Look upon him. love him ; he worships you.
Fke. Good shepherd, tell this youth what 't is to love
Sil Tt is to he all made of sighs and tears
72 AS YOU LIKE IT. ACT V,
And so am I for Phebe.
Phe And I for Ganymede.
Orl. And I for Rosalind.
Ros. And I for no woman.
Sil. It is to be all made of faith and service j
And so am I for Phebe.
Phe. And I for Ganymede.
Orl. And I for Rosalind.
Ros. And I for no woman.
Sil. It is to be all made of fantasy,
All made of passion, and all made of wishes ;
All adoration, duty, and obedience 1 ;
All humbleness, all patience, and impatience ;
All purity, all trial, all observance;
And so am I for Phebe.
Phe. And so am I for Ganymede.
Orl. And so am I for Rosalind.
Ros. And so am I for no woman.
Phe. If this be so, why blame you me to love you ?
Sil. If this be so, why blame you me to love you?
Orl. If this be so, why blame you me to love you ?
Ros. Who do you speak to, "why blame you me
to love you ? "
Orl. To her, that is not here, nor doth not hear.
Ros. Pray you, no more of this : 't is like the howl-
ing of Irish wolves against the moon. I will help you,
[To SILVIUS] if T can: I would love you, [To PHEBE]
if I could. To-morrow meet me all together. I will
marry you, [To PHEBE] if ever I marry woman, and
I '11 be married to-morrow: I will satisfy you, [To
ORLANDO] if ever I satisfied man, and you shall be
married to-morrow: I will content you, [To SILVIUS]
if what pleases you contents you, and you shall be
married to-morrow. As you [To ORLANDO] love Ro-
salind, meet; as you [To SILVIUS] love Phebe, meet ;
and as I love no woman, I '11 meet. So, fare you well ;
I have left you commands.
Sil. I '11 not fail, if I live.
Phe. Nor I.
Orl. Nor I.
1 observance : in f. e. Malone also suggested the change.
AS YOU LFKE IT.
SCENE III. The Same
Enter TOUCHSTONE and AUDREY.
Touch. To-morrow is the joyful day, Audrey: to-
morrow will we be married.
And. I do desire it with all my heart, and I hope
it is no dishonest desire, to desire to be a woman of
the world. 1
Touch. Here come two of the banished duke's pages.
Enter two Pages.
1 Pa.ge. Well met, honest gentleman.
Touch. By rny troth, well met. Come, sit ; sit, and
2 Page. We are for you : sit i' the middle.
1 Page. Shall we clap into 't roundly, without hawk-
ing, or spitting, or saying we are hoarse, which are
only the prologues to a bad voice ?
2 Page. P faith, i' faith; and both in a tune, like twc
gypsies on a horse.
It was a lover., and his lass,
With a hay, and a ho, and a hey nonino,
That o'er the green corn-field did pass
In the spring time, the only pretty ring time,
When birds do sing, hey ding a ding, ding ;
Sweet lovers love the spring.
Between the acres of the rye,
With a hey, and a ho, and a hey noninoj
These pretty country folks would lie.
In spring time, fyc.
This carol they began that hour.
With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino,
How that our life was but a flower.
In spring time, fyc.
And therefore take the present time.
With a hey, and a ho, and a hey nonino,
For love is crowned with the prime
In spring time, fyc.
Touch. Truly, young gentlemen, though there was
no great matter in the ditty, yet the note was very
i To be married. * untuneable : iu f.
74 AS YOU LIKE IT. ACT V.
1 Page. You are deceived, sir: we kept time; we
lost not our time.
Touch. By my troth, yes ; I count it but time lost
to hear such a foolish song. ' God be \vi' you ; and God
mend your voices. Come, Audrey. [Exeunt.
SCENE IV. Another Part of the Forest.
Enter DUKE Senior, AMIENS. JAQUES, ORLANDO,
OLIVER, and CELIA.
Duke S. Dost thou believe. Orlando, that the boy
Can do all this that he hath promised ?
Orl. I sometimes do believe, and sometimes do not,
A.S those that fear to 1 hope, and know they fear.
Enter ROSALIND. SILVIUS, and PHEBE.
Ros. Patience, once more, whiles our compact is
heard 2 .
[To the DCKE.] You say. if I bring in your Rosalind,
You will bestow her on Orlando here ?
Duke S. That would I. had I kingdoms to give with her.
Ros. [To ORLANDO.] And you say, you will have
her, when I bring her ?
Orl. That would I, were I of all kingdoms king.
Ros. [To PHEBE.] You say, you ; 11 marry me, if I
be willing ?
Phe. That will I. should I die the hour after.
Ros. But if you do refuse to marry me,
You '11 give yourself to this most faithful shepherd ?
Phe. So is the bargain.
Ros. [To SILVIUS.] You say. that you'll have Phebe,
if she will ?
Sil. Though to have her and death were both one
Ros. I have promis'd to make all this matter even.
Keep you your word, duke ! to give your daughter ;
You yours. Orlando, to receive his daughter :
Keep you your word. Phebe. that you '11 marry me ;
Or else, refusing me, to wed this shepherd :
Keep your word, Silvius, that you ''11 marry her,
If she refuse me : and from hence I go.
To make these doubts all even even so 3 .
[Exeunt ROSALIND and CELIA.
Duke S. I do remember in this shepherd-boy
Some lively touches of my daughters favour.
they : in f. e. 2 urg'd in f. e. 3 These two words are not in f. e
SC. IV. AS YOU LIKE IT. 75
Orl. My lord, the first time that I ever saw him,
Met bought he was a brother to your daughter :
But, my good lord, this boy is forest-born,
And hath been tutor d in the rudiments
Of many desperate studies by his uncle,
Whom he reports to be a great magician,
Obscured in the circle of this forest.
Enter TOUCHSTONE and AUDREY.
Jaq. There is, sure, another flood toward, and these
couples are coming to the ark. Here comes a pair of
very strange beasts, which in all tongues are called
Touch. Salutation and greeting to you all.
Jaq. Good my lord, bid him welcome. This is the
motley-minded gentleman, that I have so often met in
the forest : he hath been a courtier, he swears.
Touch. If any man doubt that, let him put me to my
purgation. I have trod a measure ; I have nattered a
lady ; I have been politic with my friend, smooth with
mine enemy ; I have undone three tailors ; I have had
four quarrels, and like to have fought one.
Jaq. And how was that ta'en up ?
Touch. 'Faith, we met, and found the quarrel was
upon the seventh cause.
Jaq. How the seventh cause ? Good my lord, like
Duke S. I like him very well.
Touch. God 'ild 1 you, sir ; I desire you of the like. I
press in here, sir, among the rest of the country copu-
latives, to swear, and to forswear, according as mar-
riage binds, and blood breaks. A poor virgin, sir, an
ill-favoured thing, sir, but mine own : a poor humour
of mine, sir, to take that that no man else will. Rich
honesty dwells like a miser, sir, in a poor-house, as
your pearl in your foul oyster.
Duke S. By my faith, he is very swift and senten-
Touch. According to the fool's bolt, sir, and such
Jaq. But, for the seventh cause ; how did you find
the quarrel on the seventh cause ?
Touch. Upon a lie seven times removed. Boar
your bodj more seeming, Audrey. As thus, sir. T
76 AS YOU LIKE IT. ACT V.
did dislike the cut of a certain courtier's beard : he
sent me word, if I said his beard was not cut well, he
was in the mind it was : this is called the " retort
courteous." If I sent him word again, it was not well
cut, he would send me word, he cut it to please him-
self : this is called the " quip modest." If again, it
was not well cut, he disabled my judgment : this is
called the " reply churlish." If again, it was not well
cut, he would answer, I spake not true : this is called
the "reproof valiant." If again, it was not well cut,
he would say, I lied : this is called the " countercheck
quarrelsome :" and so to the " lie circumstantial," and
the " lie direct."
Jaq. And how oft did you say, his beard was not
well cut ?
Touch. I durst go no farther than the " lie circum-
stantial," nor he durst not give me the " lie direct ;"
and so we measured swords, and parted.
Jaq. Can you nominate in order now the degrees of
the lie ?
Touch. sir, we quarrel in print, by the book, as
you have books for good manners : I will name you
the degrees. The first, the retort courteous ; the
second, the quip modest ; the third, the reply churlish ;
the fourth, the reproof valiant : the fifth, the counter-
check quarrelsome ; the sixth, the lie with circum-
stance ; the seventh, the lie direct. All these you may
avoid, but the lie direct ; and you may avoid that too,
with an if. I knew when seven justices could not
take up a quarrel ; but when the parties were met
themselves, one of them thought but of an if. as If you
said so, then I said so ; and they shook hands and swore
brothers. Your if is the only peace-maker ; much
virtue in if.
Jaq. Is not this a rare fellow, my lord ? he 's as
good at any thing, and yet a fool.
Duke S. He uses his folly like a stalking-horse, and
ander the presentation of that he shoots his wit.
Entei HYMEN, leading R OSALIND in woman's clothes ,
Hym. Then is there mirth in heaven.
When earthly things made even
sc - IV. AS YOU LIKE IT. 77
Good duke, receive- thy daughter,
Hymen from heaven brought her ;
Yea. brought her hither,
TJiat thou mightst join her Itand with his,
Whose heart within her bosom is.
Rox. [To DUKE S.JTo you I give myself, for I am yours.
[To ORLANDO.] To you I give myself, for I am yours.
Duke S. If there be truth in sight, you are my
Orl. If there be truth in sight, you are my Rosalind.
Phe. If sight and shape be true,
Why then, my love adieu !
Ros. [To DUKE S.] I ; 11 have no father, if you be
not he :
ETo ORLANDO.] I '11 have no husband, if you be not he :
To PHEBE.] Nor ne'er wed woman, if you be not she.
Hym. Peace, ho ! I bar confusion.
'T is I must make conclusion
Of these most strange events :
Here 's eight that must take hands.
To join in Hymen's bands,
If truth holds true contents.
[To ORLANDO and ROSALIND.] You and you
no cross shall part :
[To OLIVER and CELIA.] You and you are
heart in heart :
[To PHEBE.] You to his love must accord,
Or have a woman to your lord :
[To TOUCHSTONE and AUDREY.] You and yoi
are sure together,
As the winter to foul weather.
Whiles a wedlock-hymn we sing,
Feed yourselves with questioning,
That reason wonder may diminish,
How thus we met, and thus we a finish.
Wedding is great Juno's crown ;
O. blessed bond of board and bed !
' T is Hymen peoples every town ;
High wedlock, then, be honoured :
Honwr. high honour, and renown,
T>, Hymen. "d in 3 every town !
Harmonize, z these things : in f. e. ' of : in f. .
78 AS YOU LIKE IT. ACT. V
Duke S. O, my dear niece ! welcome thou art tome:
Even daughter, welcome in no less degree.
Phe. [To SILVIUS.] I will not eat my word, no~w
thou art mine :
Thy faith my fancy to thee doth combine.
Enter Second Brother.
2 Bro. Let me have audience for a word or two.
I am the second son of old Sir Rowland.
That brings these tidings to this fair assembly.
Duke Frederick, hearing how that every day
Men of great worth resorted to this forest,
Address'd a mighty power, which were on foot
In his own conduct, purposely to take
His brother here, and put him to the sword.
And to the skirts of this wild wood he came,
Where, meeting with an old religious man,
After some question with him, was converted
Both from his enterprise, and from the world ;
His crown bequeathing to his banish'd brother,
And all their lands restor'd to them again,
That were with him exil'd. This to be true,
I do engage my life.
Duke S. Welcome, young man.
Thou offer'st fairly to thy brothers' wedding :
To one, his lands withheld ; and to the other.
A land itself at large, a potent dukedom.
First, in this forest, let us do those ends
That here were well begun, and well begot ;
And after, every of this happy number,
That have endur'd shrewd days and nights with us,
Shall share the good of our returned fortune,
According to the measure of their 'states.
Meantime, forget this new-fall'n dignity,
And fall into our rustic revelry.
Play, music ! and you brides and bridegrooms all,
With measure heap'd in joy, to the measures fall.
Jag. Sir, by your patience. If I heard you rightly,
The duke hath put on a religious life,
A nd thrown into neglect the pompous court ?
2 Bro. He hath.
Jac. To him will I : out of these oonvertites
Theie is much matter to be heard and Icarii'd.
You [To DUKE S.] to your former honour I bequeath .
Your patience, and your virtue, well deserve it '
SC. IV. AS YOU LIKE IT.
You [To ORLANDO.] to a love, that your true faith doth
You [To OLIVER.] to your land, and love, and great
You [To SILVIUS.] to a long and well deserved bed :
And you [To TOUCHSTONE.] to wrangling; for thy
Is but for two months victualed. So, to your pleasures :
I am for other than for dancing measures.
Duke S. Stay, Jaques, stay.
Jag. To see no pastime, I : what you would have,
I '11 stay to know at your abandon' d cave. [Exit.
Duke S. Proceed, proceed : we will begin these rites,
As we do trust they '11 end, in true delights.
Ros. It is not the fashion to see the lady the Epi-
logue ; but it is no more unhandsome, than to see the
lord the Prologue. If it be true, that good wine
needs no bush, 't is true that a good play needs no
epilogue ; yet to good wine they do use good bushes,
and good plays prove the better by the help of good
epilogues. What a case am I in, then, that am neither
a good epilogue, nor cannot insinuate with you in the
behalf of a good play ? I am not furnished like a beg-
gar, therefore to beg will not become me : my way is,
to conjure you ; and I ",1 begin with the women. I
charge you. women ! for the love you bear to men,
to like as much of this play as please you : and I
charge you, men ! for the love you bear to women,
(as I perceive by your simpering none of you hates
them) that between you and the women, the play may
please. If I were a woman. 1 I would kiss as many of
you as had beards that pleased me, complexions that
liked me, and breaths that I defied not ; and, I am
sure, as many as have good beards, or good faces, or
sweet breaths, will, for my kind offer, when I make
curtsey, bid me farewell. [Exeunt.
1 Tieck says, this is an allusion to the practice of women's parts
being played by men.
TAMING OF THE SHREW.
" The Taming of the Shrew" was first printed in the folio of
1623, where it occupies twenty-two pages, viz. from p. 208
to page 229 inclusive, in the division of "Comedies." It
was reprinted in the three later folios.
SHAKESPEARE was indebted for nearly the whole plot of his
"Taming of the Shrew" to an older play, published in 1594,
tinder the title of " The Taming of a Shrew." The mere cir-
cumstance of the adoption of the title, substituting only the
definite for the indefinite article, proves that he had not the
slightest intention of concealing his obligation.
When Steevens published the " Six Old Plays," more or
less employed by Shakespeare in six of his own dramas, no
earlier edition of the " Taming of a Shrew" than that of 1607
was known. It was conjectured, however, that it had come
from the press at an earlier date, and Pope appeared to have
been once in possession of a copy of it, published as early as
1594. This copy has since been recovered, and is now in the
collection of the Duke of Devonshire: the exact title of it is
as follows :
" A Pleasant Conceited Historie, called The taming of a
Shrew. As it was sundry times acted by the Right honorable
the Eurle of Pembrook his seruants. Printed at London by
Peter Short and are to be sold by Cutbert Burbie, at his shop
at the Eoyall Exchange. 1594." 4to.
It was reprinted in 1596, and a copy of that edition is in
the possession of Lord Francis Egerton. The impression of
1607, the copy used by Steevens, is hi the collection of the
Dnke of Devonshire.
There are three entries in the Registers of the Stationers'
Company relating to " The Taming of a Shrew" but not one
referring to Shakespeare's " Taming of the Shrew."i When
Blounte and Jaggard, on the 8th Nov. 1623, entered " Mr.
William Shakspeere's Comedyes, Histories, and Tragedyes,
BOB many of the said copies as are not formerly entered to
other men," they did not include " The Taming of the Shrew:"
hence an inference might be drawn, that at some previous
time it had been " entered to other men ;" but no such entry
has been found, and Shakespeare's comedy, probably, was
never printed until it was inserted in the folio of 1623.
On the question, when it was originally composed, opinions,
including my own, have varied considerably ; but I now think
i Malone -was mistaken when he said (Shakespeare by Boswell,
vol. ii. p. 3-12.) that " our author's genuine play was entered at Sta-
tioners' Hall" on the 17th Nov. The entry is of the 19th Nov. and
not of Shakespeare's " Taming of the Shrew," br < of 'he old " Tarn-
wo can tirrivo at, a tolerably satisfactory decisi >n. Malone first
believed that "The Taming of the Shrew" was written in
1606, and subsequently gave 1596 as its probable date. It
appears to me, that nobody has sufficiently attended to the
apparently unimportant fact that in "Hamlet" Shakespeare
mistakenly introduces the name of Baptista as that of a wo-
man, while in "The Taming of the Shrew" Baptists is the
father of Katharine and Biatica. Had he been aware when he
wrote "Hamlet" that Baptista was the name of a man, he
would hardly have used it for that of a woman : but before he
produced "'The Taming of the Shrew" he had detected his
own error. The great probability is, that " Hamlet " was
written at the earliest in 1601, and "The Taming of the
Shrew" perhaps came from the pen of its author not very
. The recent reprint of " The Pleasant Comedy of Patient
Grissill," by Dekker, Chettle, and Haughton, from the edition
of 1603, tends to throw light on this point. Henslowe's Diary
establishes, that the three dramatists above named were writ-
ing it in the winter of 1599. It contains various allusions to
the taming of shrews ; and it is to be recollected that the old
"Taming of a Shrew" was acted by Henslowe's company,
and is mentioned by him under the date of llth June, 1594.
One of the passages in " Patient Grissill," which seems to con-
nect the two, occurs in Act v. sc. 2, where Sir Owen pro-
ducing his wands, says to the marquess, " I will learn your
medicines to tame shrews." This expression is remarkable,
because we find by Henslowe's Diary that, in July, 1602,
Dekker received a payment from the old manager, on account
of a comedy he was writing under the title of " A Medicine
for a curst Wife." My conjecture is, that Shakespeare (in
coalition, possibly, with some other dramatist, who wrote the
portions which are admitted not to be in Shakespeare's manner)
produced his " Taming of the Shrew" soon after "Patient
Grissill" had been brought upon the stage, and as a sort of
counterpart to it ; and that Dekker followed up the subject in
the summer of 1602 by his " Medicine for a curst Wife," hav-
ing been incited by the success of Shakespeare's " Taming of
the Shrew" at a rival theatre. At this time the old " Taming
of a Shrew" had been laid by as a public performance, and
Shakespeare having very nearly adopted its title, Dekker took
a different one, in accordance with the expression he had used
two or three years before in " Patient Grissill*."
The silence of Meres in 1598 regarding any such play by
Shakespeare is also important : had it then been written, he
could scarcely have failed to mention it; so that we have
strong negative evidence of its non-existence before the
appearance of Palladis Tamia. When Sir John Harington,
in his " Metamorphosis of Ajax," 1596, says, "Bead the booke
* If we suppose Shakespeare, in Act iv. so. 1, to allude to T. Hey-
wood-s play, ''A Woman Killed with Kindness," it would show that
If we suppose Shakespeare, in A(
d's play, '-A Woman Killed with
he Taming of the Shrew " was wi
"The Taming of the Shrew" was written after Feb. 1G02-3; but the
xpression was probably prov ' '
: as the title of his tragedy.
expression was probably proverbial, and for this reason Heywood took
" ';i tie of hi:
of ' Taming a Shrew,' which hath made a number of us so
perfect that now every one can rule a shrew in our country,
Bave he that hath her," he meant the old " Taming of a
Shrew," reprinted in the same year. In that play we have
not only the comedy in which Petruchio and Katharine are
chiefly engaged, but the Induction, which is carried otit to
the close ; for Sly and the Tapster conclude the piece, as they
had begun it.
As it is evident that Shakespeare made great use of the old
comedy, both in his Induction and in the body of his play, it
is not necessary to inquire particularly to what originals the
writer of " The Taming of a Shrew ""resorted. As regards
the Induction, Douce was of opinion that the story of " The
Sleeper awakened," in the " Arabian Nights' 'Entertain-
ments," was the source of the many imitations which have,
from time to time, been referred to. Warton (Hist. Engl,
Poetry, iv. 117. Edit. 1824) tells us, that among the books of
Collins was a collection of tales by Kichard Edwards, dated
in 1570, and including "the Induction of the Tinker in
Shakespeare's ' Taming of the Shrew.' " This might be the
original employed by the author of the old "Taming of a
Shrew." For the play itself he, perhaps, availed himself of
some now unknown translation of Nott. viii. fab. 2, of the
Piacevoli JVotti of Straparola.
The Suppositi of Ariosto, freely translated by Gascoyne,
(before 1566, when it was acted at Grey's Inn) under the title
of " The Supposes," seems to have afforded Shakespeare part
of his plot : it relates to the manner in which Lucentio and
Tranio pass off the Pedant as Vincentio, which is not found
in the old " Taming of a Shrew." In the list of persons pre-
ceding Gascoyne's " Supposes " Shakespeare found the name
of Petrucio, (a character not so called by Ariosto,) and hence,
perhaps, he adopted it. It affords another slight link of con-
nexion between "The Taming of the Shrew" and "The
Supposes;" but there exists a third, still slighter, of which no
notice has been taken. It consists of the use of the word
"supposes," in A. v. sc. 1, exactly in the substantive sense
in which it is employed by Gascoyne, and in reference to that
part of the story which had been derived from his translation.
How little Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew" was known
in the beginning of the eighteenth century, may le judged
from the fact, that " The Tatler," No. 231, contains the story
of it, told aii of a gentleman's family then residing in Lincoln-
CHRISTOPHERO SLY, a Tinker. Hostess,
Page, Players, Huntsmen, and Ser-
BAPTISTA, a rich gentleman of Padua.
VINCENTIO. an old Gentleman of Pisa.
LUCENTIO. Son to Vincentio.
PETRUCHIO. a Gentleman of Verona.
Servants to Petruchio.
Tailor, Hiberdasher, and Servants attending on Baptista
SCENE, sometimes in Padua; and sometimes in
Petruchio's House in the Country.
TAMING OF THE SHREW.
SCENE I. Before an Alehouse on a Heath.
Enter HOSTESS and CHRISTOPHERO SLY.
Sly. I '11 pheese 1 you, in faith.
Host. A pair of stocks, you rogue !
Sly. Y' are a baggage : the Slys are no rogues ; IOOK
in the chronicles, we came in with Richard Conqueror.
Therefore, paucas pallabris ; let the world slide. SessaH
Host. You will not pay for the glasses you have burst?
Sly. No, not a denier. Go by, Jeronimy; 3 go to thy
cold bed, and warm thee.*
Host. I know my remedy; I must go fetch the
headborough. 8 [Exit.
Sly. Third, or fourth, or fifth borough. I '11 answer
him by law ; I '11 not budge an inch, boy : let him come,
and kindly. [Lies down, and falls asleep.
Wind horns. Enter a Lord from hunting, with Hunts-
men and Servants.
Lord. Huntsman, I charge thee, tender well my
Brach 6 Merriman, the poor cur is emboss'd, 7
And couple Clowder with the deep-mouth'd brach.
Saw'st thou not, boy, how Silver made it good
At the hedge corner, in the coldest fault?
I would not lose the dog for twenty pound.
1 Hun. Why, Belman is as good as he, my lord ;
He cried upon it at the merest loss,