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The plays and poems of William Shakspeare (Volume 11) online

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PLAYS AND POEMS

OF

WILLIAM SHAKSPEARE,

WITH THE

CORRECTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

VARIOUS COMMENTATORS:

COMPREHENDING

AND

AN ENLARGED HISTORY OF THE STAGE,

BY

THE LATE EDMOND MALONE.

WITH A NEW GLOSSARIAL INDEX.



TH2 <l'T2Efl2 FPAMMATETS HN, TON KAAAMON

AHOBPEXflN EI2 NOTN. Vet, Auct. apud Suidam.



VOL. XI.



LONDON:

fRINTED FOR F. C. AND J. KIVINGTON ; T. EGERTON ; J. CUTHELL ; SCATCHEHD
AND LETTERMAN ; LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN ; CADELL
AND DAVIES ; LACKINGTON AND CO. ; J. BOOKER ; BLACK AND CO. ; J. BOOTH ;
J. RICHARDSON; J. M. RICHARDSON; J. MURRAY ; J. HARDING; R. H. EVANS;
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CAN, AND CO.; T, HAMILTON; W.WOOD; J.SHELDON; E.EDWARDS; WHIT-
MORE AND FENN ; W. MASON ; G. AND W. B. WHITTAKER ; SIMPKIN AND
MARSHALL; R. SAUNDERS : J. DEIGHTON AND SONS, CAMBRIDGE: WILSON
AND SON, YORK : AND STIRLING AND SLADE, FAIRBAIRN AND ANDERSON,
AND D. BROWN, EDINBURGH.



1821.



11



?r



C. Baldwin, Pt Inter,
Kew Bridge-ttreet, tondon.






TWELFTH NIGHT.
MACBETH.



293831



MACBETH,



VOL. XI.



PRELIMINARY REMARKS.



In order to make a true estimate of the abilities and merit of a
writer, it is always necessary to examine the genius of his age, and
the opinions of his contemporaries. A poet who should now make
the whole action of his tragedy depend upon enchantment, and
produce the chief events by the assistance of supernatural agents,
would be censured as transgressing the bounds of probability, be
banished from the theatre to the nursery, and condemned to write
fairy tales instead of tragedies ; but a survey of the notions that
prevailed at the time when this play was written, will prove that
Shakspeare was in no danger of such censures, since he only
turned the system that was then universally admitted, to his ad-
vantage, and was far from overburdening the credulity of his
audience.

The reality of witchcraft or enchantment, which, though not
strictly the same, are confounded in this play, has in all ages and
countries been credited by the common people, and in most, by
the learned themselves. The phantoms have indeed appeared
more frequently, in proportion as the darkness of ignorance has
been more gross ; but it cannot be shown, that the brightest
gleams of knowledge have at anytime been sufficient to drive them
out of the world. The time in which this kind of credulity was
at its height, seems to have been that of the holy war, in which the
Christians imputed all their defeats to enchantments or diabolical
opposition, as they ascribed their success to the a.ssistance of their
military saints ; and the learned Dr. Warburton appears to believe
(Supplement to the Introduction to Don Quixote) that the first
accounts of enchantments were brought into this part of the world
by those who returned from their eastern expeditions. But there
is always some distance between the birth and maturity of folly as
of wickedness : this opinion had long existed, though perhaps the
application of it had in no foregoing age been so frequent, nor the
reception so general. Olympiodorus, in Photius's Extracts, tells
us of one Libanius, who practised this kind of militaty magic, and
having promised xi^pi^ 07r^^Twy xaxa ^acQapuv hspym; to perform
frreat things against the Barbarians ivithout soldiers, was, at the
iastance of the empress Placida, put to death, when he was about
to have given proofs of his abilities. The empress showed some
kindness in her anger, by cutting him off at a time so convenient
for his reputation.

B 2



4 PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

But a more remarkable proof of the antiquity of this notion may
be found in St. Chrysostom's book de Sacerdotio, which exhibits a
scene of enchantments not exceeded by any romance of the middle
age : he supposes a spectator overlooking a field of battle attended
by one that points out all the various objects of horror, the engines
of destruction, and the arts of slaughter. Asjxvj/to Je en 'aapoi
roii havTici^ xoti Trero/jLEVsg ttrnHg J<a tivoj /jtafyaveiag, xai oTrXjVaj
Jii a.fo <p;pojXE',ii:, Kui To.o'riv yorjTeiag ^uvufxiv nai Ihav. " Let him
then proceed to show him in the opposite armies horses flying by
enchantment, armed men transported through the air, and every
power and form of magic." Whether St. Chrysostom believed
that such performances were really to be seen in a day of battle,
or only endeavoured to enliven his description, by adopting the
notions of the vulgar, it is equally certain, that such notions were
in his time received, and that therefore they were not imported
from the Saracens in a later age; the wars with the Saracens
however gave occasion to their propagation, not only as bigotry
naturally discovers prodigies, but as the scene of action was re-
moved to a great distance.

The reformation did not immediately arrive at its meridian, and
though day was gradually increasing upon us, the goblins of witch-
craft still continued to hover in the twilight. In the time of
Queen Elizabeth was the remarkable trial of the witches of War-
bois, whose conviction is still commemorated in an annual sermon
at Huntingdon. But in the reign of King James, in which this
tragedy was wTitten, many circumstances concurred to propagate
and confirm this opinion. The King, who was much celebrated
for his knowledge, had, before his arrival in England, not only ex-
amined in person a woman accused of witchcraft, but had given a
very formal account of the practices and illusions of evil spirits,
the compacts of witches, the ceremonies used by them, the manner
of detecting them, and the justice of punishing them, in his dia
logues of Daemonologie, written in the Scottish dialect, and pub-
lished at Edinburgh. This book was, soon after his succession,
repiinted at London, and as the ready way to gain King James's
favour was to flatter his speculations, the system of Daemonologie
was immediately adopted by all who desired either to gain prefer-
ment or not to lose it. Thus the doctrine of witchcraft was very
powerfully inculcated ; and as the greatest part of mankind have
no other reason for their opinions than that they are in fashion, it
cannot be doubted but this persuasion made a rapid progress,
since vanity and credulity co-operated in its favour. The infec-
tion soon reached the parliament, who, in the first year of King
Jame.s, made a law, by which it was enacted, chap. xii. That " if
any person shall use any invocation or conjuration of any evil or
wicked spirit ; 2. or shall consult, covenant with, entertain, em-
ploy, feed or reward any evil or cursed spirit to or for any intent



PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 5

or purpose ; 3. or take up any dead man, woman, or child, out of
the grave, or the skin, bone, or any part of the dead person, to
be employed or used in any manner of witchcraft, sorcery, charm,
or enchantment ; I-, or shall use, practise, or exercise any sort of
witchcraft, sorcery, charm, or enchantment ; 5. whereby any per-
son shall be destroyed, killed, wasted, consumed, pined, or lamed
in any part of the body; 6. That every such person being con-
victed shall suffer death." This law was repealed in our own
time.

Thus, in the time of Shakspeare, was the doctrine of witchcraft
at once established by law and by the fashion, and it became not
only unpolite, but criminal, to doubt it ; and as prodigies are always
seen in proportion as they are expected, witches were every day
discovered, and multiplied so fast in some places, that Bishop
Hall mentions a village in Lancashire,* where their number was
greater than that of the houses. The Jesuits and sectaries took
advantage of this universal error, and endeavoured to promote the
interest of their parties by pretended cures of persons afflicted by
evil spirits ; but they were detected and exposed by the clergy of
the established church.

Upon this general infatuation Shakspeare might be easily
allowed to found a play, especially since he has followed with
great exactness such histories as were then thought true ; nor
can it be doubted that the scenes of enchantment, however they
may now be ridiculed, were both by himself and his audience
thought awful and affecting. Johnson.

In the concluding paragraph of Dr. Johnson's admirable intro-
duction to this play, he seems apprehensive that the fame of
Shakspeare's magic may be endangered by modern ridicule. I
shall not hesitate, however, to predict its security, till our na-
tional taste is wholly corrupted, and we no longer deserve the first
of all dramatic enjoyments ; for such, in my opinion at least, is
the tragedy of Macbeth. Steevens.

Malcolm II. King of Scotland, had two daughters. The eldest
was married to Crynin, the father of Duncan, Thane of the Isles,
and western parts of Scotland ; and on the death of Malcolm,
without male issue, Duncan succeeded to the throne. Malcolm's



* In Nashe's Lenten Stuff, 1599, it is said, that no less than
six hundred witches were executed at one time : " it is evident,
by the confession of the six hundred Scotch witches executed in
Scotland at Bartholomew tide was twelve month, that in Yar-
mouth road they were all together in a plump on Christmas eve
was two years, when the great flood was ; and there stirred up
such tornadoes and furicanoes of tempests, as will be spoken of
there whilst any winds or storms and tempests chafe and puff in the
lower region." Reed.



6 PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

second daughter was married to Sinel, Thane of Glamis, the father
of Macbeth. Duncan, who married the daughter * of Siward,
Earl of Northumberland, was murdered by his cousin german,
Macbeth, in the castle of Inverness, according to Buchanan, in
the year lOlO ; according to Hector Boethius, in lOlS. Boethius,
whose History of Scotland was first printed in seventeen books, at
Paris, in 1526, thus describes the event which forms the basis of
the tragedy before us ; " Makbeth, be persuasion of his wyfe,
gaderit his friendis to ane counsall at Invernes, quharekyng Dun-
cane happennit to be for y* tyme. And because he fand sufficient
opportunitie, be support of Banquho and otheris his friendis, he
slew kyng Duncane, the vii zeir of his regne." After the murder
of Duncan, Macbeth " come with ane gret power to Scone, and
tuk the crowne." Chroniclis of Scotland, translated by John
Bellenden, folio, 1541. Macbeth was himself slain by Macduff
in the year 1061, according to Boethius ; according to Buchanan,
in 1057 ; at which time King Edward the Confessor possessed the
throne of England, Holinshed copied the history of Boethius,
and on Holinshed's relation Shakspeare formed his play.

In the reign of Duncan, Banquo having been plundered by the
people of Lochabar of some of the king's revenues, which he had
collected, and being dangerously wounded in the affray, the per-
sons concerned in this outrage were summoned to appear at a
certain day. But they slew the serjeant at arms who summoned
them, and chose one Macdowald as their captain. Macdowald
speedily collected a considerable body of forces from Ireland and
the Western Isles, and in one action gained a victor}' over the
king's army. In this battle Malcolm, a Scottish nobleman, who
was (says Boethius) " Lieutenant to Duncan in Lochaber," was
slain. Afterwards Macbeth and Banquo were appointed to the
command of the army ; and Macdowald being obliged to take
refuge in a castle in Lochaber, first slew his wife and children,
and then himself. Macbeth, on entering the castle, finding his
dead body, ordered his head to be cut off, and carried to the king,
at the castle of Bertha, and his body to be hung on a high tree.

At a subsequent period, in the last year of Duncan's reign,
Sueno, King of Norway, landed a powerful army in Fife, for the
purpose of invading Scotland. Duncan immediately assembled
an army to oppose him, and gave the command of two divisions
of it to Macbeth and Banquo, putting himself at the head of a
third. Sueno was successful in one battle, but in a second was
routed ; and, after a great slaughter of his troops, he escaped
with ten persons only, and fled back to Norway. Though there
was an interval of time between the rebellion of Macdowald and



* the DAUGHTER ] More probably the 5w/er. See note
on The Cronykil of Andrew Wyntown, vol. ii. p. 475. Stebvens.



PRELIMINARY REMARKS. 7

the invasion of Sueno, our author has woven these two actions
together, and immediately after Sueno's defeat the present play
commences.

It is remarkable that Buchanan has pointed out Macbeth's his-
tory as a subject for the stage. " Multa hie fabulose quidam
nostrorum affingunt ; sed, quia theatris aut Milesiis fabulis sunt
aptioraquam historiae, eaomitto." Rerum Scot. Hist. 1. vii. But
there was no translation of Buchanan's work till after our author's
death.

This tragedy was written, I believe, in the year 1606. See
the notes at the end ; and An Attempt to ascertain the Order of
Shakspeare's Plays, vol. ii. M alone.



9ifJ ''






-f?Of tf



PERSONS REPRESENTED.



Duncan, King of Scotland :

Malcolm, ) , . ^
^ ' >his Sons.

DONALBAIN, ) .*j^

' } Generals of the King's Army.

Banquo, )

Macduff, 1
Lenox,

' J> Noblemen of Scotland.

Menteth, '

Angus,

Cathness, J

Fleance, Son to Banquo.

Si ward, Earl of Northumberland, General of the

English Forces :

Young Si WARD, his Son.

Seyton, an Officer attending on Macbeth.

Son to Macduff.

An English Doctor. A Scotch Doctor.

A Soldier. A Porter. An old Man.

Lady Macbeth \

Lady Macduff.

Gentlewoman attending on Lady Macbeth.

Hecate, and three Witches \

LordS; Gentlemen, Officers, Soldiers, Murderers,

Attendants, and Messengers.

The Ghost of Banquo, and several other Apparitions,

SCENEy in the End of the fourth Act, lies in
England ; through the rest of the Play, in Scot-
land ; and, chiefly, at Macbeth's Castle.



' Lady Macbeth.] Her name was Gruach, filia Bodhe. See
Lord Hailes's Annals of Scotland, ii. 332. Ritson.

Androw of Wyntown, in his Cronykil, informs us that this
personage was the widow of Duncan ; a circumstance with which
Shakspeare must have been wholly unacquainted :

" Dame Grtvok, hys Emys wyf,

" Tuk, and led wyth hyr his lyf,
" And held hyr bathe hys Wyf and Qweyne,
" As befor than scho had beyne
" Til hys Erne Qwene, lyvand
" Quhen he was Kyng wyth Crowne rygnand :
" For lytyl in honowre than had he
" The greys of aflynyte," B. vi. 35.
From the incidents, however, with which Hector Boece has
diversified the legend of Macbeth, our poet derived greater ad-
vantages than he could have found in the original story, as re-
lated by Wyntown.

The 18th Chapter of his Cronykil, book vi. together with
observations by its accurate and learned editor, will be subjoined
to this tragedy, for the satisfaction of inquisitive readers.

Steevens.
* three Witches.] As the play now stands, in Act IV.
So. I. three other witches make their appearance. See note
thereon. Steevens.



MACBETH.



ACT I. SCENE I.

An open Place.



Thunder and lightning. Enter three Witches.

1 Witch. When shall we three meet again.
In thunder, lightning, or in rain ?

2 Witch. When the hurlyburly's done \
When the battle's lost and won ^ :



hurlyburly's ] However mean this word may seem to
modern ears, it came recommended to Shakspeare by the autho-
rity of Henry Peacham, who, in the year 1577, published a book
professing to treat of the ornaments of language. It is called The
Garden of Eloquence, and has this passage : " Onomatopeia,
when we invent, devise, fayne, and make a name intimating the
sownd of that it signifyeth, as hurlrjburly, for an uprore and^utnu/-
iuousstirre." Henderson.

So, in a translation of Herodian, 12mo. 1635, p. 26 :

" there was a mighty hurlyburly in the campe," &c.

Again, p. 324 :

" great hurliburlies being in all parts of the empire," &c.

Reed.
So, also, in Turbervile's Tragical Tales :

*' But by the meane of horse and man
" Such hurlie burlie grewe."
Again, in Spenser's Fairy Queen, b. v, c. iii. st. 30 :

" Thereof great hurly burly moved was." Malone.
Mr. Todd has the foUowingnote on the line quoted from Spenser :
" None of the commentators have noticed, by any production from
the literature of Scotland, the propriety of the dramatick poet's
putting the expression into the Scottish hag's mouth. The expres-
sion is to be found in a book published indeed long after Shak-
speare's time, but containing probably many old savos, entitled,



12 MACBETH. act j.

3 Witch. That will be ere the set of sun ^.

1 Witch, Where the place ?

2 Witch. Upon the heath :

3 Witch. There to meet with Macbeth ^.



" Adagia Scotica, or a Collection of Scotch Proverbs and Prover-
bial Phrases. Collected by R. B. Verj' usefuU and delightful,
Lond. 12mo. 1668:

" Little kens the wife that sits by the fire
" How the wind blows cold in hurle burle swyre : "
that is, how the wind blows cold in the tempestuous mountain-top :
for swj/re is used either for the top of a hill, or the pass over a hill.
This sense seems agreeable also to the Witch's answer : " When
the hurlyburly's done," that is, the storm; for they enter in
thunder and lightning. Boswell.

* When the battle's lost and won :] i. e. the battle in which
Macbeth was then engaged. Wakbukton.

So, in King Richard 111. :

" while we reason here,
" A royal battle might be ivon and lost."
So also Speed, speaking of the battle of Towton : " by which
only stratagem, as it was constantly averred, the battle and day
vfaa lost a7id tvo7i." Chronicle, 1611. Malone.

3 ere set of sun.] The old copy unnecessarily and harshly
reads

" ere <Ae set of sun." Steevens.

* There to meet with Macbeth.] Thus the old copy. Mr.
Pope, and, after him, other editors :

" There I go to meet Macbeth."

The insertion, however, seems to be injudicious. To " meet
with Macbeth " was the final drift of all the Witches in going to
the heath, and not the particular business or motive of any one
of them in distinction from the rest ; as the interpolated words,
/ go, in the mouth of the third Witch, would most certainly
imply.

Somewhat, however, (as the verse is evidently imperfect,) must
have been left out by the transcriber or printer. Mr. Capell has
therefore proposed to remedy this defect, by reading
" There to meet with brave Macbeth."

But surely, to beings intent only on mischief, a soldier's bra-
very, in an honest cause, would have been no subject of enco-
mium.

Mr. Malone (omitting all previous remarks, 8ix:. on this pas-
sage) assures us, that " There is here used as a dissyllable,"
I v/'wh he had supported his assertion by some example. Those,



sc. I. MACBETH. 13

1 JViTCH. I come, Graymalkin ' !
All. Paddock calls : Anon ^.

however, who can speak the line thus regulated, and suppose
they are reciting a verse, may profit by the direction they have
received.

The pronoun *' their," having two vowels together, may be
split into two syllables; but the adverb "theie" can only be
used as a monosyllable, unless pronounced as if it were written
" the-re," a licence in which even Chaucer has not indulged
himself.

It vvas convenient for Shakspeare's introductory scene, that his
first Witch should appear uninstructed in her mission. Had she
not required information, the audience must have remained igno-
rant of what it was necessary for them to know. Her speeches,
therefore, proceed in the form of interrogatories ; but, all on a
sudden, an answer is given to a question which had not been
asked. Here seems to be a chasm, which I shall attempt to
supply by the introduction of a single pronoun, and by distributing
the hitherto mutilated line among the three speakers :

" 3 Witch. There to meet with

" 1 Witch. Whom f

" 2 Witch. Macbeth."

Distinct replies have now been afforded to the three necessary
enquiries Whtn Where and Whom the Witches were to meet.
Their conference receives no injury from my insertion and arrange-
ment. On the contrary, the dialogue becomes more regular and
consistent, as each of the hags will now have spoken thrice (a
magical number) before they join in utterance of the concluding
words, which relate only to themselves. I should add that, in
the two prior instances, it is also the second Witch who furnishes
decisive and material answers ; and that I would give the words
" I come, Graymalkin ! " to the third. By assistance from such
of our author's plays as had been published in quarto, we have
often detected more important errors in the folio 1623, which,
unluckily, supplies the most ancient copy of Macbeth.

Steevens.

I have endeavoured to show in the Essay on Shakspeare's ver-
sification that this line is not defe^ive, and that neither Mr.
Steevens's supplemental ivhom, nor Mr. Malone's dissyllabical
pronunciation of there, is required. Boswell.

5 Graymalkin !] From a little black-letter book, entitled.
Beware the Cat, 1.584-, I find it was permitted to a Witch to take
on her a caties body nine times. Mr. Upton observes, that, to
understand this passage, we should suppose one familiar calling
with the voice of a cat, and another with the croaking of a toad.

Again, in Newes from Scotland, &c. (a pamphlet of which
5



14 MACBETH. act i.

Fair is foul, and foul is fair ^ :
Hover through the fog and filthy air.

\Witkhes vanish.



the reader will find the entire title in a future note on this play) :
*' Moreover she confessed, that at the time when his majestic
was in Denmarke, shee being accompanied with the parties before
specially mentioned, tooke a cat and christened it, and afterward
bound to each part of that cat the cheefest part of a dead man,
and several joyntes of his bodie, and that in the night following
the said cat was convayed into the middest of the sea by all these
witches sayling in their riddles or cives as is aforesaid, and so left
the said cat right before the towne of Leith in Scotland. This
donne, there did arise such a tempest in the sea, as a greater
hath not bene scene," &c. Steevens.

^ Paddock calls : &c.] This, with the two following lines, is
given in the folio to the three Witches, Some preceding editors
have appropriated the first of them to the second Witch.

According to the late Dr. Goldsmith, and some other natural-
ists, a Jrog is called a paddock in the North : as in the following
instance, in Caesar and Pompey, by Chapman, 1607 :

" Paddockes, todes, and watersnakes."

Again, in Wyntownis Cronykil, b, i. c. xiii. 55 :
" As ask, or eddyre, tade, or pade."

In Shakspeare, however, it certainly means a toad. The repre-
sentation of St. James in the witches' house (one of the set of
prints taken from the painter called Hellish Breugel, 1566,) ex-



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