Mont. And I unto the sea from whence I came.
\Exeu7it York and his Sons, Warwick,
Norfolk, Montague, their Soldiers,
205. The terms of this compromise are thus given in Hall and
Holinshed: "After long debating of the matter amongest the peeres,
prelats, and commons, upon the vigill of All-saints it was conde-
scended, for so much as king Henrie had beene taken as king by
the space of thirtie and eight yeares and more, that he should injoy
the name and title of king, and have possession of the realme during
his naturall life. And if he either died, or resigned, or forfeited
the same by breaking or going against anie point of this concord,
then the said crowne and authoritie roiall should immediately be
devoluted and come to the duke of Yorke, if he then lived; or else
to the next heire of his linage. And that the duke of Yorke from
thense foorth should be protectour and regent of the land. This
agreement, put in articles, was ingrossed, sealed, and sworne unto
by the two parties, and also enacted in the parlement. For joy
whereof the king, having in his companie the duke of Yorke, rode
to the cathedrall church of saint Paule in London, and there on the
day of All-saints with the crowne on his head went solemnlie in
procession, and was lodged a good space in the bishops palace, neere
to the said church. And upon the Saturdaie next insuing, Richard
duke of Yorke was by sound of trumpet solemnlie proclaimed heire
apparent to the crowne of England, and protectour of the realme."
All-saints day is November 1. ā H. N. H.
206. Sandal Castle, near Wakefield, in Yorkshire. ā H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. i.
K, Hen. And I, with grief and sorrow, to the
Enter Queen Margaret and the Prince of Wales,
Ecce. Here conies the queen, whose looks bewrajr
her anger :
I '11 steal away.
K. Hen. Exeter, so will I.
Q. Mar. Nay, go not from me; I will follow thee.
K, Hen. Be patient, gentle queen, and I will stay.
Q. Mar. Who can be patient in such extremes?
All, wretched man! would I had died a maid.
And never seen thee, never borne thee son.
Seeing thou hast proved so unnatural a father I
Hath he deserved to lose his birthright thus ?
Hadst thou but loved him half so well as I, 220
Or felt that pain which I did for him once.
Or nourish'd him as I did with my blood.
Thou wouldst have left thy dearest heart-blood
Rather than have made that savage duke thine
And disinherited thine only son.
Frince. Father, you cannot disinherit me:
If you be king, why should not I succeed?
K. Hen. Pardon me, Margaret; pardon me, sweet
The Earl of Warwick and the duke enforced
Q. Mar. Enforced thee! art thou king, and wilt
be forced? 230
211. "Bewray" is an old form of betray, meaning to discover. ā
H. N. H.
Act I. Sc. i. THE THIRD PART OF
I shame to hear thee speak. Ah, timorous
Thou hast midone thyself, thy son, and me ;
And given unto the house of York such head,
As thou shalt reign but by their sufferance.
To entail him and his heirs unto the crown.
What is it, but to make thy sepulcher.
And creep into it far before thy time?
Warwick is chancellor and the lord of Calais;
Stern Falconbridge commands the narrow seas;
The duke is made protector of the realm; 240
And yet shalt thou be safe? such safety finds
The trembling lamb en\aroned with wolves.
Had I been there, which am a silly woman.
The soldiers should have toss'd me on their pikes,
Before I would have granted to that act.
But thou pref err'st thy life before thine honor :
239. This was Thomas, natural son of William Nevil Lord Fal-
conbridge, who was uncle to Warwick and Montague. This Thomas
Nevil, says Hall, was "a man of no lesse corage than audacitie,
who for his cruel condicions was such an apte person, that a more
meter could not be chosen to set all the world in a broyle, and to
put the estate of the realme on an ill hazard." He had been ap-
pointed by Warwick vice admiral of the sea, and had in charge so
to keep the passage between Dover and Calais, that none which either
favored King Henry or his friends should escape untaiven or un-
drowned: such at least were his instructions with respect to the
friends and favorers of King Edward after the rupture between
him and Warwick. On Warwick's death he fell into poverty, and
robbed, both by sea and land, as well friends as enemies. He once
brought his slu'ps up the Thames, and with a considerable body of
the men of Kent and Essex, made a spirited assault on the city, with
a view to plunder and pillage, which was not repelled but after a
sharp conflict, and the loss of many lives; and, had it happened at
a more critical period, might have been attended with fatal conse-
quences to Edward. After roving on the sea some little time longer,
he ventured to land at Southampton, where he was taken and be-
headed.ā H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. i.
And seeing thou dost, I here divorce myself
Both from thy table, Henry, aild thy bed.
Until that act of parliament be rej^eal'd,
Whereby my son is disinherited. 250
The northern lords that have forsworn thy
Will follow mine, if once they see them spread ;
And spread they shall be, to thy foul disgrace
And utter ruin of the house of York.
Thus do I leave thee. Come, son, let 's away ;
Our army is ready ; come, we '11 after them.
K. Hen. Stay, gentle Margaret, and hear me
Q. 31 ar. Thou hast spoke too much already: get
K. Hen. Gentle son Edward, thou wilt stay with
Q. 3Iar. Aye, to be murder'd by his enemies. 260
Prince. When I return with victory from the field
I '11 see your grace : till then I '11 follow her.
Q. Mar. Come, son, away; we may not linger thus.
[Ecveunt Queen Margaret and the Pnnce.
K. Hen. Poor queen! how love to me and to her
Hath made her break out into terms of rage !
Revenged may she be on that hateful duke.
Whose haughty spirit, winged with desire.
Will cost my crown, and like an empty eagle
261. "from," the reading of Ff. 2, 3, 4, and Qq.; F. 1, "to."ā I. G.
268. "cost," so Ff.; Hanmer, "truss"; Warburton, "coast," i. e.
"watch and follow, or hover round"; Steevcns, "cote"; Jackson,
"coure'; Dyce, "some." Warburton's emendation is generally
adopted by modern editors. ā I. G.
Act I. Sc. ii. THE TPIIRD PART OF
Tire on the flesh of me and of my son !
The loss of those three lords torments my
I '11 write unto them and entreat them fair.
Come, cousin, j'^ou shall be the messenger.
Ea:e. And I, I hope, shall reconcile them all.
Enter Richard, Edward, Montague.
'Rich. Brother, though I be youngest, give me leave.
Edw. No, I can better play the orator.
269. To "lire" is to tear, to feed like a bird of prey; from the
Anglo-Saxon tirian. Thus in the Poet's Venus and Adonis:
"Even as an empty eagle, sharp by fast.
Tires with her beak on feathers, flesh, and bone." ā H. N. H.
270. That is, of Northumberland, Westmoreland, and Clifford, who
had left him in disgust.
272. "Cousin"; Henry Holland, the present duke of Exeter, was
cousin german to the king, his grandfather, John Holland, earl of
Huntingdon and duke of Exeter in the time of Richard II, having
married Elizabeth Plantagenet, daughter to John of Ghent by his
first wife. The earldom of Huntingdon was his inheritance, and
he was created duke of Exeter in 1444, at the same time that
Suffolk was made marquess. His grandfather, the first earl of
Huntingdon in that line, was half-brother to Richard H, being son
to Joan the Fair Maid of Kent by her first husband, Sir Thomas
Holland. He was made duke of Exeter by King Richard in 1397,
his brother Thomas and Henry of Bolingbroke being at Ae same
time made dukes of Surrey and Hereford; but, being a fast friend
to Richard, he was deprived of that title in 1399, soon after Boling-
broke mounted the throne; and, being engaged in the first conspiracy
against that king, was taken and beheaded the next year. However,
his son John, the second earl of Huntingdon, was in favor with
Henry V, and was with him in France. ā H. N. H,
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. ii.
Mont. But I have reasons strong and forcible.
Enter the Duke of York.
York. Why, how now, sons and brother! at a strife?
What is your quarrel? how began it first?
Edtc. No quarrel, but a sHght contention.
York. About what?
Rich. About that which concerns your grace and
The crown of England, father, which is yours.
York. Mine, boy? not till King Henry be dead. 10
Rich. Your right depends not on his life or death.
Ediv. Now you are heir, therefore enjoy it now:
By giving the house of Lancaster leave to
It will outrun you, father, in the end.
York. I took an oath that he should quietly reign.
Edw. But for a kingdom any oath may be broken :
I would break a thousand oaths to reign one
Rich. No; God forbid your grace should be for-
York. I shall be, if I claim by open war.
Rich. I '11 prove the contrary, if you '11 hear me
York. Thou canst not, son; it is impossible. 21
Rich. An oath is of no moment, being not took
Before a true and lawful magistrate,
That hath authority over him that swears:
Hemy had none, but did usurp the place;
16. "ami"; Dyce, "an." (?) "But for a kingdom may an oath be
broken."ā I. G.
Act I. Sc. ii. THE THIRD PART OF
Then, seeing 'twas he that made you to depose,
Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous.
Therefore, to arms! And, father, do but think
How sweet a thing it is to wear a crouii ;
Within whose circuit is Elysium, 30
And all that poets feign of bliss and joy.
Why do we linger thus ? I cannot rest
Until the white rose that I wear be dyed
Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry's heart.
York. Richard, enough ; I will be king, or die.
Brother, thou shalt to London presently,
And whet on Warwick to this enterprise.
Thou, Richard, shalt to the Duke of Norfolk,
And tell him privily of our intent.
You, Edward, shall unto my Lord Cobham, 40
With whom the Kentishmen will willingly rise :
In them I trust; for they are soldiers,
Witty, courteous, liberal, full of spirit.
While you are thus employ'd, what resteth more,
But that I seek occasion how to rise.
And yet the king not privy to my drift.
Nor any of the house of Lancaster?
.Enter a Messenger.
27. The obligation of an oath is here eluded by a very despica-
ble sophistry. A lawful magistrate alone has the power to exact
an oath, but the oath derives no part of its force from the magis-
trate. The plea against the obligation of an oath obliging to main-
tain a usurper, (taken from the unlawfulness of tiie oath itself,)
in the foregoing play, was rational and just (Johnson). ā H. N. H.
38. "shalt to the Duke of Norfolk"; the reading of Ff. 1, 2, 3;
F. 4, "shalt be D. of N"; Rowe, "shall go to the D. of N."; Pope,
"shalt to th' D. of N. go"; Steevens, "shalt unto the D. of N.";
Vaughan, "shalt straight to the D. of N."āl. G.
40. "Lord Cobham"; Hanmer, "Lord of Cobham."ā I. G.
48. The folio reads "Enter Gabriel." It was the name of the
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. ii.
But, stay: what news? Why comest thou in
Mess, The queen with all the northern earls and
Intend here to besiege you in your castle: 50
She is hard by with twenty thousand men ;
And therefore fortify your hold, my lord.
York. Aye, with my sword. What! think'st thou
that we fear them?
Edward and Richard, you shall stay with me;
My brother INIontague shall post to London:
Let noble Warwick, Cobham, and the rest.
Whom we have left protectors of the king,
With powerful policy strengthen themselves,
And trust not simple Henry nor his oaths.
actor, probably Qabriel Singer, who played this insignificant part.
The emendation is from the quarto. ā H. N. H.
59. From the hollow reconciliation of the foregoing scene, both
parties went directly to preparing for war. The preliminaries to
the battle of "Wakefield, which followed soon after, are thus deliv-
ered in the Chronicles: "The duke of Yorke, well knowing that the
queene would spurne against all this, caused both hir and hir sonne
to be sent for by the king. But she, as woont rather to rule than
be ruled, not onelie denied to come, but assembled a great armie,
intending to take the king by force out of the lords hands. The
protectour in London, having knowledge of all these dooings, as-
signed the duke of Norffolke, and erle of Warwick, his trustie
freends, to be about the king, whiles he with the carles of Salisburie
and Rutland, and a convenient number, departed out of London the
second dale of December northward, and appointed the earle of
March, his eldest sonne, to follow him with all his power. The duke
came to his castell of Sandall beside Wakefield on Christmasse eeven,
and there began to make muster of his tenants and freends. The
queene, thereof ascerteined, determined to cope with him yer his
succour were come. Having in hir companie the prince hir sonne,
the dukes of Excester and Summerset, the lord Clifford, and in
effect all the lords of the north parts, with eighteene thousand men,
she marched from Yorke to Wakefield, and bad base to the duke.
Act I. Sc. ii. THE THIRD PART OF
Mont. Brother, I go; I '11 win them, fear it not: 60
And thus most humbly I do take my leave.
Enter Sir John Mortimer and Sir Hugh Mortimer.
York. Sir John and Sir Hugh Mortimer, mine
You are come to Sandal in a happj^ hour ;
The army of the queen means to besiege us.
Sir John. She shall not need; we '11 meet her in the
York. What, wuth five thousand men?
Rich. Aye, with five hundred, father, for a need :
A woman's general; what should we fear?
[A march afar off.
Edw. I hear their drums : let 's set our men in or-
And issue forth and bid them battle straight.
York. Five men to twenty! though the odds be
I doubt not, uncle, of our victory.
Many a battle have I won in France,
When as the enemy hath been ten to one :
Why should I not now have the like success ?
even before his castell gates." ā Prince Edward was at that time in
his eighth year, having been born October 13, 1453. ā H. N. H.
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. iiL
Field of battle betwiivt Sandal Castle and
Alarums. Enter Rutland and Ills Tutor.
Rut. All, whither shall I fly to 'scape their hands?
Ah, tutor, look where bloody Clifford comes I
Enter Clifford and Soldiers.
Clif. Chaplain, away ! thy priesthood saves thy life.
As for the brat of this accursed duke,
Whose father slew my father, lie shall die.
Tut. And I, my lord, will bear him company.
Clif. Soldiers, away with him!
Tut. Ah, Chff ord, murder not this innocent child,
Lest thou be hated both of God and man !
[Eait, dragged off by Soldiers.
Clif. How now ! is he dead already ? or is it fear 10
That makes him close his eyes? I '11 open them.
Rut. So looks the pent-up lion o'er the wretch
That trembles under his devouring paws ;
J And so he walks, insulting o'er his prey,
And so he comes, to rend his limbs asunder.
Ah, gentle Chiford, kill me with thy sword,
And not with such a cruel threatening look.
Sweet Clifford, hear me speak before I die.
I am too mean a subject for thy wrath:
"Enter Rutland and his Tutor." Rutland is described by Halle as
"scarce of the age of xii yeares, a faire gentleman and maidenlike
person." He was in reality seventeen. The "tutor's" name was Rob-
ert Aspall.ā C. H. H.
Act I. Sc. iii. THE THIRD PART OF
Be thou revenged on men, and let me live. 20
Clif. In vain thou speak'st, poor boy; my father's
Hath stopp'd the passage where thy words
Rut. Then let my father's blood open it again :
He is a man, and, ChfFord, cope with him.
Clif. Had I thy brethren here, their lives and thine
Were not revenge sufficient for me ;
No, if I digg'd u}) thy forefathers' graves,
And hung their rotten coffins up in chains,
It could not slake mine ire, nor ease my heart.
The sight of any of the house of York 30
Is as a fury to torment my soul;
And till I root out their accursed line
And leave not one alive, I live in hell.
Therefore ā [^Lifting his hand.
Rut. O, let me pray before I take my death !
To thee I pray ; sweet Clifford, pity me !
Clif. Such pity as my rapier's point affords.
Rut. I never did thee harm: why wilt thou slay me?
Clif. Thy father hath.
Rut. But 'twas ere I was born.
Thou hast one son ; for his sake pity me, 40
Lest in revenge thereof, sith God is just,
He be as miserably slain as I.
Ah, let me live in prison all my days;
And when I give occasion of offense.
Then let me die, for now thou hast no cause.
Clif. No cause!
Thy father slew my father ; therefore, die.
KING HENRY VI Act I. Sc. iv.
Rut. Di faciant laudis sumnia sit ista iuml [Dies,
Clif, Plantagenet! I come, Plantagenet!
And this thy son's blood cleaving to my l)lade 50
Shall rust upon my weapon, till thy blood,
Congeal'd with tliis, do make me wipe off both.
Another part of the field.
Alarum. Enter Richard, Duke of York.
Ycyrk. The army of the queen hath got the field :
My uncles both are slain in rescuing me;
And all my followers to the eager foe
48. "Di faciant laudis summa sit ista tuce"; i. e. "The gods grant
that this be the sura of thy glory"; (Ovid, Epistle from Phillis to
Demophoon). ā I. G.
This scrap of Latin appeared first in the folio; but as Malone
would needs argue that the original play was not Shakespeare's, from
its ha^^ng several Latin quotations, he did not see lit to adorn this
line with a star. ā This savage slaughter of Rutland is thus re-
lated by Hall: "Wliilst this battle was in fighting, a priest called
Sir Robert Aspall, chaplain and schoolmaster to the young earl
of Rutland, perceiving tiiat flight was more safeguard tiian tarry-
ing, both for himself and his master, secretly conveyed the earl
out of the field, by the lord Clifford's band, towards the town: but
ere he could enter into a house he was by the said lord Clifford
espied, followed, and taken, and by reason of his apparel demanded
what he was. The young gentleman, dismayed, had not a word to
speak, but kneeled on his knees imploring mercy, and desiring grace,
both with holding up his hands and making dolorous countenance;
for liis speech was gone for fear. Save him, said his chaplain, for
he is a prince's son, and pcradventure may do you good hereafter.
With that word, the lord Clifford marked him, and said, By God's
blood, thy father slew mine, and so I will do thee and all thy kin:
and with that word he struck the earl to the heart with his dagger,
and bade his cliajilain bear tlie earl's mother and brother word what
he had said and done." ā H. N. H.
Act I. Sc. iv. THE THIRD PART OF
Turn back and fly, like ships before the wind,
Or lambs pursued by hunger-starved wolves.
My sons, God knows what hath bechanced them :
But this I know, they have demean'd themselves
Like men born to renown by life or death.
Three times did Richard make a lane to me,
And thrice cried 'Courage, father! fight it out!'
And full as oft came Edward to mv side, H
With purple falchion, painted to the hilt
In blood of those that had encounter'd him :
And when the hardiest warriors did retire,
Richard cried, 'Charge! and give no foot of
And cried, 'A crown, or else a glorious tomb !
A scepter, or an earthly sepulcher!'
With this, we charged again : but, out, alas !
We bodged again ; as I have seen a swan
With bootless labor swim against the tide 20
And spend her strength with over-matching
waves. [^i short alarum within.
Ah, hark ! the fatal followers do pursue ;
And I am faint, and cannot fly their fury:
And were I strong, I would not shun their fury :
The sands are number'd that make up my life;
Here must I stay, and here my life must end.
26, The stoiy of this battle is thus told in the Chronicles: "The
duke of Summerset and the queenes part appointed the lord Clif-
ford to lie in one stale, and the earle of Wiltshire in another, and
the duke with the other to keepe the maine battell. The duke of
Yorke descended downe the hill in good order and arraie; but when
he was in the plaine betweene his castell and the towne of Wake-
field, he was invironed on everie side, like fish in a net, so that,
though he fought manfullie, yet was he within halfe an houre slaine,
and his whole armie discomfited. With him died his two bastard
KING HENRY VI Act l. Sc. iv.
Enter Queen Margaret, Clifford, Northumberland,
the young Prince, and Soldiers.
Come, bloody Clifford, rough Northumberland,
I dare your quenchless fury to more rage:
I am your butt, and I abide your shot.
North. Yield to our mercy, proud Plantagenet. 30
Clif. Aye, to such mercy as his ruthless arm,
With downright payment, show'd unto my
Now Phaethon hath tumbled from his car,
And made an evening at the noontide prick.
York. JNIy ashes, as the phoenix, ma}^ bring forth
A bird that will revenge upon you all :
And in that hope I throw mine eyes to heaven.
Scorning whate'er you can afflict me with.
Why come you not? what! multitudes, and fear?
Clif. So cowards fight when they can fly no
further ; -iO
So doves do peck the falcon's piercing talons ;
So desperate thieves, all hopeless of their lives,
Breathe out invectives 'gainst the officers.
York. O Clifford, but bethink thee once again,
And in thy thought o'er-run my former time;
And, if thou canst for blushing, view this face,
And bite thy tongue, that slanders him with
Whose frown hath made thee faint and fly ere
uncles, sir John and sir Hugh Mortimei", and two thousand and
eight hundred others, whereof manie were yoong gentlemen, and
heirs of great parentage in the south parts, whose kin revenged their
deaths within four months next." ā H. N. H.
Act I. Sc. iv. THE THIRD PART OF
Clif. I will not bandy with thee word for word,
But buckle with thee blows, twice two for one. 50
Q. Mar, Hold, valiant Clifford! for a thousand
I would prolong awhile the traitor's life.
Wrath makes him deaf: speak thou, Northum-
North. Hold, Clifford! do not honor him so much
To prick thy finger, though to wound his heart :
What valor were it, when a cur doth grin.
For one to thrust his hand between his teeth.
When he might spurn him with his foot away ?
It is war's prize to take all vantages ;
And ten to one is no impeach of valor. 60
[They lay hands on York, who struggles.
Clif. Aye, aye, so strives the woodcock with the
North. So doth the conj^ struggle in the net.
York. So triumph thieves upon their conquer'd
So true men yield, with robbers so o'er-
North. What would your grace have done unto him
Q. Mar. Brave warriors, Clifford and Northum-
Come, make him stand on this molehill here.
That raught at mountains with outstretched
Yet parted but the shadow with his hand.
What! was it you that would be England's
KING HENRY VI Act i. Sc. iv.
Was 't you that revel'd in our parliament,
And made a preachment of your high descent?
Where are your mess of sons to back you now?
The wanton Edward, and the lusty George?
And where 's that valiant crook-back prodigy,
Dicky your boy, that with his grumbling voice
Was wont to cheer his dad in mutinies ?
Or, with the rest, where is your darling Rut-
Look, York : I stain'd this napkin with the blood
That valiant Clifford, with his rapier's point, BO
Made issue from the bosom of the boy ;
And if thine eyes can water for his death,
I ffive thee this to dry thy cheeks withal.
Alas, poor York ! but that I hate thee deadly,
I should lament thy miserable state.
I prithee, grieve, to make me merry, York.
What, hath thy fiery heart so parch' d thine en-
That not a tear can fall for Rutland's death?
Why art thou patient, man? thou shouldst be
And I, to make thse mad, do mock thee thus. 90
Stamp, rave, and fret, that I may sing and
Thou wouldst be f ee 'd, I see, to make me
York cannot speak, unless he wear a crown.
A crown for York ! and, lords, bow low to him :
73. "mess of sons," four sons; the company at great dinners being
arranged in "messes" or sets of four. ā C. H. H.
A<^t I. Sc. iv. THE THIRD PART OF
Hold you his hands, whilst I do set it on.
[Putt'mg a paper crown on his head.
Aye, marry, sir, now looks he like a king !
Aye, this is he that took King Henry's chair;