Cade. I have thought upon it, it shall be so.
Away burn all tlie records of the realm : my
mouth shall be the parliament of England.
Holl. [Aside'] Then we are like to have biting
statutes, unless his teeth be pulled out.
Cade. And henceforward all things shall be in 20
Enter a Messenger,
Mess. My lord, a prize, a prize ! here 's the Lord
Say, which sold the towns in France ; he that
made us pay one and twenty fifteens, and
Act IV. Sc. vii. THE SECOND PART OF
one shilling to the pound, the last subsidy.
Enter George Bevis, with the Lord Say.
Cade, Well, he shall be beheaded for it ten
times. Ah, thou say, thou serge, nay, thou
buckram lord! now art thou within point-
blank of our jurisdiction regal. What
canst thou answer to my majesty for giv- 30
ing up of Normandy unto I^Iounsieur
Basimecu, the dauphin of France? Be it
known unto thee by these presence, even the
presence of Lord Mortimer, that I am the
besom that must sweep the court clean of
such filth as thou art. Thou hast most
traitorously corrupted the youth of the
realm in erecting a grammar school: and
whereas, before, our forefathers had no
other books but the score and the tally, thou 40
hast caused printing to be used, and, con-
trary to the king, his crown and dignity,
thou hast built a paper-mill. It will be
proved to thy face that thou hast men about
thee that usually talk of a noun and a verb,
and such abominable words as no Christian
ear can endure to hear. Thou hast ap-
pointed justices of peace, to call poor men
before them about matters they were not
able to answer. Moreover, thou hast put 50
them in prison; and because they could not
read, thou hast hanged them; when, indeed,
41. "thou hast caused printing to be used"; printing was not really
introduced into England until twenty years later. ā I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act iv. Sc. vu.
only for that cause they have been most
worthy to live. Thou dost ride in a foot-
cloth, dost thou not?
Say. What of that?
Cade, Marry, thou oughtest not to let thy
horse wear a cloak, when honester men than
thou go in their hose and doublets.
Dick. And work in their shirt too; as myself, 60
for example^ that am a butcher.
Say. You men of Kent, ā
Dick. What say you of Kent?
Say. Nothing but this ; 'tis 'bona terra, mala gens.*
Cade. Away with him, away with him ! he speaks
Say. Hear me but speak, and bear me where you
Kent, in the Commentaries Caesar writ,
Is term'd the civil'st place of all this isle:
55. A comparison of this speech as it is in the quarto will show
that it gained nothing in humor by the revisal: "Come hither, thou
Say, thou George (serge,) thou buckram lord, what answer canst
thou make unto my mightiness, for delivering up the towns in
France to monsieur Bus-mine-cue, the dolphin of France? An, more
than so, thou hast most traitorously erected a grammar-school, to
infect the youth of the realm; and against the king's crown and
dignity thou hast built up a paper-miil: nay, it will be said to thy
face, that thou keep'st men in thy house that daily read of books
with red letters, and talk of a noun and verb, and such abominable
words as no Christian ear is able to endure it. And, besides ail
this, thou hast appointed certain justices oĀ± the peace in every shire,
to hang honest men that steal for their living; and because they
could not read, thou hast hung them up; only for which cause they
were most worthy to live." ā H. N. H.
67, 68. Caesar says in Book V. of the Commentaries, "Ex his
omnibus sunt humanissimi qui Cantium incolunt" which Golding
rendered (1590), "Of all the inhabitants of this isle, the civilest are
the Kentish folke." ā I. G.
Act IV. Sc. vii. THE SECOND PART OF
Sweet is the country, because full of riches;
The people liberal, valiant, active, wealthy; 70
Which makes me hope you are not void of pity.
I sold not Maine, I lost not Normandy,
Yet, to recover them, would lose my life.
Justice with favor have I always done ;
Prayers and tears have moved me, gifts could
When have I ought exacted at your hands.
But to maintain the king, the realm, and you?
Large gifts have I bestow'd on learned clerks,
Because my book preferr'd me to the king,
And seeing ignorance is the curse of God, 80
Knowledge the wing wherewith we fly to
Unless you be possess'd with devilish spirits,
You cannot but forbear to murder me:
This tongue hath parley'd unto foreign kings
For your behoof, ā
Cade. Tut, when struck'st thou one blow in the
Say, Great men have reaching hands: oft have I
Those that I never saw and struck them dead.
Geo. O monstrous coward! what, to come behind
Say. These cheeks are pale for watching for your
69. "because full"; Hanmer reads "beauteous, full"; Vaughan,
"bounteous, full," &c.ā I. G.
77. "But to maintain"; (Johnson Rann); "Kent to m.," the read-
ing of Ff.; Steevens, "Bent to m." ; Malone, "Kent to m.," &c.ā I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act IV. Sc. vii.
Cade. Give him a box o' the ear and that will
make 'em red again.
Say. Long sitting to determine poor men's causes
Hath made me full of sickness and diseases.
Cade. Ye shall have a hemi^en caudle then and
the help of hatchet.
Dich. Why dost thou quiver, man?
Say. The palsy, and not fear, provokes me.
Cade. Nay, he nods at us, as who should say,
I '11 be even with you; I '11 see if his head 100
will stand steadier on a pole, or no. Take
him away, and behead him.
Say. Tell me wherein have I offended most?
Have I affected wealth or honor? speak.
Are my chests fill'd up with extorted gold?
Is my apparel sumptuous to behold?
Whom have I injured, that ye seek my death?
These hands are free from guiltless blood-
This breast from harboring foul deceitful
O, let me live! 110
Cade. \^Aside~\ I feel remorse in myself with
his words ; but I '11 bridle it : he shall die,
an it be but for pleading so well for his life;
Away with him ! he has a familiar under his
tongue; he speaks not o' God's name. Go,
take him away, I say, and strike off his
head presently; and then break into his son-
96. "The help of hatchet"; so F. 1; Ff. ^, 3, 4, "the help of a
hatchet"; Farmer, "pap xcilh a hatchet," a singularly happy emenda-
tion, &c.ā I. G.
Act IV. Sc. vii. THE SECOND PART OF
in-law's house, Sir James Cromer, and strike
off his head, and bring them both upon two
poles hither. 120
All. It shall be done.
Say. Ah, countrymen! if when you make your
God should be so obdurate as yourselves,
How would it fare with your departed souls?
And therefore yet relent, and save my life.
Cade. Away with him! and do as I command ye.
[Exeunt some with Lord Say.
The proudest peer in the realm shall not
wear a head on his shoulders, unless he pay
me tribute ; there shall not a maid be mar- 130
ried, but she shall pay to me her maiden-
head ere they have it: men shall hold of me
118. "Sir James Cromer"; it was Sir William Cromer whom Cade
beheaded. ā I. G.
120. The following is Holinshed's account of these doings: "After
that, he entered into London, cut the roi^es of the draw-bridge, and
strooke his sword on London stone, saieng, 'Now is Mortimer lord
of this citie.' And, after a glosing declaration made to the maior
touching the cause of his thither comming, he departed againe into
Southwarke, and upon the third daie of Julie he caused sir James
Fines, lord Sale, and treasurer of England, to be brought to the
Guildhall, and there to be arreigned; who, being before the kings
justices put to answer, desired to be tried by his peeres, for the
longer delaie of his life. The capteine, perceiving his dilatorie plee,
by force tooke him from the officers, and brought him to the standard
in Cheape, and there caused his head to be striken off, and pitched
it upon an high pole, which was openlie borne before him through
the streets. And, not content herewith, he went to Mile-end, and
there apprehended sir James Cromer, then sheriffe of Kent, and
sonne-in-law to the said lord Saie, causing him likewise to be be-
headed, and his head to be fixed on a pole. And with these two
heads this bloudie wretch entered into the citie againe, and as it
were in spite caused them in everie street to kisse together, to the
great detestation of all the beholders." ā H, N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act iv. Sc. vfi
in capite; and we charge and command that
their wives be as free as heart can wish or
tongue can tell.
Dick. My lord, when shall we go to Cheapside
and take up commodities upon our bills?
Cade. ISIarry, presently.
All. O, brave!
Re-enter one with the heads.
Cade. But is not this braver? Let them kiss 140
one another, for they loved well when they
were alive. Now part them again, lest they
consult about the giving up of some more
towns in France. Soldiers, defer the spoil
of the city until night : for -with these borne
before us, instead of maces, will we ride
through the streets and at every corner have
them kiss. Awaj^! [Ecceunt.
133. "hold of me in capite," hold their possessions immediately
from me, as king (with a quibble on "head" in the last line). ā C.
137. "take vp commodities itpon our hiUs," a play upon the com-
mercial sense of the phrase: "accept goods as security for, or in
fSart payment of, a loan.'' Cade is now, it is implied, the owner of
London's wealth, which the citizens hold from him un credit. ā C,
Act IV. Sc. viii. THE SECOND PART OF
Alarum and retreat. Enter Cade and all his rah-
Cade. Up Fish Street! down Saint Magnus*
Corner! kill and knock down! throw them
into Thames! [Sound a parley.^ What
noise is this I hear? Dare any be so bold to
sound retreat or parley, w^hen I command
Enter Buckingham and Cliff ord^ attended.
Buck. Aye, here they be that dare and will disturb
Know, Cade, we come ambassadors from the
Unto the commons whom thou hast misled;
And here pronounce free pardon to them all, 10
That will forsake thee and go home in j)eace. .
Clif. What say ye, countrymen? will ye relent.
And yield to mercy whilst 'tis ofFer'd you ;
Sc. 8. Soiithwark. This is certainly the locality of the latter part
of the scene, where Cade is "left" at the White Hart. The opening
words, however, suggest that Shakespeare is dramatising the battle
on the bridge, of July 5 (l-iSO), when, according to Holinshed, at
one time "the Londoners were beaten back to St. Magnus' corner;
and suddenly again the rebels were repelled to the stoops in South-
wark." The charge and retreat are thus compressed into six lines,
and as Mr. Daniel says, Cade's men "seem to be on both sides of
the river at the same time." ā C. H. H.
KING HENRY VI Act iv. Sc. vUi.
Or let a rebel lead you to your deatlis ?
Who loves the king* and will embrace his par-
Fling up his cap, and say 'God save his ma-
Who hateth him and honors not his father,
Henry the fifth, that made all France to quake,
Shake he his weapon at us and pass by.
All. God save the king ! God save the king! 20
Cade. What, Buckingham and Clifford, are ye
so brave? And you, base peasants, do ye be-
lieve him? will you needs be hanged with
your pardons about your necks? Hath my
sword therefore broke through London
gates, that you should leave me at the White
Hart in Southwark? I thought ye would
never have given out these arms till you had
recovered your ancient freedom ; but you are
all recreants and dastards, and delight to 30
live in slavery to the nobility. Let them
break your backs with burthens, take your
houses over your heads, ravish your wives
and daughters before your faces: for me, I
will make shift for one; and so, God's curse
light upon you all!
All. We '11 follow Cade, we '11 follow Cade!
CUf. Is Cade the son of Henry the Fifth,
That thus you do exclaim you '11 go with him?
Will he conduct you through the heart of
U. "rebel"; Singer's emendation (Collier MS. and Anon. MS.) of
Ff., "rabble"; Vaughan, "ribald."ā l. G.
Act IV. Sc. viii. THE SECOND PART OF
Aiid make the meanest of you earls and dukes?
Alas, he hath no home, no place to fly to;
Nor knows he how to live but by the spoil,
Unless by robbing of your friends and us.
Were 't not a shame, that whilst 3^ou live at jar.
The fearful French, whom you late van-
Should make a start o'er seas and vanquish
Methinks already in this civil broil
I see them lording it in London streets,
Crying 'Villiago!' unto all they meet. 50
Better ten thousand base-born Cades miscarry.
Than you should stoop unto a Frenchman's
To France, to France, and get v/hat you have
Spare England, for it is your native coast:
Henry hath money, you are strong and manly ;
God on our side, doubt not of victory.
AIL A CHfFord! a ChfFord! we'll follow the
king and Clifford.
Cade. Was ever feather so lightly blown to and
fro as this multitude? The name of Henry 60
the Fifth hales them to an hundred mis-
chiefs and makes them leave me desolate.
I see them lay their heads together to sur-
prise me. My sword make way for me, for
here is no staying. In despite of the devils
and hell, have through the very middest of
you! and heavens and honor be witness that
. no want of resolution in me, but only my
KING HENRY VI Act iv. Sc. i^
followers' base and ignominious treasons,
make me betake me to my heels. 70
Buck. What, is he fled? Go some, and follow him ;
And he that brings his head unto the king
Shall have a thousand crowns for his reward.
[EiVeimt some of them.
Follow me, soldiers : we '11 devise a mean
To reconcile you all unto the king.
Sound trumpets. Enter King, Queen, and
Somerset, on the terrace.
King. Was ever king that joy'd an earthly throne.
And could command no more content than 1?
No sooner was I crept out of my cradle
But I was made a king, at nine months old.
Was never subject long'd to be a king
As I do long and wish to be a subject.
Enter Buclxingham and Clifford.
Buck. Health and glad tidings to your majesty!
King. Why, Buckingham, is the traitor Cade sur-
Or is he but retired to make him strong?
Enter, below, multitudes, with halters about
Act IV. Sc. ix. THE SECOND PART OF
Clif. He is fled, my lord, and all his powers do
And humbly thus, with halters on their necks,
Expect your highness' doom, of life or death.
King. Then, heaven, set ope thy everlasting gates,
To entertain my vows of thanks and praise!
Soldiers, this day have you redeem'd your lives,
And show'd how w^ll 3^ou love your prince and
Continue still in this so good a mind,
And Henry, though he be infortunate,
Assure yourselves, will never be unkind:
And so, with thanks and pardon to you all, 20
I do dismiss j^ou to your several countries.
AIL God save the king! God save the king!
Mess. Please it your grace to be advertised
The Duke of York is newly come from Ire-
And with a puissant and mighty power
Of gallowglasses and stout kernes
Is marching hitherward in proud array,
And still proclaimeth, as he comes along.
His arms are only to remove from thee
26. "yalloxcylasses," native Irish soldiers, armed with pole-axes, and
noted as being "grim of countenance, tall of stature, big of limb,
lusty of body, well and strongly timbered." ā C. H. H.
"Of (jallowcjlasses and stout kernes"; Hanmer reads, "Of des-
p'raie gallowglasses," &c.; Capell, "Of nimble g.," &c.; Dyce, "Of
savage g.," &c.; "stout"; Mitford, "siout Irish"; "kernes"; Keightley,
"kernes, he"; Vaughan, "kernes supplied." ā I. G.
29. "arms"; F. 1, "Armes"; Ff. 2, 3, 4, "Armies."
KING HENRY VI Act IV. Sc. Ā«.
The Duke of Somerset, whom he terms a
King. Thus stands my state, 'twixt Cade and York
Like to a ship that, having 'scaped a tempest,
Is straightway calm'd and boarded with a
But now is Cade driven back, his men dis-
And now is York in arms to second him.
I pray thee, Buckingham, go and meet him,
And ask him what 's the reason of these arms.
Tell him I '11 send Duke Edmund to the
And, Somerset, we will commit thee thither,
Until his army be dismiss'd from him. 40
Som. ^ly lord,
I '11 yield myself to prison willingly.
Or unto death, to do my country good.
King. In any case, be not too rough in terms ;
For he is fierce and cannot brook hard lan-
Buck. I will, my lord; and doubt not so to deal
As all things shall redound unto your good.
33. "calm'd," the reading of F. 4; F. 1, "calme"; F. 2, "claimd";
F. 3, "claim'd"; Beckett, "cramp'd"; Walker, "chased."ā I. G.
3-t. "But" is here not adversative. "It was only just now."ā
H. N. H.
36. "/ pray thee, Buckingham, (jo and meet him"; , Staunton, "Go,
I pray thee, B.," &c. ; Rowe reads, "(jo and meet with him"; Malone,
"to go and meet him"; Steevens (1793), "go forth and meet him";
Collier (Collier MS.), "then go and nieet him"; Dyce, "go thou and
meet him." ā I. G.
Act IV. Sc. X. THE SECOND PART OF
King. Come, wife, let 's in, and learn to govern
For yet may England curse my wretched reign.
Kent. Idens garden.
Cade. Fie on ambition ! fie on myself, that have
a sword, and yet am ready to famish ! These
five days have I hid me in these woods and
durst not peep out, for all the country is laid
for me; but now am I so hungry that if I
might have a lease of my life for a thousand
years I could stay no longer. Wherefore,
on a brick wall have I climbed into this gar-
den, to see if I can eat grass, or pick a sallet
another while, which is not amiss to cool a 10
man's stomach this hot weather. And I
think this word 'sallet' was born to do me
1. "Fie on ambition"; so the later Ff.; F, 1, "Ambitions."ā \. G.
9. Of course Cade is punning on the word sallet, which meant
a helmet as well as a preparation of herbs. In illustration of the
text, Mr. Collier produces an apt passage from an Interlude written
as early as 1537, where the hero, Thersites, applies to Mulciber
for a suit of armor, and Mulciber pretends to misunderstand him:
"Thersites, Nowe, I pray Jupiter, that thou dye a cuckold:
I mean a sallet with which men do fyght.
Mulciber. It is a small tastinge of a mannes might,
That he should for any matter
Fyght with a few herbes in a platter." ā H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act IV. Sc. x.
good: for many a time, but for a sallet, my
brain-pan had been cleft with a brown bill;
and many a time, when I have been dry and
bravely marching, it hath served me instead
of a quart pot to drink in ; and now the word
'sallet' must serve me to feed on.
Enter I den.
Iden. Lord, who would live turmoiled in the court,
And may enjoy such quiet walks as these? 20
This small inheritance my father left me
Contenteth me, and worth a monarchy.
I seek not to wax great by others' waning.
Or gather wealth, I care not with what envy :
Sufficeth that I have maintains my state,
And sends the poor well pleased from my gate.
Cade. Here 's the lord of the soil come to seize
me for a stray, for entering his fee-simple
without leave. All, villain, thou wilt betray
me, and get a thousand crowns of the king 30
by carrying my head to him : but I '11 make
thee eat iron like an ostrich, and swallow my
sword like a great pin, ere thou and I part.
Iden. Why, rude companion, whatsoe'er thou be,
I know thee not; why then should I betray
Is 't not enough to break into my garden.
And, like a thief, to come to rob my grounds.
Climbing my walls in spite of me the owner,
But thou wilt brave me with these saucy terms?
23. The original has warning, which was corrected by Pope, In.
the preceding line is is understood before worth. ā H. N. H.
Act IV. Sc. X. THE SECOND PART OF
Cade. Brave thee! aye, by the best blood that 40
ever was broached, and beard thee too.
Look on me well: I have eat no meat these
five days; yet, come thou and thy five men,
and if 1 do not leave you all as dead as a
door-nail, I pray God I may never eat grass
I den. Nay, it shall ne'er be said, while England
That Alexander Iden, an esquire of Kent,
. Took odds to combat a poor f amish'd man.
Oppose thy steadfast-gazing eyes to mine, 50
See if thou canst outface me with thy looks:
Set limb to limb, and thou are far the lesser :
Thy hand is but a finger to my fist,
Thy leg a stick compared with this trun-
My foot shall fight with all the strength thou
And if mine arm be heaved in the air,
Thj^ grave is digg'd already in the earth.
As for words, whose greatness answers words,
Let this my sword report what speech for-
Cade. By my valor, the most complete cham- 60
45. "dead as a door-nail"; the phrase was properly used, here, of
death produced by repeated blows, as of the door-knocker upon the
"door-nail."ā C. H. H.
48. "That Alexander Iden, an esquire of Kent"; Capell, '"squir";
Marshall omits "an," following Hall. ā I. G.
58, "As for words, whose greatness answers words"; Rowe reads,
"As for more words," &c.; Mason, "As for mere words," &c.; Dyce
(Anon, conj.), "But as for words," Sac, &c.ā I. G.
KING HENRY VI Act iv. Sc. x.
pion that ever I heard! Steel, if thou turn
the edge, or cut not out the burly-boned
clown in chines of beef ere thou sleep in
thy sheath, I beseech God on my knees thou
mayst be turned to hobnails.
[Here they fight. Cade falls,
O, I am slain! famine and no other hath
slain me: let ten thousand devils come
against me, and give me but the ten meals
I have lost, and I '11 defy them all. Wither,
garden; and be henceforth a burying-place 70
to all that do dwell in this house, because
the unconquered soul of Cade is fled.
I den. Is 't Cade that I have slain, that monstrous
Sword, I will hallow thee for this thy deed.
And hang thee o'er my tomb when I am dead:
Ne'er shall this blood be wiped from thy point;
But thou shalt wear it as a herald's coat.
To emblaze the honor that thy master got.
Cade. Iden, farewell, and be proud of thy vic-
tory. Tell Kent from me, she hath lost her 80
best man, and exhort all the world to be cow-
ards; for I, that never feared any, am van-
quished by famine, not by valor. . [Dies.
Iden. How much thou wrong'st me, heaven be my
Die, damned wTctch, the curse of her that bare
64. "God"; Malone's correction (from Qq.) of "loue" of the Ff.ā
Act IV. Sc. X. THE SECOND PART OE
And as I thrust thy body in with my sword,
So wish I, I might thrust thy soul to hell.
Hence will I drag thee headlong by the heels
Unto a dunghill which shall be thy grave,
And there cut off thy most ungracious head; 90
Which I will bear in triumph to the king.
Leaving thy trunk for crows to feed upon.
86. "And as I thrust thy body in with my sword"; Dyce (Lloyd
conj.), omits "in." ā I. G.
92. The Poet has here wandered from the line of historical fact,
with a view, no doubt, to relieve his scenes of strife and hatred
with a passage of rural quiet and unambitious comfort. Iden had
in fact just been appointed sheriff of Kent, and was in pursuit of
Cade, having left home for that very purpose. The matter, how-
ever, is thus given by Holinshed: "A gentleman of Kent, named
Alexander Eden, awaited so his time, that he tooke the said Cade
in a garden in Sussex; so that there he was slain at Hothfield,
and brought to London in a cart, where he was quartered, his
head set on London bridge, and his quarters sent to diverse places
to be set up in the shire of Kent." Cade's flight was on July 9, 1450,
and his death but two days after. ā H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act v. Sc. i.
Fields between Dartford and Blackheath.
Enter York, and his army of Irish, with drum
York. From Ireland thus comes York to claim his
And pluck the crown from feeble Henry's
Ring, bells, aloud; burn, bonfires, clear and
To entertain great England's lawful king.
Ah! sancta majestas, who would not buy thee
Let them obey that know^ not how to rule ;
This hand was made to handle nought but gold.
I cannot give due action to my words,
Except a sword or scepter balance it:
A scepter shall it have, have I a soul, 10
On which I '11 toss the flower-de-luce of France.