otus, 1G07: "Some filthy queans, especially our puzzels of Paris,
use this theft." And in" Stubhe's Anatomy of Abuses, 1595: "Nor
yet any droye nor puzzel in the country but will carry a nosegay in
It should be remembered that in the Poet's time
dauphin was always written dolphin. — H. X. H.
Act I. Sc. V. THE FIRST PART OF
Your hearts I '11 stamp out with my horse's
And make a quagmire of your mingled brains.
Convey me Salisbury into his tent, HO
And then we '11 try what these dastard French-
men dare. \_Alarum. ExewiU
Here an alarum again: and Talbot pursuetli the
Dauphin, and driveth hiin: then enter Joan La
Pucelle, driving Englishmen before her^ and
exit after them: then re-enter Talbot.
Tal. Where is my strength, my valor, and my
Our English troops retire, I cannot stay them :
A woman clad in armor chaseth them.
Re-enter La Pucelle.
Here, here she comes. I '11 have a bout with
Devil or devil's dam, I '11 conjure thee:
Blood will I draw on thee, thou art a witch,
And straightway give thy soul to him thou
6. "Bhod vnll I dnno on thee, thou art a xcitch"; "the superstition
of those times taught that he that could draw the witch's blood was
free from her power" (Johnson). — I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. v.
Puc. Come, come, 'tis only I that must disgrace
[Here they fight.
Tal. Heavens, can you sufFei* hell so to prevail?
My breast I '11 burst with straining of my cour-
Ajud from my shoulders crack my arms asunder.
But I will chastise this high-minded strumpet.
[They fight again.
Puc. Talbot, farewell ; thy hour is not yet come :
I must go victual Orleans forthwith.
\_A short alarum: then enter the town
O'ertake me, if thou canst; I scorn thy strength.
Go, go, cheer up thy hungry-starved men;
Help Salisbury to make his testament:
This day is ours, as many more shall be. lExit.
Tal. My thoughts are whirled like a potter's wheel ;
I know not where I am, nor what I do ; 20
A witch, by fear, not force, like Hannibal,
Drives back our troops and conquers as she lists :
So bees with smoke and doves with noisome
Are from their hives and houses driven away.
They call'd us for our fierceness English dogs;
Now, like to whelps, we crying run away.
[A short alarum.
Hark, countiymen! eitlier renew the fight.
Or tear the lions out of England's coat;
21. "like Hannibal," who, in order to escape, devised the stratagem
of fixing lighted twigs to the horns of oxen. (C^J. Liw, xxii. 16.) —
Act I. Sc. vi. THE FIRST PART OF
Renounce your soil, give sheep in lions' stead:
Sheep run not half so treacherous from the
Or horse or oxen from the leopard,
As you fly from your oft-subdued slaves.
[Alarum. Here another skirmish.
It will not be: retire into your trenches:
You all consented unto Salisbury's death,
For none would strike a stroke in his revenge.
Pucelle is enter'd into Orleans,
In spite of us or aught that we could do.
O, would I were to die with Salisbury!
The shame hereof will make me hide my head.
[Eojit Talbot. Alarum; retreat; flourish.
Enter, on the walls. La Pucelle, Charles, Reignier,
Alengon, and Soldiers.
Puc. Advance our waving colors on the walls;
Rescued is Orleans from the English:
Thus Joan la Pucelle hath perf orm'd her word,
30. "treacherous from"; so Ff. 3, 4; Ff. 1, 2, "trecherous from";
Pope, "lim'rous from." — I. G.
"treacherous." So in the old copies, but commonly changed to
tim,orons, following Pope. The change is apt enough, but needless;
the meaning being, no doubt, that sheep are not to be trusted or
relied on, because they are cowardly. — H. N. H.
9. "EiKjUsh" (trisyllabic), so F. i; Ff. 2, 3, 4, "English wolves";
Staunton, "English dogs." — I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act i. Sc. vL
Char. Divinest creature, Astrasa's daughter.
How shall I honor thee for this success ?
Thy promises are Hke Adonis' gardens
That one day bloom'd and fruitful were the
France, triumph in thy glorious prophetess!
Recover'd is the town of Orleans:
More blessed hap did ne'er befall our state. 10
Reig. Why ring not out the bells aloud throughout
Dauphin, command the citizens make bonfires
And feast and banquet in the open streets.
To celebrate the joy that God hath given us.
Alert. All France will be replete with mirth and
When they shall hear how we have play'd the
Char. 'Tis Joan, not we, by whom the day is won ;
For which I will divide my crown with her.
And all the priests and friars in my realm
Shall in procession sing her endless praise. 20
A statelier pj'^ramis to her I '11 rear
Than Rhodope's or IMemphis' ever was;
4. "Astrcva," daughter of Zeus and Themis, hence goddess of Jus-
tice (and so of the observance of promises). — C. H. H.
6. "Adonis' gardens." "The proverb alhidcd to seems always to
have been used in a bad sense, for things which make a fair show
for a few days, and then wither away; but the author of this play,
desirous of maliing a show of his learning, without considering its
propriety, has made the Dauphin apply it as an encomium" (Blake-
way). Cp. Faerie Queene, III, vi. 29; F, 1, "Garden."— I. G.
22. "Than Rhodope's or Memphis'," Hanmer's emendation; Ff.
"or Memphis"; Capell's "of Memphis" has been generally adopted.
Pliny, writing of the pyramids near Memphis, records that "the
Act I. Sc. vi. THE FIRST PART OF
In memory of her when she is dead,
Her ashes, in an urn more precious
Than the rieh-jewel'd coffer of Darius,
Transported shall be at high festivals
Before the kings and queens of France.
No longer on Saint Denis will we cry,
But Joan la Pucelle shall be France's saint.
Come in, and let us banquet royally, 30
After this golden day of victory.
fairest and most commended for workmanship was built at tlie cost
and charges of one Rhodope, a verie strumpet." — I. G.
25. "the rich-jewel'd cofer of Darins"; referred to by Plutarch
in his Life of Alexander, as the "preciousest thing, and the richest
that was gotten of all spoyls and riches, taken at the overthrow of
Darius ... he said he would put the Iliads of Homer into it,
as the worthiest thing." — I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act li. Sc. i.
Enter a Sergeant of a hand, with two Sentinels.
Serg. Sirs, take your places and be vigilant :
If any noise or soldier you perceive
Near to the walls, by some apparent sign
Let us have knowledge at the court of guard.
First. Sent. Sergeant, you shall. [E^^it Sergeant.
Thus are poor servitors.
When others sleep upon their quiet beds,
Constrain'd to watch in darkness, rain and cold.
Enter Talbot, Bedford, Burgundy, and forces, with
scaling-ladders, their drums beating a dead
Tal. Lord Regent, and redoubted Burgundy,
8. "redoubted Burgundy"; Duke of Burgundy, surnamed Philip
the Good.— I. G.
He succeeded to the title in 1419, at which time lu's father wa
murdered. The murder is one of the darkest spots in that land
of perfidy and blood. In pursuance of a special arrangement, he
went to confer with the Dauphin at Montereau upon Yonne. At his
coming he found that three barriers, each having a gate, had been
drawn across the bridge, and was told tliat the Dauphin had been
waiting for him more than an hour. Having with twelve attendants
passed two of the gates, which were quickly locked behind him, he
Act II. Sc. THE FIRST PART OF
By whose approach the regions of Ai'tois,
Wallon and Picardy are friends to us, 10
This happy night the Frenchmen are secure,
Having all day caroused and banqueted:
Embrace we then this opportunity,
As fitting best to quittance their deceit
Contrived by art and baleful sorcery.
Bed. Coward of France! how much he wrongs his
Despairing of his own arm's fortitude.
To join with witches and the help of hell!
Bur. Traitors have never other company.
But what 's that Pucelle whom they term so
Tal. A maid, they say.
Bed. A maid! and be so martial!
Bu?\ Praj^ God she prove not masculine ere long.
If underneath the standard of the French
She carry armor as she hath begun.
there bent his knee to the Dauphin, who had come forth to meet
him; and, while addressing him in that posture, was struck in the
face with an axe by one of the Dauphin's servants, and before he
could make any defense, a multitude of wounds laid him dead on
the ground. Of his attendants one escaped, another was slain, and
the rest remained as captives in the hands of the assassins. This
rare piece of inhumanity had the effect of throwing his son into
close alliance with England, which was further strengthened and
prolonged by the marriage of Bedford with his sister in 1423. Her
death, which occurred in 1432, greatly loosened the bonds between
her brother and the regent. At length, under the mediation of the
pope, a congress of English, French, and Burgundian ambassadors
was held at Arras in 1435, which ended in a reconciliation of Bur-
gundy and the Dauphin, who had then succeeded to the crown of
France. The Poet represents the detaching of Burgundy from Eng-
land to have been brought about by Joan of Arc; for which tlie
only historical ground is, that Joan wrote a letter to the duke urging
upon him the course which he afterwards took. — H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act n. Sc. L
Tal. Well, let them practice and converse with
God is our fortress, in whose conquering name
Let us resolve to scale their flinty bulwarks.
Bed. Ascend, brave Talbot ; we will follow thee.
Tal. Not all together : better far, I guess,
That we do make our entrance several
ways ; 30
That, if it chance the one of us do fail,
The other yet may rise against their force.
Bed. Agreed: I '11 to yond corner.
Bur. Aiid I to tliis.
Tal. And here will Talbot mount, or make his
Now, Salisbury, for thee, and for the right
Of English Henry, shall this night appear
How much in duty I am bound to both.
Sent. Arm! arm! the enemy doth make assault!
[Cry: 'St George; 'A Talbot:
The French leap over the walls in their shirts. En-
ter, several ways, the Bastard of Orleans, Alen-
f07ij and Reignier, half ready, and half un-
Alen. How now, my lords! what, all unready so?
29. "all together"; Rowe's emendation of "altogether" of Ff. —
39, "Unreadg" is undressed. Thus in Chapman's Monsieur U'Olive,
1606: "You are not going to bed; I see you are not yet unready."
A stage direction in The Two Maids of Morcclock, 1609, says,
"Enter James unready, in his nightcap, gartcrless." So in Cotgrave:
"Deshcihiller, to unclothe, make unreddie, put or take off clotlies."—
H. N. H.
Act 11. Sc. i. THE FIRST PART OF
Bast. Unready! aye, and glad we 'scaped so
Reig. 'Twas time, I trow, to wake and leave our
Hearing alarums at our chamber-doors.
Alen. Of all exploits since first I follow'd arms,
Ne'er heard I of a warlike enterprise
More venturous or desperate than this.
Bast. I think this Talbot be a fiend of hell.
Reig. If not of hell, the heavens, sure, favor him.
Alen. Here cometh Charles: I marvel how he sped.
Bast. Tut, holy Joan was his defensive guard.
Enter Charles and La Pucelle,
Char. Is this thy cunning, thou deceitful
Didst thou at first, to flatter us withal,
Make us partakers of a httle gain.
That now our loss might be ten times so much?
Puc. Wherefore is Charles impatient with his
At all times will you have my power alike ?
Sleeping or waking must I still prevail,
Or will you blame and lay the fault on me?
Improvident soldiers! had your watch been
This sudden mischief never could have f all'n.
Char. Duke of Alen9on, this was your default, 60
That, being captain of the watch to-night.
Did look no better to that weighty charge.
40. "ay, and glad"; Ff., "/ and glad"; Pope, "1 am glad."— I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act ii. Sc. i.
Alen. Had all your quarters been as safely kept
As that ^^'llereof I had the government,
We had not been thus shamefully surprised.
Bast. JNIine was secure.
Reig. And so was mine, my lord.
Char. And, for myself, most part of all this night,
Within her quarter and mine own precinct
I was employ'd in passing to and fro,
About relieving of the sentinels : ''^
Then how or which way should they first break
P21C. Question, my lords, no further of the case,
How or which way: 'tis sure they found some
But weakly guarded, where the breach was
And now there rests no other shift but this;
To gather our soldiers, scatter'd and dispersed,
And lay new platforms to endamage them.
Alarum. Enter an English Soldier, crying 'A
Talbot! a Talbot!' They fly, leaving their
Sold. I '11 be so bold to take what they have left.
The cry of Talbot serves me for a sword;
For I have loaden me with many spoils, 80
Using no other weapon but his name. [Exit.
63. "your quarters"; "yovr," so F. 1.; Ff. 2, 3, 4, "our"; "quar-
ters"; so Ff. 1, 2, 3; F. 4, "Quarter."— I. G.
77. Plans or schemes. The 'plot of a play was formerly called the
platform.— H. N. H.
81. This retakinp: of Orleans is a fiction of the Poet's. In fact,
little advance was made towards taking the city after the death
Act 11. Sc. ii. THE FIRST PART OF
Orleans. Witliin the totvn.
Enter Talbot^ Bedford^ Burgundy^ a Captain, and
Bed. The day begins to break, and night is fled,
Whose pitch}?- mantle over-veil'd the earth.
Here sound retreat, and cease our hot pursuit.
Tal. Bring forth the body of old Salisbury,
And here advance it in the market-j)lace.
The middle center of this cursed town.
Now have I paid my vow unto liis soul;
For every drop of blood was drawn from him
There hath at least five Frenchmen died to-
Aiid that hereafter ages may behold 10
What ruin happen'd in revenge of him,
Within their chief est temple I'll erect
A tomb, wherein his corpse shall be interr'd:
Upon the which, that every one may read,
of Salisbury; though, according to Holinshed, Talbot, Fastolfe,
and others, "caused bastilles to be made round about the citie,
and left nothing unattempted, that might advance their purpose."
Thenceforth the siege was turned into a blockade, but supplies and
reinforcements were still received into the place. We are told that
on one occasion the French, emboldened by success, made an assault
on the bastille that was kept by Talbot; who "issued foorth against
them, and gave them so sharp an incounter, that they, not able to
withstand his puissance, fled like sheepe before the woolfe again into
the citie." After "the maid" and her convoy entered the town,
which was in April, 1429, the English did not stir from their en-
trenchments; and in May they gave over and withdrew. — H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act. ii. Sc. u.
Shall be engraved the sack of Orleans,
The treacherous manner of his mournful death
And what a terror he had been to France.
But, lords, m all our bloody massacre,
I muse we met not with the Dauphin's grace,
His new-come champion, virtuous Joan of
Nor any of his false confederates.
Bed. 'Tis thought, Lord Talbot, when the fight be-
Roused on the sudden from their drowsy beds,
They did amongst the troops of armed men
Leap o'er the walls for refuge in the field.
Bur. Myself, as far as I could well discern
For smoke and dusky vapors of the night.
Am sure I scared the Dauphin and his trull.
When arm in arm they both came swiftly run-
Like to a pair of loving turtle-doves 30
That could not hve asunder day or night.
After that things are set in order here,
We '11 follow them with all the power we have.
Filter a Messenger.
Mess. All hail, my lords ! Which of this princely
Call ye the warlike Talbot, for his acts
So much applauded through the realm of
19. "wMse"= marvel.— H. X. H.
20. "Arc," Rowe's emendation of "Acre" of Ff.— I. G.
Act 11. Sc. ii. THE FIRST PAKT OF
Tal. Here is the Talbot: who would speak with
Mess. The virtuous lady, Countess of Auvergne,
With modesty admiring thy renown,
By me entreats, great lord, thou wouldst vouch-
To visit her poor castle where she lies.
That she may boast she hath beheld the man
Whose glory fills the world with loud report.
Bur. Is it even so? Nay, then, I see our wars
Will turn unto a peaceful comic sport.
When ladies crave to be encounter'd with.
You may not, my lord, despise her gentle suit.
Tal. Ne'er trust me then ; for when a world of men
Could not prevail with ^11 their oratory,
Yet hath a woman's kindness over-ruled: 50
And therefore tell her I return great thanks,
And in submission will attend on her.
Will not your honors bear me company?
Bed. No, truly; it is more than manners will:
And I have heard it said, unbidden guests
Are often welcomest when they are gone.
Tal. Well then, alone, since there 's no remedy,
I mean to prove this lady's courtesy.
Come hither, captain. [Whispers.^ You per-
ceive my mind ?
Capt. I do, my lord, and mean accordingly. 60
38. "Auvergne"; Rowe's emendation of F. 1, "Ouergne"; Ff. 2, 3,
"Auergne"; F. 4, "Avergne." — I. G.
41. "Lies" that is, where she dwells. — H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act ii. Sc. iii.
Auvergne. TJie Countess's castle.
Enter the Countess and her Porter.
Count. Porter, remember what I gave in charge;
And when you have done so, bring the keys to
Port. Madam, I will. [Eccit,
Count. The plot is laid : if all things fall out right,
I shall as famous be by this exploit
As Scythian Tomyris by Cyrus' death.
Great is the rumor of this dreadful knight.
And his achievements of no less account :
Fain would mine eyes be witness with mine ears.
To give their censure of these rare reports. 10
Enter Messenger and Talbot.
According as your ladyship desired,
By message craved, so is Lord Talbot come.
Count. And he is welcome. What! is this the
Mess. Madam, it is.
Count. Is this the scourge of France?
Is this the Talbot, so much fear'd abroad
That with his name the mothers still their babes ?
I see report is fabulous and false:
6. "Tomyris," queen of the Scythian tribe of the Massagetae, who
defeated Cyrus' invading force, and captured and slew himself (u.c.
529).— C. H. H.
Act II. Sc. iii. THE FIRST PART OF
I thought I should have seen some Hercules,
A second Hector, for his grim aspect, 20
And large proportion of his strong-knit limbs.
Alas, this is a cliild, a silly dwarf!
It cannot be this weak and writhled shrimp
Should strike such terror to his enemies.
Tal. iSIadam, I have been bold to trouble you;
But since 3''0ur ladyship is not at leisure,
I '11 sort some other time to visit you.
Count. What means he now ? Go ask him whither
Mess. Stay, my Lord Talbot; for my lady craves
To know the cause of your abrupt depar-
Tal. Marry, for that she 's in a wrong belief,
I go to certify her Talbot 's here.
Re-enter Porter with keys.
Count. If thou be he, then art thou prisoner.
Tal. Prisoner! to whom?
Count. To me, blood-thirsty lord;
And for that cause I train'd thee to my house.
Long time thy shadow had been thrall to me,
For in my gallery thy picture hangs:
But now the substance shall endure the like.
And I will chain these legs and arms of thine.
That hast by tyranny these many years 40
Wasted our country, slain our citizens.
And sent our sons and husbands captivate.
23. "Writhled" for wrinkled. Thus Spenser: "Her writhled skin
as rough as maple rind." And Marston, in his fourth Satire:
"Cold writhled eld, his lives web almost spent." — H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act II. Sc. iiL
TaL Ha, ha, ha!
Count. Laughest thou, wretch? thy mirtli shall
turn to moan.
Tal. I laugh to see your ladyship so fond
To think that you have aught but Talbot's
Whereon to practice your severity.
Count, Why, art not thou the man?
Tal, I am indeed.
Count, Then have I substance too.
Tal. No, no, I am but shadow^ of myself: 50
You are deceived, my substance is not here ;
For what you see is but the smallest part
And least proportion of humanity :
I tell you, madam, were the whole frame here,
It is of such a spacious lofty pitch,
Your roof were not sufficient to contain 't.
Count. This is a riddling merchant for the nonce;
He will be here, and yet he is not here :
How can these contrarieties agree?
Tal. That will I show you presently. 60
[Winds his horn. Drums strike up: a peal
of ordnance. Enter Soldiers.
49. "/ substance"; Vaughan proposed to read "I shadow, aye and
substance." — I. G.
57. The term "merchant," which was often applied to the lowest
kind of dealers, seems anciently to have been used on these familiar
occasions in contradistinction to gentleman; signifying that the
person showed by his behavior he was a low fellow. Thus in
Romeo and Juliet, the nurse saj's, "I pray you, sir, what saucy
merchant was this, that was so full of his ropery?" — "For the nonce'*
is for the purpose or the occasion. — H. N. H.
"for the nonce"; in Shakespeare's undoubted works this phrase
means "fit for the occasion"; here it is rather "without parallel,"'
"singular in his kind." — C. H. H.
Act II. Sc. iii. THE FIRST PART OF
How say you, madam? are you now persuaded
That Talbot is but shadow of hunself ?
These are his substance, sinews, arms and
With which he yoketh your rebelHous necks,
Razeth your cities and subverts your towns
And in a moment makes them desolate.
Count. Victorious Talbot! pardon my abuse:
I find thou art no less than fame hath bruited,
And more than may be gather'd by thy shape.
Let my presumption not provoke thy wrath ; 70
For I am sorry that with reverence
I did not entertain thee as thou art.
Tal. Be not dismay'd, fair lady; nor misconstrue
The mind of Talbot, as you did mistake
The outward composition of his body.
What you have done hath not offended me ;
Xor other satisfaction do I crave,
But only, with your patience, that we may
Taste of your wine and see what cates you have ;
For soldiers' stomachs always serve them
Count. With all my heart, and think me honored
To feast so great a warrior in my house.
KING HENRY VI Act II. Sc. iv.
London. The Temple- garden.
Enter the Earls of Somerset, Suffolk, and War-
wick; Richard Plantagenet^ Vernon, and an-
Plan. Great lords and gentlemen, what means this
Dare no man answer in a case of truth?
Suf. Within the Temple-hall we were too loud ;
The garden here is more convenient.
Plan. Then say at once if I maintain'd the truth;
Or else was \^Tangling Somerset in the error?
1. This Richard Plantagenet was son to the earl of Cambridge
who was overtaken in a plot against the life of Henry V, and
executed at Southampton. That earl was a younger brother of
f^dward, duke of York, who fell at the battle of Agincourt, and
had no child to succeed him. So that on his father's side Rich-
ard was grandson to Edmund of Langley, the -fifth son of Edward
III. His mother was Anne, sister of Edmund Mortimer, earl of
March, and great-granddaughter to Lionel, duke of Clarence, who
was the third son of Edward IH. In 1125, the fourth year of
Henry VI, Richard was restored to the rights and titles that had
been forfeited by his father, and was made duke of York. After
the death of Bedford, in 1435, he succeeded him as regent of
France; was recalled two years later, and appointed again in
1441. Some three years after, being supplanted in that office by
his rival, the duke of Somerset, he took the government of Ire-
land instead, from whence he began to stretch forth his hand to
the crown. — H. N. H.
6. The earl of Somerset at this time was John Beaufort, grand-
son to John of Ghent by Catharine Swynford, and of course nephew
to the duke of Exeter and the bishop of Winchester. He was after-
wards advanced to the rank of duke, and died in 143x?, leaving his
title to his brother Edmund; his only surviving child being Margaret,
who was married to the earl of Richmond, and thence became the
mother of Henry VII. So that there were two dukes of Somerset
Act II. Sc. iv. THE FIRST PART OF
Suf. Faith, I have been a truant in the law.
And never yet could frame my will to it;
And therefore frame the law unto my will.
So?n. Judge you, my lord of Warwick, then, be-
tween us. 10
War. Between two hawks, which flies the higher