William Shenstone.

The works in verse and prose, of William Shenstone .. online

. (page 1 of 19)
Online LibraryWilliam ShenstoneThe works in verse and prose, of William Shenstone .. → online text (page 1 of 19)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project
to make the world's books discoverable online.

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover.

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the
publisher to a library and finally to you.

Usage guidelines

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying.

We also ask that you:

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for
personal, non-commercial purposes.

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help.

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it.

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe.

About Google Book Search

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web

at http : //books . google . com/|

d by Google



d by Google

Digitized by VjOOQ iC

Digitized by VjOOQ iC

d by Google




}• TvRVJBvxxi Printtr*

Digitized by VjOOQ iC

d by Google



















Digitized by VjOOQlC

Digitized by VjOOQ iC


ii*'*-'-^ OF

•2 7i-r? VOLUME IX.

An E&f an Mi9nfy« ?« a wdw9 of Coiam^r^y
"witfa Remarks on kke adv^iUagf s asid diiadvao-
♦ages of Pap^f ^dJoUtf d int^ goi^ral orquJajioa, 9
Refledlionion the.prefent fbxp of Piibltc A&ics,
and on the Duty and Interefl of America in Has
important criiis, - - - . 66

Thoughts on American Liberty^ * " 73

On the Controverfy about Independence, - 78

On Condu£ling the American Controverfy, 63

Ariftides, - - - - 88

Part of a Speech in Congrefs, on the Conference

propofed by Lord Howe, • . < . gg

• Speech in Congrefs on the Convention with General

Burgoyne, - - - - 1 98

Speech in Congrefs, on a Motion for Paying the

Intereft of Loan-Office certificates, - 117

Part of a Speech in Congrefs, on the Finances, 125
Fart of a Speech in Congrefs, upon the Confedera-
tion, - - - - - 135
Speech in Congrefs, on the appointment of Pleni-
potentiaries, - ' - - - 142
On the Propofed Market in General Waihington's

Camp, - • • - ^ 148

Addrcfs to General Walhington, - - 154

d by Google


Memorial and Manifefto of the United States of
North America, to the mediating powers in tjie
conferences for peace, to the other powers in Eu-
rope, and in general to all who fhall fee the fame, 154
On the Contefl between Great Britain and America, 166
, On the Affairs of the United States, - 171

Obfervations on the Improvement of America, 178

Supplication of J. R********, ._ - . 180

Recantation of Benjamin Towne, - - ig%

A Defcription of the State of New Jerfey, ^99

A Few Reile6lions humbly fubmitted to the con-
lideration of the Public in general, and in parti-
cular to the Congrefs of the United States, ^i^
On the Georgia Conftitution, -^ - 220
The Druid, - - • - 224

d by Google








FROM every channel of public intelligence we
learn, that there is a difpofition in many of
the legiflatures of this country, to emit bills of
credit by authority of government, and to make
them in fome meafure at leaft, or in fome cafes, a
legal tender for debts already contrafted. This is
a matter of great delicacy and danger. It has.oc-
cafioned a controverfial difcuffion ©f the fubjeft in
pamphlets and periodical publications. A few
plaufible things, and but a few that deferve that
char*£ieT> have been publiflied in defence of the
meafure. Many flirewd and fenfible things have
been offered againft it : but even thefe laft Tiave
not been fo connefted and fatisfying, as they might
and ought to have been. Some of the pieces hav^
been verbdfe and declamatory, with many repeti-
VoL. IX. B n r

Digitized hyVjOOQlC


tions5 Others have been full of antlthefes, quaint
Tayiags, and witticifms, which. haVfi no great ten-
dency to convince or perfuade j and fome have-
been mingled with the local and party politico of
particular dates. Perhaps thefe different ways of
^writing may be vjery proper for feveraL cbiTes of
readers, and. hav« a gooid. effei^ :> but there are
certainly others who would require a different treat-^
jnput,, bec/ttfe^ that mift^kesg 3re? Otwog. ftot to &-
ceitful intentions, but to erroneous judgment.
This has given me a ftrottg defire to try what can
be done ugon the fubje£k by difpaffionate reafon-
ing. By this I mean, endeavouring, to, carry the
matter back to its fir ft principles, to explain them
in fo fimple a manner,, as. that, the unlearned may
underftand them ; and then to deduce* the prac^
tical confe^ueDGes with the gperal. thcon^prfHU ms-
view. ,

It i» impoffible to reach.ray purpofe,, without, fay-
ing: many* things which, in a feparaite and. detached
manner have been faid.by othexa;* but this muft be. .
fo?give» me;, becaufe I meaa to hf the whole .
fyftem befere the reftder^ and. every part in. its pro*
per orde? and ronneftionv Let us then, begin by
confidering what gfive rife to moneys and. whot ii
its nature 2nd. ufe ?. If there were but one man
upon the earrln he would he* obliged tO! prepare a^
liut for his habitatieni, to dig poots for his. fuC«
tenances to provide ikin& ox fig-leaves for hi» cover-
ing! fltc.i in fhort,^to.^Qwery. thing, for himfelf. If . ,
kut one or kmwo more were, joined with him, it
would, foon be found that, oae of. them, would.he
more^ikilful in one fort Qjfwork, arid another ina

"^ ' . Digitized by Vj'C


.dij&rent:; So xbat coxnmon intexeti HEoudd duG£i
xhem, e^h to appl^ ius induQiry^ to w)iat\be couki
.do bfft aod ioonefl^ to <:ommuflicate the iiuipltis
x>f -what he oeeded hisnfell of .that fort of wock .to
the others, and receive of th^ir- furplus ia returnr
litis -dire^y points out to ua, that a barter of oom-
Blodiuesy^or comnHinication of the fr'uitsof induftry^
k the -firll principle, or ratlier indeed conftitutes
the effence of comonkeroe. As fociety increafes»
the j>artition of temployndents is gi^eatly dfverfified ;
but ftill the fruits of well dire£^ed induilry, or the^
thts^s nece&ry and uleiuJ in li£9a aFe what xmlf
can h(s caiUed wealtf)..

In ellabli&it^ a nn^ual -eiiohange of lhi£&» the
£xit thing necefiary is a rfta^dard of ^oomi^vtationj.
jor fcomaaxm ^neasTuie^ -by whiq^ to eitimHe ifhe
Several -carruyio'^lities rthat inay be offered tp fele, <or
may be dcfired by ipurch^iWs. Without ^this it is
eafy to fee that the^ban^or 4>f commodities is iisd)le
to *ery ^eat xUfBculuesi, ^nd very great er^ors»
This flandard or common meafure muft be ^m&*
thing that is welt kno^vn to both paprtie^;, and of
general qr common -ufc. As the fird «e0ays in any
.things are "generally Tude and imperfeft 5 fo I think
it appears from the monuments of remme antiquity^
that in .the early ftages of fociety, *cattle wfere -the
firll thin^5 -made uie of as a ftandard *. But k

* Servius Tullii}$, one of the Roman kings, is said tp
have ststmped some pieces \Vith-the .figure of cattle ; a»
f)X, or a sheep. This was as much as. to, say, this piece is
of the value of an ox or a sheep^ Heace it is said, the
Boman word peetatiOj >comes fioiii pecus^ cattl.e. Others

Digitized by VjOOQ iC


would foon appear that this was a mod inaccurate
meafure ; becaufe one ox might be as good as two,
from fize, fatnefs^ or other circumftances. There-
fore in place of this fucceeded meafures both of dry
and liquid, that is, corn, wine, and oil. The firft
of thefe was of all others the moft proper ftandard,
becaufe univerfally neceffary, and liable to Utile
variation. Men, upon an average, would probably
eat nearly the fame quan^ty in the mofl diftant
ages and countries. It feems to me, that this cir-
cumftance of a flandard of computation being ne«
ceffary in commerce, and the firft thing neceflary^
has been in a great meafure overlooked by moft
writers on money, or rather it has been confounded
«with the ftandard value of the ^gn, although
efTentially different from it ; and the equivocal ufo
of the terms has occafioned great confufion. I
mttft however obferve, not only that this muft ne-
ceffarily be taken in, but that if we confine our-
felves to a ftandard of computation only, fome
known commodity, as meafured grain, is better,
and more intelligible and unalterable than any
money whatever, that cither has been or will be
made. The great alteration in the. value of gold
and filver is known to every perfon who has but
dipped into hiftory ; and indeed is known to many,
even by memory, in this country, fince its firft
^ttlement *. ' '

bave thought it was from the use of leather for money,
^uasi pecudum corto. But the first etymology seems to be
the best. See a subsequent note.

* There are two estates near one of the colleges in
Scotland, wliich were originaKy taxed an e^ual number of

Sut ^ft0r ^ ftMihid iof iCOiniM»(ta>ti had been
Hgfced upon, in coiiiifp^ce> eitren of the rmoft Trnode*-
Ttate eistent, ibmsthnig faither would be sibfolutely
macdflkry. Tbei^&ual midSmin^diate barter jofcOn)»-
.niiQ^ies QDSild .in ^ 'isw mftanoefi :l8ke {ifeee* A
man im^bt >have *tbe xiing ithiiti ^mQMHed^o pruardiafe,
rbat he inightinot.iie9ir«r*4e&eAwrhcftI ivasiwfiUng.
to give for it* ibioilKfr >mig|ft ^AraAt 4i4iat I -bad «o-
i{ttxa, ^nt not shfiive ^at J mauled to ptMhiifei. with
ir. ' Jkfidesy bfSkf lor ^eriftable 'ocnMQoditids cbtfid
sot be csnaued ;ab0itt >at m Uttcertaimj^ or. wkh '
iaSotff. Tbewfuro, 9t beoanne «eyy early n6G«ffiMy>
tbat ^tbene '{houM be feme %n ^or figtis agteed iipon,,
^v^b iboidd^refniefeiit tbe ^ent eommodkits, or
t]^tbor Aoi^direfpr^fent tfa^ ftandeprdiof cempotation,
in aU rite -d^ivifiinis snd onifitiplicatioiis. Tbiefe %na
tmAht^nch. as^sxnld ^esdirly be carried about, ^i'
ikenhte codd be ireadcl^ nfi^piied to Wery kind o£
^9fn&0tions, 'DpMcIi vncfre conne^d 'iJ^e^ the >oonw
ifttttatian of ffoperry^

boBs'of gr^n Xa ba]T is aljout ^Baslrds) to th;it lAStitutloav
In very remote times, it pleased the projhietor of oae ^r
tkese estates, with- consent of the college, to convert the
jraynntfcnt 'into money, according to the then current valn^,
which was a groa*, or ^Rynr -fK^nce st^rKhfj ^raboB. iAt
tWs prejent ti»i€, the «»& lof these farms pSiys the same'
numljgr pf bolls, 4:h3t the other cloe5 of :^oats ; which «^
about thirty- two for one. There is also said to be existing,
an eld lease of a burrow acre near a town in Scotland, for
Avhichfhe tenant was,to pay a boll of ^vhesft, and aboH of
•imltif^iQK Mke did not bring IJhe gr34tt between Ghrist-
mass and GMidlensfas^, the .pi'oprietor was no;r obliged to-
accept of it, bat he must pay a sum which is now l^iQths:
«f a penn^. sterling for the boll of wheat, an(^3-12ths for
*ebollofbaTlcy. ^ i

B 2. ligitizedbyLjOOgle

14. «S8AY'0N MOMET.

Let ttd examine the nature and meaning of thefe
figns more particul^ly. They are of the nature of
a tally, that k to fay, tliey are intended to mark
and afcertain a fa£b. Now the fad is, that the
perfon who can Ihew thofe figns, having purchafed
them by his goods or induftry, is entitled to receive
frpm fomebody, a certain value, or to a certain
aniount, ^hich they fpecify, of the ftandard of
computation. They have always a reference to the
ftandard of computation, and at laft, by that known «
reference, the diftm£lion between them and the
ftandard of computation is loft, and they become
a fecondary ftandard of computation themfelves.
Thus a piece is intended at iirft to be of the value
of a meafure of grain \ but at ^aft men come to*
make their bargain by the number of pieces inftead
of the number of meafures ; ufing the fign for the
thing figtiified. Thus alfo, fometimes at leaft, ao
ideal meafure, generated by the other two, comes
to be the ftandard of computation; as in England^
fhe pound fterling is the money unit, though there
be no coin precifely correfponding to it. This ia
fufficient to explain tlie relation of the fign to the
ftandard of computation, and at laft, if I may
fpeak fo,. its coivfolidation with it. <

I have faid above, that the perfon pofiefling the
fign is entitled to receive a certain value from fcme^
tody. The reafon of this is, becaufe his debtor is
not the fame in every ftate of things. If we con-
fid^r the fign as given from one individual to an-
other, it is of the nature of a promiffory note^ and
is a confelfion of having received fo much property*
Probably there were often fucji figns or tokens.

Digitized by VjOOQIC


glVen in the infancy of fociety j and it would then
fignify, that if the feller were to come again, at a
diftance of time, and find the buyer in pofieflion of
fttch goods as he wanted, he would be entitled to re*
ceive the amount of the fign or token that had been
given him. But the convenience of ufing figns is fp
great, that it would immediately occafion their be-
inf made ufe of by general confent, exprefs or im-
plied; and, at laft, the matter would be taken
under the direAion of the ruling part of the com-
munity. In both cafes, but efpecially in this laft,
the fociety becomes bound to the pierfon who re-
ceives the figns for his goods or induftry, that they
(hall be to him of the value that they fpecify. I
will afterwards ihew, that this was not the firft but
the laft ftep taken in the ufe of figns, and give the
reafons for it ; but it is proper to mention it now,
when we are confidering the nature and ufe of figns
in that fingle view.

. Let it be obferved here that as it was before faid,
if we aim at no more than a ftandard of computa-
tion, fome* commodities are not only as good, but
better than any money, fo if we confine ourfelves
to a fign only feparate from a ftandard, many things
that might be named are not only as good, but far
better than either the ftandard itfelf, of what we
call money, becaufe they are much mote eafily
reckoned, tranfported, and concealed. This appears
particulary from the ftate of figns in modem times,
after fo much experience and improvement has taken
place. For if we can guard fufficiently againft the
dangers to which they are expofed, figns inconcei-
vably facilitate eommerce. We can put any value

Digitized by VjOQQIC

t6 £SS1T ON MtmfiTr

■me plea& in an tbliganixm written cm a £e\r an(^#fr
io£ Tpaper^ send >cafn (bod k xner the world itfeK at
irery little expcoce, and ><aanceai it ffo leafitf tliat
f^re fliali be ne dan^r of its (being t;dBefi Snxai i»^

Bvttik miitbaBre appeared, and idid'ifQeAilys;)-
pear, -that «n mMive f^tis fadjcnir uoAec^on «rilentf^
defe^ TJK^ 4^{mid *idtbx»fe«if 'On' tfaa fsyith «or
jBvedk of ftbej)efF£i9fldiifiiig <ir ;aafiM£rai>k4ii»i^m.
^ .h!0w, wtetKw tbefe be individslab or the tmiifci*
tude hf general eyAom ftnd iimpiHed cottfent^ ot
«v6n die rrnHng pact of ths fecietgr^ there is yexf
^.gveat vneex^tatfit]^. Thenefiore ^MoaeihiDg ^sitther is*
4maefi«r]r to make.a^anfdete GfttJkoi^w meiwm, of
jgeneral loomnercft, and that 98, a f /a;(gr or ftandatil
Kkf vdltie that fraty *be a .^ctir^ «r a^wTtleiiit &r
4Jte thing ^v/esn for &t, and rat all iisKOsnbelfttfickrtt
.t0:purc)iafe a.Kke vakie otmij thing *that mvy J)e
iie*ded lay him that Jiolds it. Jin abfent commo*
'dity well known, or even in idea <weU iunderftood,.
,maf <be.a ftaodnixi aof cxmpntatioB^Bd ooforaoB mea*
iiarei any thing alm^ft i«!haie«verr daay he a £gn,
^FiDugb, jiace' ibe. art tif uranting has beenlcnovn,
|>aper is the bed, hat hoth ave ^-effisnnaUy d£fa6bime ;;
abere ia.wantif^ a Tahse in jthe fign^ th«t fliall ^twe
not only a promife or -oM^atiofi* but adbttal f^StC^
^n rf ipfopeifty for iwjpejrty;*

Tibe «»entibi>i^ 'of thtefe tbitee tBftind «Mds tH> he
ierved by the jffkeimm -of QQnaiB»eiwe».aflfKl iHvAraAing^
* .them ff^ar^ely, irras liDt ta omvef :tbe idea tint
Jhere wepe three fteps ixf ihis hind taken st a dif>
i^nce of time from each ottisr, or that men £rft
4xaitiwiied long to deal ha grefs 'barter $ and irfiter
tfcat hwrcnted figna, and wgk contett mith them

j« - Digitized by VjC ^

ESS At ON M3MEY. ^17

for another period ; and at laft, perfected the plan,
by getting figns poffeffed of real value. On the
contrary, it was to fliew that any thing ufed as a
medium of univerfal or general commerce, muft be
able to ferve all the three fore*mentioned purpofes;
and that if there is any production of nature, or
fabrication of art, that can unite the whole, at leaft
as far as they are capable ,of being united, thi» muft
be the great defideratum. Now it has been found
in experience, that the precious metals, efpecially
thofe UAW called by that name, gold and fiher, do
anfwer all the three ends in a great degree. It can-
not be denied that they have been ufed for this pur-
pofe, in fa£b, from the earlieft times, and through
every nation in the old world, and indeed alfo in,
the new, with fuch exception only as will confirm
the principles of the theory. If any man thinks
that this has happened by accident, or through the
whim or caprice of mankind, as one would fufpe<J3;
from the language fometimes ufed in fpeech and
writing, he is greatly miftaken. No effe<ft of .whim
or accident ever was fo uniform or fo lafting. The
truth is, that thefe metals do poflefs.in a great de-
gree' fuperior to every thing elfe, the qualities ne-
ceflary for the purpofes mentioned above.

This^ will appear to any impartial perfon who
will donfider,. with a view to the preceding princi-
ples, what qualities a medium of general commerce
ought to poflefs. It ought then, to be i. valu-
able; 2. rare; 3. portable; 4. divifible ; 5. dur-
able. Whoever will examine the matter with at-
tention, muft perceive that any one of thefe
qualities beipg wholly or greatly wanting, the fyf*

Digitized by VjOOQIC

iem mMJvAd be eliher t^ntirelf mnned ^r f^mmkMj
tnjuneil. .h&t ^s «e«rait>ine them ie|>arately;.

I. It maft be ^^aluabU ; thaf i^ ^ &y, .k mufl
* have an intrinfic worlfeiiilt itfelfj in Iid>ftanGe dif-
tiniSl fcom the £orBi. By value ot -intrkific worih
.here, <mu(l be underftood precifely Ithe ;faine tiiiotg
that .gives to ievei[>y ether commodtly its isomaiereifil
value. Do yoii aik.what that is ? I anftva:, its be-
ing either necefTary or remarkably ufeful frr ^tjie
purpofes of life in a focial ftate^or at leaft fuppofed
to be £o : and therefore the objeA of b(i9)&p defire.
Without this it coiiUd be no more thai^^i^iafe fign ;
noiiod^fid fo ufeful in this vi^&s many ^ifher'f^iis.
But we w;tnt fofnething that muft pot be only a
Aandard of comput:iition« but a fiai^iord of v^thie ^
and' therefore capable ^'being <a pledge ji^d 'fecurit]\.^
to the holder, for tthe ;pro.p0rty ((thsit h^ hsu^^ukM^^
«d for it. It is likely feme <imU fa^,. Whiat is the
intriniic value 'Of gojd axid fih^r.f'Tbey ai^e aiot
wealth.;' they are rbut 'tfap fign or repeferffeative of
commodities. Superfi^l philofophefB, and .ev0ii
•ibme men of good undc^aiidii^g uqi: attending to
.the nature of ourrencj;, ijave really faid fo. What
isigold, fay feme, the value is ^\^ in the fancy ; you
can neither leat nor >wear it; it. will neither feed,
clothe, nor warm you. Gold, &y others, as to in-
-trin'fic value, is not fo good as j9?oi>, which oan be
:;^plied to many «iore ufe&l purpofes. Tbefe per-
. fons have -not attended to -the tnatUfe of •commercial
value, whidh is in a co0\pottnd mtie of its ufe ami
fcarbenefs. If iroH' wei^e as rjiFe ae gold, hi wovdd
probably fee ^s valuablo, perhaps more fo.- Ho«r
Jwany inflsutffeiS are there of thing% whicl}» tliougU

Digitized by VjOOQIC

a cestsSn pfopovtbn. <if tbent is* not only Vak^blie^
but indifjpenfably n o m iBb^ y tor life itfelf> yet whicli
from tkei» abundsMtf haf^.no eommeraial Talue at
aiL Tali« for eicdiinpieS) air and water. People io
not bring the& tcrifmrket^ beca^ife' tliey are in^ (vt^ .
pevabunciant pli^mtyr Bat^ kt any eifcumifances take
place tliat lender' die»iraipe^ aiid difficult te^ be <ib*^
tained^ and tkeir vafiue^ immedtfl^teiy rifes above all
comptffatien. What- w«iuW^ 0i» of tflofe w6o were '
ftificd^i» the black Role at .Cafcirttai have given to '
get btft near ^ windbw for ^little air ? And' what ''
wS AecireW"of » (hip ^^iwhofe water is nearly
ci^wndfedi give fbra ftdfh fupply*?

Gbkt and' ffl'vef ' Have intriwfir va?ue as" metals,
becatrfe from their dirSiHty, durabilify, and other
q«alitie»i.they are exceedingly fir for domeftic nten-
fils, anrf Atawy 'purpofes' in life. This circiimftance
was- the fdiimfetiDn of their uft asr a mec&am of;
commerce^ and iitm ihfeparabl^from- it. No degrr-
cr proof of thi» can: be adduced; thanrthat in\the/
earlieft ^mes, . even when ufed in commerce,
they were weighed before they were divided into^
ftuaUer.piec^.and.paffedln tale. They muft fare* .
ly then, have bad iiitrinfie valu^*,. foir theic value
was in proportion to theiij bulb or qti^ntity. This
circumftance as a fign made them worfe, but as a .
valuable metal made them better, ^rhe fame thing ,
appears as clearly fro)3i the pra&ioe of moderjx,
tiwea. Esred when; they are takea into the manage- '
raenf of the rulers- of fociety, and ftamped under va—
riotis denominations, there nruft be an e:ra£t regard
had to their commerical value. The ftamp upon
ihem is th'e/^«, the intrinfic worth of the metal is

\ digitized by CjOO^IC


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Online LibraryWilliam ShenstoneThe works in verse and prose, of William Shenstone .. → online text (page 1 of 19)