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Edited by
Llewellyn M. Buell

Yale University

Class _J^R 2j %lJQ
Book AzTB? —
Copyright N°^_



Edited by
Wilbur L. Cross Tucker Brooke


Published under the Direction

or THE

Department of English, Yale University,

on the Fund

Given to the Yale University Press in 1917

by the Members of the

Kingsley Trust Association

To Commemorate the Seventy-Fifth Anniversary

of the Founding of the Society

• : The Yale Shakespeare '. •











Copyright, 1921
By Yale University Press

First published, 1921

M -6 1921





The Text .

Appendix A.
Appendix B.
Appendix C.

Appendix D.

Appendix E.

Sources of the Play

The History of the Play .

The Text of the Present Edi-
tion ....

Suggestions for Collateral Read-

Historical Dates of Scenes

Appendix F. Genealogical Chart
Index of Words Glossed









The facsimile opposite represents the title-page of the
Elizabethan Club copy of the Fourth Quarto (1608).


Tragedie of Kin

Richard the feconcL

Asfthathbeenpublikely afted by the Right
Honourable the Lord Chaxnbcrlaiirc
his feruantes.

By William Sbake-Jpeare.


Pnntedby W.WJor u^&wZ^andaretoBe
fold at bis (hop in Paules Church-yard, at
the figne of ihc Foxe.


► Uncles to the King

King Richard the Second
John of Gaunt, Duke

of Lancaster,
Edmund of Langley,

Duke of York,
Henry, surnamed Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford,

Son to John of Gaunt; afterwards King Henry IV
Duke of Aumerle, Son to the Duke of York
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Surrey
Earl of Salisbury
Lord Berkeley

Bagot, Servants to King Richard

Earl of Northumberland
Henry Percy, surnamed Hotspur, his Son
Lord Ross
Lord Willoughby
Lord Fitzwater
Bishop of Carlisle
Abbot of Westminster
Lord Marshal
Sir Pierce of Exton
Sir Stephen Scroop
Captain of a Band of Welshmen

Isabel, Queen to King Richard
Duchess of Gloucester
Duchess of York
Lady attending on the Queen

Lords, Heralds, Officers, Soldiers, Gardeners, Keeper,
Messenger, Groom, and other Attendants

Scene: Dispersedly in England and Wales.~\

The Life and Death of King
Richard the Second


Scene One
[Windsor. Within the Castle Walls']

Enter King Richard, John of Gaunt, with other
Nobles and Attendants.

K. Rich. Old John of Gaunt, time-honour'd Lan-
Hast thou, according to thy oath and band,
Brought hither Henry Hereford thy bold son,
Here to make good the boisterous late appeal, 4

Which then our leisure would not let us hear,
Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray?
Gaunt. I have, my liege.

K. Rich. Tell me, moreover, hast thou sounded
him, 8

If he appeal the duke on ancient malice,
Or worthily, as a good subject should,
On some known ground of treachery in him?

Gaunt. As near as I could sift him on that argu-
ment, 12
On some apparent danger seen in him
Aim'd at your highness, no inveterate malice.

K. Rich. Then call them to our presence : face to

Scene One; cf. n. 2 band: bond

3 Hereford; cf. n. 4 appeal: accusation; cf. n.

9 appeal: accuse, challenge 12 argument: topic

The Life and Death of

And frowning brow to brow, ourselves will hear 16
The accuser and the accused freely speak:

[Exeunt some Attendants.]
High-stomach'd are they both, and full of ire,
In rage deaf as the sea, hasty as fire.

Enter Bolingbroke and Mowbray.

Boling. Many years of happy days befall 20

My gracious sovereign, my most loving liege!

Mow. Each day still better other's happiness;
Until the heavens, envying earth's good hap,
Add an immortal title to your crown! 24

K. Rich. We thank you both : yet one but flatters
As well appeareth by the cause you come;
Namely, to appeal each other of high treason.
Cousin of Hereford, what dost thou object 28

Against the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray?

Boling. First, — heaven be the record to my
speech ! —
In devotion of a subject's love,

Tendering the precious safety of my prince, 32

And free from other misbegotten hate,
Come I appellant to this princely presence.
Now, Thomas Mowbray, do I turn to thee,
And mark my greeting well ; for what I speak 36

My body shall make good upon this earth,
Or my divine soul answer it in heaven.
Thou art a traitor and a miscreant;
Too good to be so and too bad to live, 40

Since the more fair and crystal is the sky,
The uglier seem the clouds that in it fly.
Once more, the more to aggravate the note,

18 High-stomach'd: hot-tempered 23 hap: fortune

32 Tendering: holding tenderly 34 appellant; cf. n.

43 aggravate the note: intensify the stigma

King Richard the Second, I.i 3

With a foul traitor's name stuff I thy throat ; 44

And wish, so please my sovereign, ere I move,
What my tongue speaks, my right drawn sword may

Mow. Let not my cold words here accuse my zeal:
'Tis not the trial of a woman's war, 48

The bitter clamour of two eager tongues,
Can arbitrate this cause betwixt us twain;
The blood is hot that must be cool'd for this.
Yet can I not of such tame patience boast 52

As to be hush'd and naught at all to say.
First, the fair reverence of your highness curbs me
From giving reins and spurs to my free speech;
Which else would post until it had return'd 56

These terms of treason doubled down his throat.
Setting aside his high blood's royalty,
And let him be no kinsman to my liege,
I do defy him, and I spit at him; 60

Call him a slanderous coward and a villain:
Which to maintain I would allow him odds,
And meet him, were I tied to run afoot
Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps, 64

Or any other ground inhabitable,
Wherever Englishman durst set his foot.
Meantime let this defend my loyalty:
By all my hopes, most falsely doth he lie. 68

Boling. Pale trembling coward, there I throw my
Disclaiming here the kindred of the king;
And lay aside my high blood's royalty,
Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to except. 72
If guilty dread have left thee so much strength
As to take up mine honour's pawn, then stoop :

56 post: hasten 59 Cf. n. 63 tied: obliged

65 inhabitable: uninhabitable 69 gage: pledge {here, his hood)

The Life and Death of

By that; and all the rites of knighthood else,

Will I make good against thee, arm to arm, 76

What I have spoke, or thou canst worse devise.

Mow. I take it up; and by that sword I swear,
Which gently laid my knighthood on my shoulder,
I'll answer thee in any fair degree, 80

Or chivalrous design of knightly trial:
And when I mount, alive may I not light,
If I be traitor or unjustly fight!

K. Rich. What doth our cousin lay to Mowbray's
charge ? 84

It must be great that can inherit us
So much as of a thought of ill in him.

Boling. Look, what I speak, my life shall prove it
That Mowbray hath receiv'd eight thousand nobles 88
In name of lendings for your highness' soldiers,
The which he hath detain'd for lewd employments,
Like a false traitor and injurious villain.
Besides I say and will in battle prove, 92

Or here or elsewhere to the furthest verge
That ever was survey'd by English eye,
That all the treasons for these eighteen years
Complotted and contrived in this land, 96

Fetch from false Mowbray their first head and

Further I say and further will maintain
Upon his bad life to make all this good,
That he did plot the Duke of Gloucester's death, loo
Suggest his soon-believing adversaries,
And consequently, like a traitor coward,

81 design: enterprise 85 inherit us: put us in possession of

88 nobles: gold coins worth 6s. 8d.

89 lendings: money advances on their pay 90 lewd: base
91 injurious: malicious 101 Suggest: in stigate

King Richard the Second, I. i 5

Sluic'd out his innocent soul through streams of

Which blood, like sacrificing Abel's, cries, 104

Even from the tongueless caverns of the earth,
To me for justice and rough chastisement;
And, by the glorious worth of my descent,
This arm shall do it, or this life be spent. 108

K. Rich. How high a pitch his resolution soars !
Thomas of Norfolk, what sayst thou to this?

Mow. O ! let my sovereign turn away his face
And bid his ears a little while be deaf, 112

Till I have told this slander of his blood
How God and good men hate so foul a liar.

K. Rich. Mowbray, impartial are our eyes and
Were he my brother, nay, my kingdom's heir, — 116
As he is but my father's brother's son, —
Now, by my sceptre's awe I make a vow,
Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood
Should nothing privilege him, nor partialize 120

The unstooping firmness of my upright soul.
He is our subject, Mowbray; so art thou:
Free speech and fearless I to thee allow.

Mote;. Then, Bolingbroke, as low as to thy
heart, 124

Through the false passage of thy throat, thou liest.
Three parts of that receipt I had for Calais
Disburs'd I duly to his highness' soldiers;
The other part reserv'd I by consent, 128

For that my sovereign liege was in my debt
Upon remainder of a dear account,
Since last I went to France to fetch his queen.

109 pitch: heig ht 120 partialize: render part ial

126 receipt: money

130 Upon remainder: for the balance dear: heavy 131 Cf. n.

6 The Life and Death of

Now swallow down that lie. For Gloucester's
death, 132

I slew him not; but to mine own disgrace

Neglected my sworn duty in that case.

For you, my noble Lord of Lancaster,

The honourable father to my foe, 136

Once did I lay an ambush for your life,

A trespass that doth vex my grieved soul;

But ere I last receiv'd the sacrament

I did confess it, and exactly begg'd 140

Your Grace's pardon, and I hope I had it.

This is my fault: as for the rest appeal'd,

It issues from the rancour of a villain,

A recreant and most degenerate traitor; 144

Which in myself I boldly will defend,

And interchangeably hurl down my gage

Upon this overweening traitor's foot,

To prove myself a loyal gentleman 148

Even in the best blood chamber'd in his bosom.

In haste whereof, most heartily I pray

Your highness to assign our trial day.

K. Rich. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be rul'd by
me ; 152

Let's purge this choler without letting blood:

This we prescribe, though no physician;

Deep malice makes too deep incision:

Forget, forgive; conclude and be agreed, 156

Our doctors say this is no month to bleed.

Good uncle, let this end where it begun;

We'll calm the Duke of Norfolk, you your son.

Gaunt. To be a make-peace shall become my
age : 160

138 trespass: offense 140 exactly : in express terms

146 interchangeably: reciprocally 150 whereof : to wards this event

153 choler; cf. n. 156 conclude: come to an understanding

King Richard the Second, I. i 7

Throw down, my son, the Duke of Norfolk's gage.

K. Rich. And, Norfolk, throw down his.

Gaunt. When, Harry, when?

Obedience bids I should not bid again.

K. Rich. Norfolk, throw down, we bid; there is no
boot. 164

Mow. Myself I throw, dread sovereign, at thy
My life thou shalt command, but not my shame:
The one my duty owes; but my fair name, —
Despite of death, that lives upon my grave, — 168

To dark dishonour's use thou shalt not have.
I am disgrac'd, impeach'd, and baffled here,
Pierc'd to the soul with slander's venom'd spear,
The which no balm can cure but his heart-blood 172
Which breath'd this poison.

K.Rich. Rage must be withstood:

Give me his gage: lions make leopards tame.

Mow. Yea, but not change his spots: take but my
And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord, 176

The purest treasure mortal times afford
Is spotless reputation; that away,
Men are but gilded loam or painted clay.
A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest 180

Is a bold spirit in a loyal breast.
Mine honour is my life; both grow in one;
Take honour from me, and my life is done:
Then, dear my liege, mine honour let me try ; 184

In that I live and for that will I die.

K.Rich. Cousin, throw down your gage: do you

Boling. O God, defend my soul from such deep sin !

162 When: exclamation of impatience 164 boot: help for it

170 impeach'd: disparaged baffled; cf. n. 174 lions; cf. n.

8 The Life and Death of

Shall I seem crest-falTn in my father's sight, 188

Or with pale beggar-fear impeach my height
Before this out-dar'd dastard? Ere my tongue
Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong,
Or sound so base a parle, my teeth shall tear 192
The slavish motive of recanting fear,
And spit it bleeding in his high disgrace,
Where shame doth harbour, even in Mowbray's face.

Exit Gaunt.
K. Rich. We were not born to sue, but to com-
mand : 196
Which since we cannot do to make you friends,
Be ready, as your lives shall answer it,
At Coventry, upon Saint Lambert's day:
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate 200
The swelling difference of your settled hate:
Since we cannot atone you, we shall see
Justice design the victor's chivalry.
Marshal, command our omcers-at-arms 204
Be ready to direct these home alarms. Exeunt.

Scene Two

[London. A Room in the DuJce of Lancaster's

Enter Gaunt and Duchess of Gloucester.

Gaunt. Alas ! the part I had in Woodstock's blood
Doth more solicit me than your exclaims,
To stir against the butchers of his life.

189 height: high rank 192 sound . . . parle; cf.n.

193 motive: moving organ, i.e., tongue

199 Saint Lambert's day: September 17

202 atone: reconcile, make 'at one' 203 design: indicate

204 officers-at-arms; cf. n. 205 alarms: disturbances

1 Woodstock's blood; cf. n. on I. i. and A pp. F

2 solicit: urge exclaims: exclamations

King Richard the Second, I. ii 9

But since correction lieth in those hands 4

Which made the fault that we cannot correct,
Put we our quarrel to the will of heaven;
Who, when they see the hours ripe on earth,
Will rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads. 8

Duck. Finds brotherhood in thee no sharper spur?
Hath love in thy old blood no living fire ?
Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art one,
Were as seven vials of his sacred blood, 12

Or seven fair branches springing from one root:
Some of those seven are dried by nature's course,
Some of those branches by the Destinies cut;
But Thomas, my dear lord, my life, my Gloucester, 16
One vial full of Edward's sacred blood,
One flourishing branch of his most royal root,
Is crack'd, and all the precious liquor spilt;
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all vaded, 20
By envy's hand and murder's bloody axe.
Ah, Gaunt ! his blood was thine : that bed, that womb,
That metal, that self mould, that fashion'd thee
Made him a man; and though thou liv'st and
breath'st, 24

Yet art thou slain in him: thou dost consent
In some large measure to thy father's death
In that thou seest thy wretched brother die,
Who was the model of thy father's life. 28

Call it not patience, Gaunt; it is despair:
In suffering thus thy brother to be slaughter'd
Thou show'st the naked pathway to thy life,
Teaching stern murder how to butcher thee: 32

That which in mean men we entitle patience

4 correction: punishment 6 quarrel: grievance

11 seven sons; cf. n. 14, IS Cf. n.

20 vaded: faded 23 metal: substance self: very same

28 model: exact image 33 mean: of low birth

10 The Life and Death of

Is pale cold cowardice in noble breasts.

What shall I say? to safeguard thine own life,

The best way is to venge my Gloucester's death. 36

Gaunt. God's is the quarrel; for God's substitute,
His deputy anointed in his sight,
Hath caus'd his death; the which if wrongfully,
Let heaven revenge, for I may never lift 40

An angry arm against his minister.

Duck. Where then, alas ! may I complain myself ?

Gaunt. To God, the widow's champion and de-

Duch. Why then, I will. Farewell, old Gaunt. 44
Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold
Our cousin Hereford and fell Mowbray fight:
O! sit my husband's wrongs on Hereford's spear,
That it may enter butcher Mowbray's breast. 48

Or if misfortune miss the first career,
Be Mowbray's sins so heavy in his bosom
That they may break his foaming courser's back,
And throw the rider headlong in the lists, 52

A caitiff recreant to my cousin Hereford!
Farewell, old Gaunt: thy sometimes brother's wife
With her companion grief must end her life.

Gaunt. Sister, farewell; I must to Coventry. 56
As much good stay with thee as go with me!

Duch. Yet one word more. Grief boundeth where
it falls,
Not with the empty hollowness, but weight:
I take my leave before I have begun, 60

For sorrow ends not when it seemeth done.
Commend me to my brother, Edmund York.
Lo! this is all: nay, yet depart not so;

37 God's substitute : the king 46 fell: fierce

49 career: charge in a tourney

53 caitiff: contemptible recreant; cf. n. cousin; cf. n.

54 sometimes: former, 'late'

King Richard the Second, I. Hi 1 1

Though this be all, do not so quickly go; 64

I shall remember more. Bid him — ah, what? —

With all good speed at Plashy visit me.

Alack ! and what shall good old York there see

But empty lodgings and unfurnish'd walls, 68

Unpeopled offices, untrodden stones?

And what hear there for welcome but my groans?

Therefore commend me; let him not come there,

To seek out sorrow that dwells everywhere. 72

Desolate, desolate will I hence, and die:

The last leave of thee takes my weeping eye.


Scene Three

[Open Space, near Coventry. Lists set out, and a


Enter Marshal and Aumerle.

Mar. My Lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford

arm'd ?
Aum. Yea, at all points, and longs to enter in.
Mar. The Duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold,
Stays but the summons of the appellant's trumpet. 4
Aum. Why, then, the champions are prepar'd, and
For nothing but his majesty's approach.

Flourish. Enter King, Gaunt, Bushy, Bagot, Green,
and others; when they are set, enter the Duke of
Norfolk in arms, defendant.

66 Plashy: her seat in Essex 68 unfurnish'd: without hangings

69 offices: kitchens and other service rooms

71 commend me: remember me to him

3 sprightfully : with high spirit

6 S. d. Flourish: a triumphant trumpet call

12 The Life and Death of

K. Rich. Marshal, demand of yonder champion
The cause of his arrival here in arms: 8

Ask him his name, and orderly proceed
To swear him in the justice of his cause.

Mar. In God's name, and the king's, say who thou
And why thou com'st thus knightly clad in arms, 12
Against what man thou com'st, and what thy quarrel.
Speak truly, on thy knighthood and thine oath;
As so defend thee heaven and thy valour !

Mow. My name is Thomas Mowbray, Duke of
Norfolk, 16

Who hither come engaged by my oath, —
Which God defend a knight should violate ! —
Both to defend my loyalty and truth
To God, my king, and his succeeding issue, 20

Against the Duke of Hereford that appeals me;
And, by the grace of God and this mine arm,
To prove him, in defending of myself,
A traitor to my God, my king, and me: 24

And as I truly fight, defend me heaven!

[He takes his seat.]

The trumpets sound. Enter Duke of Hereford,
appellant, in armour.

K. Rich. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms,
Both who he is and why he cometh hither
Thus plated in habiliments of war; 28

And formally, according to our law,
Depose him in the justice of his cause.

Mar. What is thy name ? and wherefore com'st thou
Before King Richard in his royal lists? 32

10 swear him in: make him take oath as to 18 defend: forbid

30 Depose: examine under oath

King Richard the Second, I, Hi 13

Against whom comest thou? and what's thy quarrel?
Speak like a true knight, so defend thee heaven !

Boling. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
Am I; who ready here do stand in arms, 36

To prove by God's grace and my body's valour,
In lists, on Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
That he's a traitor foul and dangerous,
To God of heaven, King Richard, and to me : 40

And as I truly fight, defend me heaven !

Mar. On pain of death, no person be so bold
Or daring-hardy as to touch the lists,
Except the marshal and such officers 44

Appointed to direct these fair designs.

Boling. Lord marshal, let me kiss my sovereign's
And bow my knee before his majesty:
For Mowbray and myself are like two men 48

That vow a long and weary pilgrimage;
Then let us take a ceremonious leave
And loving farewell of our several friends.

Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your high-
ness, 52
And craves to kiss your hand and take his leave.

K. Rich. We will descend and fold him in our arms.
Cousin of Hereford, as thy cause is right,
So be thy fortune in this royal fight! 56

Farewell, my blood; which if to-day thou shed,
Lament we may, but not revenge thee dead.

Boling. O ! let no noble eye profane a tear
For me, if I be gor'd with Mowbray's spear. 60

As confident as is the falcon's flight
Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.
My loving lord, I take my leave of you;

59 profane: shed profanely

14 The Life and Death of

Of you, my noble cousin, Lord Aumerle; 64

Not sick, although I have to do with death,

But lusty, young, and cheerly drawing breath.

Lo! as at English feasts, so I regreet

The daintiest last, to make the end most sweet: 68

O thou, the earthly author of my blood,

Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,

Doth with a two-fold vigour lift me up

To reach at victory above my head, 72

Add proof unto mine armour with thy prayers,

And with thy blessings steel my lance's point,

That it may enter Mowbray's waxen coat,

And furbish new the name of John a Gaunt, 76

Even in the lusty haviour of his son.

Gaunt. God in thy good cause make thee pros-
perous !
Be swift like lightning in the execution;
And let thy blows, doubly redoubled, 80

Fall like amazing thunder on the casque
Of thy adverse pernicious enemy:
Rouse up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live.

Boling. Mine innocency and Saint George to
thrive ! 84

[He takes his seat.]

Mow. [Rising.] However God or fortune cast my
There lives or dies, true to King Richard's throne,
A loyal, just, and upright gentleman.
Never did captive with a freer heart 88

Cast off his chains of bondage and embrace
His golden uncontroll'd enfranchisement,

67 regreet: salute 69 thou: Gaunt

70 regenerate: born again 73 proof : impenetrability

75 waxen: become soft as wax 76 furbish: brighten

77 lusty: vigorous, manly haviour: conduct

84 to thrive: help me to succeed 90 enfranchisement: release

King Richard the Second, I. Hi is

More than my dancing soul doth celebrate

This feast of battle with mine adversary. 92

Most mighty liege, and my companion peers,

Take from my mouth the wish of happy years.

As gentle and as jocund as to jest,

Go I to fight: truth has a quiet breast. 96

K.Rich. Farewell, my lord: securely I espy
Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.
Order the trial, marshal, and begin.

[The King and the Lords take their seats. ]
Mar. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and
Derby, 100

Receive thy lance; and God defend the right!

Boling. [Rising.'] Strong as a tower in hope, I cry

Mar. [To an Officer. ,] Go bear this lance to

Thomas, Duke of Norfolk.
First Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and
Derby, 104

Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself,
On pain to be found false and recreant,
To prove the Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray,
A traitor to his God, his king, and him; 108

And dares him to set forward to the fight.

Sec. Her. Here standeth Thomas Mowbray, Duke
of Norfolk,
On pain to be found false and recreant,
Both to defend himself and to approve 112

Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby,
To God, his sovereign, and to him, disloyal;
Courageously and with a free desire,
Attending but the signal to begin. 116

98 couched: lying 99 Order: take charge of

106 On pain to be: under penalty of being 112 approve: prove

116 Attending: awaiting

16 The Life and Death of

Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, combat-
ants. A charge sounded.
Stay, the king hath thrown his warder down.

K. Rich. Let them lay by their helmets and their
And both return back to their chairs again: 120

Withdraw with us; and let the trumpets sound
While we return these dukes what we decree.

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