an liospiiall for distracted people. 1 Sur
vey of London, p. 127, 1598.

2 The Nevils, earls of Warwick, had a bear and ragged staff for their


* Hath clapped his tail between his legs, and cried.

* And such a piece of service will you do,

* If you oppose yourselves to match lord Warwick.

* Clif. Hence, heap of wrath, foul, indigested


* As crooked in thy manners as thy shape !

* York. Nay, we shall heat you thoroughly anon.

* Clif. Take heed, lest by your heat you burn your


* K. Hen. Why, Warwick, hath thy knee forgot to


* Old Salisbury, shame to thy silver hair,

* Thou mad misleader of thy brain-sick son !

* What, wilt thou on thy death-bed play the ruffian,

* And seek for sorrow with thy spectacles ?

* O, where is faith ? O, where is loyalty ?

* If it be banished from the frosty head,

* Where shall it find a harbor in the earth ?

* Wilt thou go dig a grave to find out war,

* And shame thine honorable age with blood ?

* Why art thou old, and want st experience ?

* Or wherefore dost abuse it, if thou hast it ?

* For shame ! in duty bend thy knee to me,

* That bows unto the grave with mickle age.

* Sal. My lord, I have considered with myself

* The title of this most renowned duke ;

* And in my conscience do repute his grace

* The rightful heir to England s royal seat.

* K. Hen. Hast thou not sworn allegiance unto me ?

* Sal. I have.

* K. Hen. Canst thou dispense with Heaven for

such an oath ?

* Sal. It is great sin, to swear unto a sin ;
*But greater sin, to keep a sinful oath.

* Who can be bound by any solemn vow

* To do a murderous deed, to rob a man,
To force a spotless virgin s chastity,

* To reave the orphan of his patrimony,

* To wring the widow from her customed right ;

VOL. iv. 54


* And have no other reason for this wrong,
*But that he was bound by a solemn oath ?

* Q. Mar. A subtle traitor needs no sophister.

i K. Hen. Call Buckingham, and bid him arm him

York. Call Buckingham and all the friends thou

i I am resolved for death or dignity.

Clif. The first, I warrant thee, if dreams prove true.

4 War. You were best to go to bed, and dream

To keep thee from the tempest of the field.

Clif. I am resolved to bear a greater storm,
Than any thou canst conjure up to-day ;
And that I ll write upon thy burgonet, 1
Might I but know thee by thy household badge.

War. Now, by my father s badge, old Nevil s


The rampant bear chained to the ragged staff,
This day I ll wear aloft my burgonet,
(As on a mountain top the cedar shows,
That keeps his leaves in spite of any storm,)
Even to affright thee with the view thereof.

Clif. And from thy burgonet I ll rend thy bear,
And tread it under foot with all contempt,
Despite the bearward that protects the bear.

t Y. Clif. And so to arms, victorious father,
i To quell the rebels, and their complices.

Rich. Fie ! charity, for shame ! speak not in spite,
For you shall sup with Jesu Christ to-night.

Y. Clif. Foul stigmatic, 2 that s more than thou
canst tell.

Rich. If not in heaven, you ll surely sup in hell.

[Exeunt severally.

1 A burgonet is a helmet ; a Burgundian s steel cap or casque.

2 One on whom nature has set a mark of deformity, a stigma. It was,
originally and properly, " a person who had been branded with a hot iron
for some crime."


SCENE II. Saint Albans.

Alarums: Excursions. Enter WARWICK.

War. Clifford of Cumberland, tis Warwick calls !
And if thou dost not hide thee from the bear,
Now, when the angry trumpet sounds alarm,
And dead men s cries do fill the empty air,
Clifford, I say, come forth and fight with me !
Proud northern lord, Clifford of Cumberland.
Warwick is hoarse with calling thee to arms.

Enter YORK.

{ How now, my noble lord ? what, all afoot ?

c York. The deadly-handed Clifford slew my
steed ;

< But match to match I have encountered him,

< And made a prey for carrion kites and crows

< Even of the bonny beast he loved so well.


< War. Of one or both of us the time is come.
York. Hold, Warwick, seek thee out some other

For I myself must hunt this deer to death.

War. Then, nobly, York; tis for a crown thou

fight st.

As I intend, Clifford, to thrive to-day.
It grieves my soul to leave thee unassailed.

Clif. What seest thou in me, York ? why dost

thou pause ?

1 York. With thy brave bearing should I be in

< But that thou art so fast mine enemy.


Clif. Nor should thj prowess want praise and

* But that tis shown ignobly, and in treason.

York. So let it help me now against thy sword,
As I in justice and true right express it !

Clif. My soul and body on the action both !
York. A dreadful lay ! * address thee instantly.

[They fight, and CLIFFORD falls.
4 Clif. La fin couronne les ceuvres. [Dies. 2

York. Thus war hath given thee peace, for thou

art still.
6 Peace with his soul, Heaven, if it be thy will ! [Exit.

Enter Young CLIFFORD.

* Y. Clif. Shame and confusion ! all is on the

* Fear frames disorder, and disorder wounds

* Where it should guard. O war, thou son of hell,
*Whom angry Heavens do make their minister,

* Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part

* Hot coals of vengeance ! Let no soldier fly :

* He that is truly dedicate to war,

* Hath no self-love ; nor he, that loves himself,

* Hath not essentially, but by circumstance,

* The name of valor. O, let the vile world end,

[Seeing his dead father.

1 A dreadful wager.

2 The author, in making Clifford fall by the hand of York, has departed
from the truth of history, a practice not uncommon with him when he
does his utmost to make his characters considerable. This circumstance,
however, serves to prepare the reader or spectator for the vengeance after
wards taken by Clifford s son on York and Rutland. At the beginning
of the third part of this drama, the Poet has forgot this circumstance, and
there represents Clifford s death as it really happened :

Lord Clifford, and lord Stafford, all abreast,
Charged our main battle s front, and breaking in,
Were by the swords of common soldiers slain."

These lines were adopted by Shakspeare from The True Tragedy of
Richard Duke of York, upon which the Third Part of King Henry VI.
is founded.


* And the piemised l flames of the last day

* Knit earth and heaven together !

* Now let the general trumpet blow his blast,

* Particularities and petty sounds

* To cease ! 2 Wast thou ordained, dear father,

* To lose thy youth in peace, and to achieve

* The silver livery of advised age ;

* And, in thy reverence, and thy chair-days, thus

* To die in ruffian battle ? Even at this sight,

* My heart is turned to stone ; and, while tis mine,

* It shall be stony. York not our old men spares ;

* No more will I their babes : tears virginal

* Shall be to me even as the dew to fire ;

* And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims,

* Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax.

* Henceforth I will not have to do with pity :
*Meet I an infant of the house of York,

* Into as many gobbets will I cut it,

* As wild Medea young Absyrtus did :

* In cruelty will I seek out my fame.

Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford s house.

[Taking up the body.
1 As did jEneas old Anchises bear,
1 So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders ;
*But then jEneas bare a living load,

* Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. [Exit.

and SOMERSET is killed.

Rich. So, lie thou there ;
4 For underneath an alehouse paltry sign,
The castle in Saint Albans, Somerset
Hath made the wizard famous in his death. 3

1 Premised is sent before their time.
2 To cease is to stop ; a verb active.

3 The death of Somerset here accomplishes that equivocal prediction
of Jourdain, the witch, in the first act.


* Sword, hold thy temper ; heart, be wrathful still ;

* Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit.

Alarums: Excursions. Enter KING HENRY, QUEEN
MARGARET, and others, retreating.

Q. Mar. Away, my lord ! you are slow ; for shame,
away !

* K. Hen. Can we outrun the heavens ? good Mar

garet, stay.

* Q. Mar. What are you made of ? you ll not fight,

nor fly.

* Now is it manhood, wisdom, and defence,

* To give the enemy way ; and to secure us
*By what we can, which can no more but fly.

[Alarum afar off

* If you be ta en, we then should see the bottom

* Of all our fortunes ; but if we haply scape,

* (As well we may, if not through your neglect,)

* We shall to London get, where you are loved ;

* And where this breach, now in our fortunes made,

* May readily be stopped.

Enter Young CLIFFORD.

* Y. Clif. But that my heart s on future mischief

* I would speak blasphemy ere bid you fly ;
*But fly you must; uncurable discomfit

* Reigns in the hearts of all our present parts. 1

* Away, for your relief ! and we will live

* To see their day, and them our fortune give.

* Away, my lord, away ! [Exeunt.

1 Parts may stand for parties ; it may be also an error for party.



SCENE III. Fields near Saint Albans.

Alarum : Retreat. Flourish ; then enter YORK, RICH
ARD PLANTAGENET, WARWICK, and Soldiers, with
drum and colors.

i York. Of Salisbury, who can report of him ;

* That winter lion, who, in rage, forgets

* Aged contusions and all brush of time ; 1

* And, like a gallant in the brow of youth, 2

* Repairs him with occasion ? This happy day

* Is not itself, nor have we won one foot,

* If Salisbury be lost.

1 Rich. My noble father

Three times to-day I holp him to his horse,
4 Three times bestrid him, thrice I led him off,
4 Persuaded him from any further act ;
But still, where danger was, still there I met him ;

* And like rich hangings in a homely house,

* So was his will in his old feeble body.

* But, noble as he is, look where he comes.


* Sal. Now, by my sword, well hast thou fought

to-day ;

1 By the mass, so did we all. I thank you, Richard.
God knows how long it is I have to live ;
1 And it hath pleased him that three times to-day
You have defended me from imminent death.

* Well, lords, we have not got that which we have ; 3

* Tis not enough our foes are this time fled,

* Being opposites of such repairing nature.

1 Warburton would substitute "all bruise of time;" but, as Steevens
observes, the brush of time " is the gradual detrition of time.

2 i. e. the height of youth ; the brow of a hill is its summit.

3 i. e. we have not secured that which we have acauired.


6 York. I know our safety is to follow them ;

< For, as I hear, the king is fled to London,
; To call a present court of parliament.

4 Let us pursue him, ere the writs go forth.

< What says lord Warwick ? shall we after them ?

War. After them ! nay, before them, if we can.
Now, by my faith, lords, twas a glorious day ;
Saint Albans battle won by famous York,
Shall be eternized in all age to come.
Sound, drums and trumpets, and to London all ;
And more such days as these to us befall ! [Exeunt*






THE action of this play opens just after the first battle of St. Albans
[May 23, 1455], wherein the York faction carried the day ; and closes with
the murder of king Henry VI. and the birth of prince Edward, afterwards
king Edward V. [November 4, 1471]. So that this history takes in the
space of full sixteen years.

The title of the old play, which Shakspeare altered and improved, is,
" The True Tragedie of Richard Duke of Yorke, and the Death of good
King Kenry the Sixth: with the whole Contention between the Two
Houses of Lancaster and Yorke : as it was sundrie times acted by the
Right Honourable the Earle of Pembroke his Servants. Printed at Lon
don by P. S. for Thomas Millington, and are to be solde at his Shoppe
under St. Peter s Church in Cornewal, 1595." There was another edition
in 1600, by the same publisher ; and it was reproduced with the name of
Shakspeare on the title page, printed by T. P. no date, but ascertained to
have been printed in 1619.

The present historical drama was altered by Crown, and brought on
the stage in 1680, under the title of The Miseries of Civil War. Surely
the works of Shakspeare could have been little read at that period ; for
Crown, in his prologue, declares the play to be entirely his own compo
sition :

" For by his feeble skill tis built alone,

The divine Shakspeare did not lay one stone"

Whereas the very first scene is that of Jack Cade, copied almost verbatim
from the Second Part of King Henry VI., and several others from this
Third Part, with as little variation.

* This play is only divided from the former for the convenience of exhibition ; for the
series of action is continued without interruption, nor are any two scenes of any play more
closely connected than the first scene of this play with the last of the former. Johnson.

VOL. iv. 55




EDWARD, Prince of Wales, his Son.

LEWIS XL King of France.

Duke of Somerset,

Duke of Exeter,

Earl of Oxford,

Earl of Northumberland,

Lords on King Henry s side.

Earl of Westmoreland,



EDWARD, Earl of March, afterwards King

Edward IV.

GEORGE, afterwards Duke of Clarence, \his Sons.
RICHARD, afterwards Duke o/ Glocester,
EDMUND, Earl of Rutland,
Duke of Nor folk,
Marquis of Montague,

Earl of Warwick, f f ^ fe f York>s p
JLarl of Pembroke, / ~

SIR JOHN MORTIMER, ) TT , ., ^ , / v i

ci TI TVT } Uncles to the Duke of York.


HENRY, Earl of Richmond, a Youth.

Rutland. Mayor of York. Lieutenant of the Tower. A
Nobleman. Two Keepers. A Huntsman. A Son that has
killed his Father. A Father that has killed his Son.


LADY GREY, afterwards Q,ucen to Edward IV.

BONA, Sister to the French Queen.

Soldiers, and other Attendants on King Henry and King Edward,
Messengers, Watchmen, fyc.

SCENE, during part of the third act, in France ; during all the,
rest of the play, in England.





SCENE I. London. The Parliament House.

Drums. Some Soldiers of York s party break in.
Then, enter the DUKE of YORK, EDWARD, RICHARD,
NORFOLK, MONTAGUE, WARWICK, and others, with
white roses in their hats.

War. 1 WONDER how the king escaped our hands.

York. While we pursued the horsemen of the north,
He slyly stole away, and left his men ;
Whereat the great lord of Northumberland,
Whose warlike ears could never brook retreat,
4 Cheered up the drooping army ; and himself,
4 Lord Clifford, and lord Stafford, all abreast,
; Charged our main battle s front ; and, breaking in,
4 Were by the swords of common soldiers slain. 1

Edw. Lord Stafford s father, duke of Buckingham,
Is either slain, or wounded dangerous.
I cleft his beaver with a downright blow ;
4 That this is true, father, behold his blood.

[Showing his bloody sword.

Mont. And, brother, here s the earl of Wiltshire s
blood, [Tb YORK, showing his.

Whom I encountered as the battles joined.

1 See the former play. Shakspeare has fallen into this inconsistency
by following the old plays in the construction of these dramas.


Rich. Speak thou for me, and tell them what I did. 1
[Throwing down the DUKE of SOMERSET S

* York. Richard hath best deserved of all my

What, is your grace dead, my lord of Somerset ?

Norf. Such hope have all the line of John of Gaunt!

Rich. Thus do I hope to shake king Henry s head.

War. And so do I. Victorious prince of York,
Before I see thee seated in that throne
Which now the house of Lancaster usurps,
I vow by Heaven, these eyes shall never close.
This is the palace of the fearful king,
4 And this the regal seat : possess it, York ;
For this is thine, and not king Henry s heirs .

York. Assist me then, sweet Warwick, and I will ;
4 For hither we have broken in by force.

Norf. We ll all assist you ; he that flies shall die.

York. Thanks, gentle Norfolk. Stay by me, my

lords ;
4 And, soldiers, stay, and lodge by me this night.

War. And, when the king comes, offer him no vio
Unless he seek to thrust you out by force.

[ They retire.

* York. The queen, this day, here holds her parlia


* But little thinks we shall be of her council.
*By words or blows here let us win our right.

Rich. Armed as we are, let s stay within this house.

War. The bloody parliament shall this be called,
Unless Plantagenet, duke of York, be king ;
And bashful Henry deposed, whose cowardice
Hath made us by-words to our enemies.

1 Shakspeare was also led into this anachronism by the old plays. At
the time of the first battle of St. Albans, where Richard is represented to
have fought in the last scene of the preceding play, he was not one year
old ; having been born at Fotheringay castle, October 21, 1454. At the
time to which the third scene of the present act refers, he was but six
years old ; and in the fifth act, in which Henry is represented as having
been killed by him in the Tower, not more than sixteen and eight months.


4 York. Then leave me not, my lords ; be resolute ;
I mean to take possession of my right.

War. Neither the king, nor he that loves him best,
4 The proudest he that holds up Lancaster,
Dares stir a wing, if Warwick shake his bells. 1
I ll plant Plantagenet, root him up who dares.
Resolve thee, Richard ; claim the English crown.

[WARWICK leads YORK to the throne,
who seats himself.

red roses in their hats.

K. Hen. My lords, look where the sturdy rebel sits,
Even in the chair of state ! Belike, he means
(Backed by the power of Warwick, that false peer)
To aspire unto the crown, and reign as king.
Earl of Northumberland, he slew thy father ;
And thine, lord Clifford ; and you both have vowed

On him, his sons, his favorites, and his friends.

North. If I be not, Heavens, be revenged on me !

Clif. The hope thereof makes Clifford mourn in

West. What, shall we suffer this ? Let s pluck him

down ;
; My heart for anger burns ; I cannot brook it.

K. Hen. Be patient, gentle earl of Westmoreland.

Clif. Patience is for poltroons, and such as he ;
He durst not sit there had your father lived.
My gracious lord, here in the parliament
Let us assail the family of York.

North. Well hast thou spoken, cousin ; be it so.

K. Hen. Ah, know you not the city favors them,
And they have troops of soldiers at their beck ?

Exe. But when the duke is slain, they ll quickly fly.

1 Hawks had sometimes little bells hung on them, perhaps to dare the
birds j that is, to fright them from rising.


K. Hen. Far be the thought of this from Henry s


To make a shambles of the parliament-house !
Cousin of Exeter, frowns, words, and threats,
Shall be the war that Henry means to use.

[They advance to the Duke.
Thou factious duke of York, descend my throne,
And kneel for grace and mercy at my feet.
I am thy sovereign.

York. Thou art deceived ; I am thine.

Exe. For shame, come down ; he made thee duke
of York.

York. Twas my inheritance, as the earldom was. 1

Exe. Thy father was a traitor to the crown.

War. Exeter, thou art a traitor to the crown,
In following this usurping Henry.

Clif. Whom should he follow, but his natural king ?

War. True, Clifford ; and that s Richard, duke of

< K. Hen. And shall I stand, and thou sit in my
throne ?

York. It must and shall be so. Content thyself.

War. Be duke of Lancaster ; let him be king.

West. He is both king and duke of Lancaster ;
And that the lord of Westmoreland shall maintain.

War. And Warwick shall disprove it. You forget,
That we are those, which chased you from the field,
And slew your fathers, and with colors spread
Marched through the city to the palace gates.

North. Yes, Warwick, I remember it to my grief;
And, by his soul, thou and thy house shall rue it.

4 West. Plantagenet, of thee, and these thy sons,
Thy kinsmen, and thy friends, I ll have more lives,
Than drops of blood were in my father s veins.

4 Clif. Urge it no more ; lest that, instead of words,

1 The old play reads " as the kingdom is." Why Shakspeare altered
it, it is not easy to say ; for the new line only exhibits the same meaning
more obscurely. York means that the dukedom was his inheritance from his
father, as the earldom of March was his inheritance from his mother. His
title to the crown was not as duke of York, but as earl of March, and by
naming that he covertly asserts his right to the crown.


I send thee, Warwick, such a messenger,
As shall revenge his death, before I stir.

6 War. Poor Clifford ! how I scorn his worthless
threats !

York. Will you, we show our title to the crown ?
i If not, our swords shall plead it in the field.

K. Hen. What title hast thou, traitor, to the crown?
Thy father was, as thou art, duke of York ; 1
Thy grandfather, Roger Mortimer, carl of March.
I am the son of Henry the Fifth,
Who made the dauphin and the French to stoop,
And seized upon their towns and provinces.

War. Talk not of France, sith 2 thou hast lost it all.

K. Hen. The lord protector lost it, and not I ;
When I was crowned, I was but nine months old.

Rich. You are old enough now, and yet, methinks,

you lose.
Father, tear the crown from the usurper s head.

Edw. Sweet father, do so ; set it on your head.

Mont. Good brother, [To YORK.] as thou lov st and

honor st arms,
Let s fight it out, and not stand cavilling thus.

Rich. Sound drums and trumpets, and the king will


York. Sons, peace !

K. Hen. Peace thou ! and give king Henry leave

Online LibraryWilliam ShakespeareThe dramatic works of William Shakspeare... embracing a life of the poet, and notes, original and selected (Volume 4) → online text (page 31 of 38)