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THE



MODERN CHESS INSTRUCTOR



W. STEINITZ




PART I.



< ONTAINING ELEMENTARY EXPLANATIONS FOR BEGINNERS THE DESCRIPTION OF NOTATIONS A

TELEGRAPHIC CHESS CODE AN ESSAY ON THE PRINCIPLES OF THE GAME AND ANALYSES

OF SIX POPULAR OPENINGS, WITH ILLUSTRATIVE GAMES TO EACH OPENING, ETC.

ETC., ETC. THE APPENDIX CONTAINS THE GAMES OF THE CONTEST

BETWEEN MESSRS. STEINITZ AND TSCHIGORIN PLAYED AT

HAVANA IN JANUARY AND FEBRUARY, I 889

WITH ANNOTATIONS BY THE AUTHOR



G P. PUTNAM'S SONS

NEW YORK LONDON

>7 & 29 WEST 23D STREET 27 KING WILLIAM ST., STRAND

l88 9




COPYRIGHT BY

W. STEINITZ

1889

[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED]
Entered at Stationers' Hall, London

BY W. STEINITZ






TO THE GENEROUS PATRON OF CHKSS AND CIIKSS MASTERS

THE HONORABLE R. STEEL, OF CALCUTTA,

MEMBER OF THE EXECUTIVE COUNCIL

OF HIS EXCELLENCY THE VICEROY OF INDIA

THE. WHOLE WORK ON CHESS OF WHICH THE PRESENT

IS THE FIRST VOLUME

IS DEDICATED

WITH THE MOST SINCERE SENTIMENTS OF THE HIGHEST
ESTEEM AND WARMEST FRIENDSHIP BY

THE AUTHOR.







CONTENTS.



Page
DEDICATION AND PREFACE

CHAPTER I. Description of the Game. The Board and Men. Movements of Pieces and Mode

of Capture lii

CHAPTER II. The Notation vii

CHAPTER III. The Laws of the Game xii

CHAPTER IV. Technical Terms xv

CHAPTER V. Chess as a Training of Mind and how to Improve xix

CHAPTER VI. The Modern School and its Tendency xxiii

CHAPTER VII. Relative Value of Pieces and Principles of Play xxv



ANALYSIS OF OPENINGS.

The Ruy Lopez i

Illustrative Games 20

Double Ruy Lopez, Three and Four Knights' Game 41

Illustrative Games 48

The Scotch Gambit 57

Illustrative Games 78

The Two Knights' Defence 91

Illustrative Games 108

Petroff's Defence 1 16

Illustrative Games 132

Philidor's Defence 141

Illustrative Games 1



STEINITZ-TSCHIGORIN GAMES.

Introduction ; . . . . 162

Games of the Contest 166



OF 1




PREFACE.



The chief purport of the work on Chess, of which the present volume
forms the first part, is the theoretical application of new principles and of the
reasoning by analogies of positions which have been my guide in practice, es-
pecially during the last twenty years. It is perhaps unnecessary to state
that the task which I have set before me was beset with enormous difficulties.
Many variations that have been the product of vast changes in the style of
play which has taken place in modern times, have no doubt been duly no-
ticed in able treatises on the game, but no attempt has yet been made in any
book on Chess to base the analysis systematically on general ideas which
would assist the judgment of the student in similar positions. In the present
work great efforts are essayed in that direction, especially in the annotation
of illustrative games from practical play where the results of the application
of the principles recommended for the conduct of the openings and the middle
part can be more distinctly traced in the end. But as will be seen from the
few examples given in this volume, of reasoning out the opening moves
by comparison of different maxims, it would have been practically impossible
within the scope of this work to adopt the same sort of commentation
throughout the analysis of the openings, and I had to confine myself in that
respect to pointing out the most striking examples of the adaptation of prin-
ciples in the early part of the game. However, I have carefully examined
the debuts treated in this volume on the basis of such general maxims, and
as the openings have been hitherto analysed by the authorities chiefly
in an empirical manner, it became necessary to introduce a very large num-
ber of novelties at various stages of variations which, up to the present, had
been generally recognized as standard lines of play. In short I have come
to conclusions differing very widely from those hitherto sanctioned by first-
class practitioners and authors right at the roots of the openings, and sometimes
as early as on the third or fourth moves, like in the Ruy Lopez, the PetrofFs
Defence, and the Philidor Defence. The analysis of the openings had there-
fore to be entirely remodelled in many instances in which new ideas are de-
veloped that have never been put to any practical test. Most of the experi-
mental deductions which I introduce to students of the game, must therefore
be regarded only as imaginary examples of tactics and strategy which I trust
will in the main afford good instruction to the reader, but cannot lay any claim
to absolute accuracy. For it ought to be remembered that the merits of most
of the recognized standard variations in the openings could not be settled un-



vill PREFACE.

til they had been verified by numerous illustrations from the practice of first-
class masters in actual play, and that grave errors have often been found in
various forms of openings that have been greatly favored by many prominent
practitioners and authorities for a very long time. Under those circumstances I
must expect that occasionally some shortcomings of demonstrations, such as
quicker ways of winning or drawing, and perhaps some faults of judgment
may have crept into some of the numerous original lines of play, which after
conscientious examination, to the best of my ability, I have thought it my
duty to introduce into this treatise. But I trust that such flaws will
be found in a minority by far and that at any rate the innovations which I
propose will give material for practical trials and theoretical researches that
will be useful for the development of our scientific pastime.

For the game department I have chiefly selected striking examples of bril-
liant combinations in the conduct of the King's side attack, for, as a matter of
course, their study is quite indispensable to the learner. As only very few of
the innovations which I propose have "been tested in actual play, it is only
natural that I could not give many practical illustrations of the application
of modern principles. But just because the examples quoted from old masters
do not generally conform with the maxims of development and the precau-
tions of modern play which are laid down in this treatise, they afford earlier
and more brilliant opportunities for the display of ingenuity in the direct
King's side attack, and as the amendments on the basis of more modern ideas
are pointed out in the notes as much as possible within the scope of this
volume, I feel satisfied that the study of the game department will at least
afford as much instruction to the large majority of readers as the perusal of
the analysis. As far as practicable, I have endeavored to supplement in the
examples from actual play any important variations that had been omitted in
the main analysis.

As regards the arrangement of the matter presented in this volume I
have introduced several new improvements with the view of giving greater
facilities for following the analysis and studying the illustrative games. The
most notable novelties in that respect are the repetition of the numbers of
moves in each column and the addition of diagrams in the analytical pages
which I trust will have the desired effect.

The various authorities quoted in this treatise have been of great assist-
ance to me in forming the outlines of this treatise, and I am also much
indebted to them for some parts of my analysis and annotations, as well as
for the greater portion of the selected games. But as I did not wish to intro-
duce any kind of controversy I have deemed it advisable to quote them
only when I quite agreed with their demonstrations, and in very rare cases
when I accepted the latter but differed from their conclusions without adding
any analytical proof. It is, however, only due in this preface to acknowledge
my general obligations to those authorities and to bring them fully to the
notice of amateurs who wish to form Chess libraries. They are principally
Bilguers Handbuch des ScJiacJispiels ; edited by Baron von Heydebrand und
der Lasa (Leipzig, Veit & Co.) ; Teoria e Practica, by Signer Salvioli
(Venice, O. Ferrari) ; Fiihrer durch die Schachtheorie, by Oscar Cordel



1'KF.FACK. IX

(Berlin, Julius Springer) ; Lehrbuch dcs SchacJispiels, by J. Dufresne (Leipzig,
Ph. Rcclam jun.); Tlie CJiess Player s Manual, by G. H. D. Gossip American
llditioti, by S. Lipschiitz (London and New York, Routledge & Co.);
Stauntons Handbook, ( Bohns Library, London); Cook's Synopsis, ( W. W.
Morgan, London); The American Edition of same, by J. W. Miller ( Robert
Clarke & Co., Cincinnati); The London International Tournament of 1883, by
J. I. Minchin (London, Jas. Wade) ; The London Chess Congress of 1862,
by J. Lowenthal (London, Henry G. Bohn); The Chess Openings, by Howard
Staunton and R. B. Wormald (London, Virtue & Co.) ; Morphys Games,
by J. Lowenthal (London, Henry G. Bohn), and various other works on
the game.

My special thanks are also due to my friend Professor Waller Holladay
for his kind assistance in the revision of the MS., and the correction of proofs
of this volume, which I now beg to submit to all Chess students in the hope
that in the main it will give general satisfaction.

NEW YORK, May, 1889.




CHAPTER I.



DESCRIPTION OF THE GAME. THE BOARD AND MEN. MOVEMENTS

CAPTURE.



i

OFPrcr



AND MODE OF



The game of Chess is a mental contest between two players who endeavor to. im-
prison and attack the hostile King in a position from which he cannot be released. This
is called '' checkmate" see Chapter IV, Technical Terms). The game is played on a
board of sixty-four squares, which are colored alternately white and black. The men
are thirty-two in number, one player having sixteen white and his opponent sixteen
black men.






Diagram No. i.
Each player's men consists of eight PIECES and eight PAWNS, thus named and figured :



WHITE. BLACK.

Two Rooks or Castles
Two Bishops
Two Knights
Eight Pawns



WHITE.



Queen




BLACK.
^

I

JL
*
i



The following Diagram represents the men arranged in proper order on the board'
at the commencement of a game :

Diagram No. 2.

BLACK.






dl 4...lli i Ji Imtt



'/////A W//////S. W/////A W//////,.



WHITE.



XII



MOVEMENTS OF PIECES AND MODE OF CAPTURE.



As shown above, the board must be so placed that each player must have a white
square at his right hand corner of the board.

The players draw by lot for move and choice of color. In all international and
public Chess matches and tournaments, however, it is the rule for the first player to have
the white men.

The White Queen must always occupy a white square, and the Black Queen a
black one on commencing a game. Scrvat Regina colorem. But the White King
must always occupy a black square and the Black King a white one, the Kings and
Queens each facing one another. The Bishops on each side occupy the squares nearest
to the Kings and Queens ; then come the Knights, and the Rooks are posted in the
corner squares.



THE KING.

The King, the most important of the pieces, moves only one square at a time back-
wards, forwards, diagonally and laterally, or he may capture a hostile man in the same
way; which means that he may take off any hostile piece or -Pawn that stands on any
square immediately adjoining his own, and then occupy the vacated square. Once in
the game he has the privilege of moving two squares, i. e., when he performs the opera-
tion of Castling, which is explained under "Technical Terms/' He cannot, however,
move on to a square next the one occupied by the hostile King, as the opposing mon-
archs must always be separated from each other by a square. Nor can the King be
moved into check, i.e., on to any square commanded by a hostile man. He can, how-
ever capture any unguarded piece or pawn of the enemy on any square next his own in
any direction. When the King is so situated that he cannot avoid capture he is "check-
mated,'' and the game is lost.

The following Diagram illustrates the move of the King:

Diagram No. 3.




THE QUEEN

Is by fanthe most powerful of the pieces, moving or capturing in any direction on
.an unobstructed irange backwards, forwards, laterally or diagonally, and capturing in



MOVEMENTS OF PIECES AND MODE OF CAPTURE.



Xlll



the same way. When she occupies any one of the four centre squares, she commands no
less than twenty-seven out of the sixty-four squares of the board.
Diagram illustrating move of the Queen:

Diagram No. 4.




THE ROOK

Is next in importance to the Queen. He moves or captures in straight lines along
the ranks and files to the extent of the board on an unobstructed range backwards, for-
wards and laterally, but not diagonally. He has also the privilege, in conjunction with
the King, of Castling once during the game.

Diagram illustrating the move of the Rook:

Diagram No. 5




m mm



* ms *



In the foregoing diagram the Black Rook on Queen's fifth square (see Chapter II.,
on Notation) commands fourteen different squares on a clear range.



XIV



MOVEMENTS OF PIECES AND MODE OF CAPTURE.



THE BISHOP

Only moves and captures diagonally on squares of his own color; i. e., the Black
King's Bishop can never move on to a white square, nor the White King's Bishop on to
a black one. On a clear diagonal the Bishop can be moved from one corner square to
the opposite corner. Diagram illustrating the move of the Bishop:

Diagram No. 6.




In the above diagram, the Black Bishop, standing on his Queen's fifth square, com-
mands 13 squares on unobstructed diagonals, viz. : on his Queen's Bishop's sixth,
Queen's Knight's seventh, Queen's Rook's eighth, King's fourth, King's Bishop's third,
King's Knight's second, King's Rook's square, Queen's Bishop's fourth, Queen's
Knight's third, Queen's Rook's second, King's sixth, King's Bishop's seventh, and
King's Knight's eighth squares.

THE KN ? IGHT.

The Knight's move is a peculiar one, as he alone of the pieces has the privilege of
leaping over other pieces and pawns, whether of his own or hostile forces. He moves
or captures from the square where he stands to any third square of an opposite color to the
one from which he started, by skipping one diagonal square and then landing on the
next square of the same line or row, or vice versa. The subjoined Diagram illustrates:

Diagram No. 7.




\vu
THE NOTATION. x

Here, the Black Knight, occupying his King's fifth square (Ks), commands no less
than eight squares, viz. : King's Bishop's third, King's Knight's fourth, King's Knight's
sixth, King's Bishop's seventh, Queen's seventh, Queen's Bishop's sixth, Queen's Bishop's
fourth, and Queen's third. If any hostile piece or Pawn were posted on any of these
squares he could capture it and himself occupy the vacated square, and he could leap
over pieces or Pawns of either color standing between in order to do this.



THE PAWN

Can only move forward one square at a time, except at his first move, when he has
the choice of advancing one or two squares, but in the latter case he is sometimes liable
to be captured "en passant" or in passing (see Technical Terms). He can never
command more than two squares, and captures diagonally like a Bishop, but only on
the two squares next his own. He, however, alone of all the chessmen has the privi-
lege of promotion, i. e., on reaching an eighth square he may be exchanged either for
a Queen or any other piece his player may select. The laws of the British Chess Associ-
ation, which we adopt, provide that his player may refuse his promotion, in which case
he remains a Pawn as before, but unmovable, and he is termed a " dummy" Pawn. We
must, however, state that such a case can only very rarely occur in actual play, and
that this law, though in our opinion theoretically sound, has little practical value for
playing the game over the board, but may be of importance for the construction of
problems.



CHAPTER II.
THE NOTATION.

Each square of the Chessboard has a separate and distinctive designation. Accord-
ing to the English, French, Italian and Spanish system cf notation, the different squares
are called after the pieces. Thus, the square on which the King stands at the commence-
ment of a game, is styled the King's square ; that occupied by the Queen, the Queen's
square, and so on King's Bishop's square, King's Knight's square, King's Rook's
square ; Queen's Bishop's square, Queen's Knight's square, and Queen's Rook's square ;
the pieces on the King's side being termed the King's pieces, and those on the Queen's
side the Queen's. The Pawns are named after the pieces to which to which they belong,
thus : the Pawn in front of the King is called the King's Pawn ; that in front of the
Queen, the Queen's Pawn ; that in front of the King's Knight, the King's Knight's
Pawn, and so on. The square immediately in front of the King is called the King's
second square ; the next in front of that, the King's third square ; the next to that, the
King's fourth square, and so on ; so that, on the same file, we have King's second, third,
fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth squares. Similarly, the square in front of that
on which the Queen stands at the commencement of the game, is termed the Queen's
second square, and so on to the eighth or last square of the file. In the same way, we
have King's Bishop's second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth squares, and
so on, for all the other pieces.

In recording a game, the pieces and Pawns are designated in print, or in writing, as
follows : K for King, Q for Queen, KB for King's Bishop, KKt for King's Knight, KR
for King's Rook, QB for Queen's Bishop, QKt for Queen's Knight, QR for Queen's



xlv l THE NOTATION.

Rook, P for Pawn, KP for King's Pawn, QP for Queen's Pawn, KBP for King's Bishop's
Pawn, KKtP for King's Knight's Pawn, KRP for King's Rook's Pawn, QBP for Queen's
Bishop's Pawn, QKtP for Queen's Knight's Pawn, QRP for Queen's Rook's Pawn.

The other abbreviations used in notation are : sq. for square, ch. for check, X for
takes, (dis. ch. ) for discovered check, (dble. ch.) for double check, e. p. for en pa ssant
or in passing, -J- for better game, at the end for inferior game.

It must be remembered that in the English, French, Italian, and Spanish notations,
each player counts or reckons the squares from his own side of the board ; e. g.,
the W T hite Queen's second square is the Black Queen's seventh square ; the White
King's square is Black King's eighth square ; White King's Bishop's square is Black
King's Bishop's eighth ; and so on, i. e., each square of the Chessboard has two differ-
ent denominations, as shown by the subjoined Diagram :



Diagram No. 8.




The German algebraic system of notation, however, is quite different and presents
many advantages over the one noticed above. The eight squares of each row, com-
mencing from the left-hand corner of the board, are designated by letters, from the
letter "a" up to the letter "h," as illustrated by the Diagram on the next page.

Commencing from the same corner, the eight squares of each file are also num-
bered upward from i to 8, and by a combination of the corresponding letter and figure,
each square is differently though quite distinctly marked. In describing a move, the
square from which a piece starts, as well as that on which he lands, either in the ordi-
nary way or by capture, is clearly indicated. Thus, White's Queen Rook's square would
be marked by the letter and .figure ai; White's Queen Rook's second square, a2; White's
Queen Rook's seventh square, ay; White's Queen Rook's eighth square, a8; White's
King's fourth square, e4; Black's King's fourth square, 5, etc. The move of Pawn to



THE NOTATION.



xvu



King's fourth for White would have to be described thus: e2 e4 ; And for the same
move on Black's part the description would be ey 5. Compare Diagram No. 9.



Diagram No. 9.

BLACK.

c d e f



I 8

7
6

5
4
3

2

I







abcde fgh

WHITE.

The great advantage of the German method consists in its conciseness, and in the
lesser probability of a mistake occurring in writing down a move in a game by corre-
spondence, or even in an ordinary game which has to be adjourned ; whereas, compara-
tively more mistakes occur when other notations are used.

The fractional notation adopted in the present treatise possesses many advantages:



P K4



P K4

KKt B3
KKt-B 3
P_Q _
"KtxP



0-0-0



The foregoing first three moves in Petroff's Defence illustrate the superiority of this
system of notation over the old, time-honored method of recording the foregoing moves
as follows :



1 P to K fourth or 4th

2 KKt to B third or 3rd

3 P to Q fourth or 4th



1 P to K fourth or 4th

2 KKt to B third or 3rd

3 Kt takes P, etc.



By the present system White's moves are recorded above and Black's below the
line.

The sub-variations are inserted as follows, in the form of notes, \v hich are referred
to by numerals, as at Black's third move above, it being understood that in the subjoined
example it is Black's turn to play :



1. K3....PXP; 4 P-KS, 4 Kt-Ks ; 5 KtXP, 5 P-Q.4, etc.,



xviii THE NOTATION.

a comma separating White's and Black's moves and a semi-colon being placed after
each move of Black. If such sub-variation begins with a move of Black it is intro-
duced as above with a leader, thus: .... The letter D marks a diagrammed positon.

In the January and February, 1889, numbers of The International Chess
Magazine, Mr. Edwyn Anthony of Hereford, England, discusses the subject of Chess
Notation in an interesting manner. He comes to the conclusion " That two systems,
one arbitrary and the other significant, are alone in use at the present time, despite
numerous attempts to overthrow them ; and that effort should be directed to considering
what improvements can be grafted on these present stems. "

In pursuance of this plan, he proposes two modifications, one arbitrary and one
significant, of the English method of notation, by which every move would be repre-
sented by three symbols only. His plan is ingenious and well worthy of consideration ;
but the difficulties in the way of the introduction of a new notation are serious. To
obtain sufficient familiarity with it for ready use, a little time, study and practise would
be required on the part of both writers and players ; and there is a certain mental inertia
to be overcome, which we fear it will be found difficult to do. But the convenience and
economy of such a notation are fully demonstrable.



THE FORSYTH NOTATION.

This notation is the invention of Mr. David Forsyth, a Scottish amateur. It is fully
described in the Chess Players' Annual, by Mr. and Mrs. T. B. Rowland, edition of
1889. It is undoubtedly the best method of recording a position, except the diagram.

The board is supposed to be placed before the player as is usual in diagrams, with
the side of the white pieces next to him. It is then read as one would read the lines on
a page, the rows of squares being regarded as the lines, beginning with Black's Queen's
Rook's Square.

Thus the position in Game No. 3, of the Ruy Lopez opening, a diagram of which
is given on p. 50, would be recorded as follows : Beginning with the top row and
counting from left to right, the first five squares, namely Black's QR, QKt, QB, Q, and
K's squares are vacant. This fact would be recorded simply by writing the number 5.
The next square is occupied by the Black King, and this would be recorded by a small
k, small italics being used for the Black pieces and pawns, while Roman capitals are
used for those of White. The remaining two squares of this row are vacant, which would
be recorded by writing the figure 2. The entire upper row would therefore be recorded
by three symbols, thus : 5 k 2. In like manner the next row would be recorded thus :

2 p 2 r p p ; the records of the other rows would be as follows : Third, 2 p 5 ; Fourth,
/ 5 r P ; Fifth, 4/^2; Sixth, i P B b 3 R ; Seventh, P 2 P i P P i ; Eighth, R 3 K
3. If these be written together, the records of eacrwow-.beirig marked off by semi-colons, we
have the following complete record of the position : Move 26. . . .R KKt4 ; Steinitz
5^2;2/2r//;2/5;/ 5 rP;4//2; iPB^3R;P2PiPPi;R 3 K

3 ; Max Judd.

This may be abbreviated by adding together the numbers at the end of each row and
the beginning of the next, and ignoring altogether the divisions into rows, thus ; Move
26. ... R KKt4 ; Steinitz ; 5/4/2r//2/5/5rP4//3PB^3 RP 2 P i
P P i R 3 K 3 ; Max Judd.

In like manner the following problem would be recorded thus (the letter S being
used for Knight, to avoid the confusion which is liable to arise between K and Kt):


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