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for wheeled vehicles.

Andaw (' Sacred Double Tooth ').— Pagoda in Sandoway District,
British Burma, situated on the right bank of the river Sandoway'
opposite Sandoway town. Lat. 18 27' 15" n., long. 94 28' e. It is
said to have been built in 761 a.d., as the receptacle for a tooth of
Gautama Buddha.

Andhargaon.— Town in Tarora lahsil, Bhandara District, Central
Provinces. Population (1881) 2917: namely, Hindus, 2729; Kabir-
panthis, 65 ; Muhammadans, 73 j aboriginal tribes, 50. Manufacture
of cotton fabrics. Government school.

Andhra.— Ancient name of one of the principal kingdoms in Eastern
India, and at one time applied to the whole country of Telingana,
although this extended application ignored or included the coast
kingdom of Kalinga. The Peutingerian Tables, presumed to be earlier
than Ptolemy, omit all mention of Kalinga, but speak of Andrae Indi.
Ptolemy (a.d. 150) mentions Kalinga, but not Andhra. The Puranas
mention both— as do Pliny and Hwen Thsang (a.d. 630). At the
latter date, Andhra was recognised as one of the six great Dravidian
Divisions. An Andhra dynasty, according to Wilson, reigned in
Magadha about 18 b.c. Sanskrit writers call the Telugu language
Andhra, and the Dravidian tongue generally Andhra-Dravida-Bhasha.
The ancient capital is believed to have been Orangal (Warangal),
afterwards the capital of the Ganapatis.

Andhra.— Estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
18 20' 45" n., long. S 3 ° 15' e. ; population (1881) 7846, inhabiting
1 791 houses, grouped into 50 villages and 11 hamlets; area, 30S0
acres. This estate is all that to-day represents the great Dravidian
Division of Andhra. The ancestor of the present proprietor obtained
the estate from the Jaipur (Jeypore) chief, and on his descendants ally-
ing themselves with the Vizianagram family, Andhra passed under the
patronage of that house. It was assessed at the time of the Permanent
Settlement at ^138.

Andipatti.— Range of hills in Madura District, Madras Presidency,
running from the Travancore chain, and known during the last 15 miles
of its length (altogether 55 miles) as the Naga Malai. They nowhere
exceed 3000 feet in height, and being covered with thorny scrub or



?88 AND IP A TTI—ANGADIPURAM.

quite bare rocks, are uninhabited. Abounding in game, bison, deer of
several kinds, pigs, leopards, and, at certain seasons, elephants. Lat. of
chief peak, 9° 56' n., long. 77 44' 30" e.

Andipatti. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
io° n., long. 77° 40' e. Situated almost 40 miles north-west of Madura,
at the north-eastern spur of the Andipatti Hills. Population (1881)
6041 ; namely, Hindus 5856, Muhammadans 13, and Christians, 172;
number of houses, 819. The pagoda of Andipatti has received from
Government, since 1806, an annual grant of ^24, which was formerly
paid in cash, but is now deducted from the assessments on the village
lands. The Paliaput of Andipatti comprises 8 villages, paying a
revenue to the pdlegdr of ^1500, of which about ^600 are paid as
peshkash and road-cess to Government. The family is an ancient one,
and is connected with some of the Madura pdlegdrs.

Andiyur. — Town in Coimbatore District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
ii° 34' 45" n., long. 77 37' 45" e. Situated on a tributary of the
Bhawani river, 12 miles from Bhawani, and, by the District road, 30
miles from the Erode station of the Madras Railway. Population
(1881) 5671; namely, Hindus 5479, Muhammadans 99, Christians
93 ; number of houses, 1092. Formerly the chief town (kasbd) of the
taluk, and still a busy place, with a well-attended weekly market. The
ruins of a fort stand in the middle of the town.

Andra. — Estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency. — See
Andhra.

Anechaukur. — Toll station in Coorg, Southern India, on the road
through the Western Ghats, by which a large portion of the produce of
the Mysore State passes down to the Malabar coast. The traffic returns
for 1881-82 give a total of 13,553 carts and 14,809 pack-bullocks.

Anekal. — Taluk in Bangalore District, Mysore State. Lat. (centre)
12 42' 40" n., long. 77 44' e. Area, 178 square miles; population
(1881) 44,411. Land revenue, exclusive of water rates (1874-75),
^5725, or 2S. iod. per cultivated acre. Number of villages, 201.
Manufactures — iron, cotton, silk, muslin, turbans, and carpets.

Anekal (' Hailstone '). — Town and head-quarters of Anekal taluk, in
Bangalore District, Mysore State. Lat. 12 42' 40" n., long. 77 44' E. ;
population (188 1) 5995, of whom 5425 are Hindus, 486 Muhammadans,
and 84 Christians. Anciently the fortified capital of a line of pdlegdrs,
where Haidar Ali found shelter when driven from Seringapatam by an
insurrection.

Angadipuram (' The Market Town'). — Town in Malabar District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 58' 55" n., long. 76° 16' 51" e. Head-
quarters of the taluk of Wallavan^d, and an important market town,
situated 45 miles south-east of Calicut, with which it is connected by a
good road ; possessing District and subordinate magisterial courts, jail,



ANGARBARI—AXGUL. 289

police establishment, post-office, etc. Population (1S81) 7055 ; namely,
Hindus 3605, Muhammadans 3450; number of houses, 1330. The'
fort, maintained till 1800, is now a ruin. The town is notable for its
temple, a building of great sanctity, and as having been the scene of
one of the most desperate of the Mapilla (Mopla) outrages in 1849.

Angarbari— A detached peak of the Saranda Hills in Singbmim
District, Bengal; height, 2137 feet. Lat. 20 30' n., long. S5 37' 30" E.

Anghad— Petty State of the Dodka-Mehwas in Rewa Kantha,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23 55' 40" n., long. 72 13' 30" e. ; area,
3| square miles; estimated revenue in 1882, ^600. There are six
chiefs, who pay a tribute of ^"174 to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

Angrezabad.— Town and civil station of Maldah District— See
English Bazar.

Angul.— Government estate in Orissa, formerly a feudatory chief-
ship, but now under the direct management of the Bengal Government,
lying between 20 32' 5" and 21 10' 55" n. lat, and between 84 18'
10" and Z^ 42' 45" e. long. ; area, 881 square miles ; population (1881)
101,903. It is bounded on the north by the States of Radhakol
and Bamra in the Central Provinces; on the east by Talcher, Dhenkanal,
and Hindol States ; on the south by Narsinghpur and Daspalla States
and the Mahanadi river ; and on the west by the State of Athmallik.
With the exception of the southern portion, which is hilly, the country
is level. The greater part remains buried under primeval jungle, but
small patches are cultivated with rice, sugar-cane, oil-seeds, cotton, and
millets. Valuable timber abounds in the forests, and Government
reserves have recently been formed. Droughts frequently destroy the
crops ; scarcely any part is in danger of flood. The State was confis-
cated in 1847, in punishment for the ex-Raja's continued disobedience,
and his attempts to wage war against the English ; his family receive
pensions from Government. The estate is managed by a tahsilddr, or
receiver, on behalf of the Bengal Government, under the jurisdiction of
the Commissioner of Cuttack. The estate is now in a prosperous con-
dition, with a steadily increasing population. In 1872, it contained
78,374 inhabitants, which by February 1881 had increased to 101,903,
namely, males 51,819, females 50,084. Divided according to religion'
there are— Hindus, 100,366; Muhammadans, 275; Christians, 6; and
'others' 1256, consisting of aboriginal tribes, who still retain their
primitive forms of faith. The number of villages in the estate is 379,
and of occupied houses, 17,719- Average density of the population,
115*67 per square mile; villages per square mile, 0-43; persons per
village, 266; houses per square mile, 20*13; persons per house, 575.
The chief villages are Angul and Chhindipada. The latter village is
situated in 21 5 ' n. lat. and S4 55' e. long., and contained in 1862,

149 houses. Before 1847, no trade was carried on in Angul, but
vol. 1. £



2 9 o ANGUL—ANJAR.

since then fairs attended by traders from Cuttack and the neighbouring
Districts have been established at several places. The Brahmani river
flows within a mile of the north-east boundary, and might form a
valuable trade route for the products of the estate. The high road from
Cuttack to Sambalpur passes through Angul, supplying a good means
of communication and transport. Coal and iron are found. (For an
account of the Talcher coal-field, which includes a considerable portion
of Angul, see Statistical Account of Bengal, vol. xix. pp. 325-328.)

Angul. — Chief village of estate of the same name, in Orissa, and
residence of the ex-Raja's family. Lat. 20 47' 50" n., long. 85 1' 26" e.

Anjangaon. — Village in the Bhusawal Sub -division, Khandesh
District, Bombay Presidency. Situated about 6 miles east of Edlabad.
Has a well-preserved brick and mortar temple of Amarsinghbhava, 130
feet by 13.

Anjangaon. — Town in Ellichpur District, Berar, on the Shanur
river; 16 miles west of Ellichpur town. Lat. 21 10' 30" n., long. 77
20' 30" e. ; population (1881) 9842, namely, 5060 males and 4782
females. Of the total population, 7714 were returned as Hindus,
1955 Musalmans, 6 Sikhs, and 167 Jains. A mart for cotton cloth,
excellent basket-work, and pan grown in the adjacent garden lands.
Large weekly market. In December 1803, Sir Arthur Wellesley, with
plenary powers from the Governor-General (Marquess Wellesley), here
concluded with Wittal Panth, Sindhia's Prime Minister, the Treaty of
Surji Anjangaon, which crushed the Maratha supremacy in Central
India.

Anjangaon Bari. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar; 10 miles from
Amraoti town. Population (1881) 2888.

Anjanwel. — Seaport in Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency. Lat.
T 7° 33' N -» l° n g- 73° J 3 E - The town is situated on the south bank of
the Anjanwel river in a little bay within the entrance. Inside the bar,
there is deep water up to 5, 6, and even 9 fathoms. Average annual
value of trade for five years ending 1880-81 — Exports, ^421,296;
imports, ^£304,720; total, ^726,016.

Anjar. — Town in the State of Cutch (Kachchh), in political connection
with the Bombay Presidency. Lat. 23 5' 45" n., long. 70 9' 45" e. ;
population (1881) 12,584, namely, 8380 Hindus, 3258 Muham-
madans, 943 Jains, and 3 'others.' Municipal income (1881), ^263;
expenditure, .£233. Anjar possesses a dispensary ; patients treated
in 1880-81, 12,228, of whom 33 were in-door. As a friendly return
for the assistance rendered to the Chief of Cutch in recovering certain
possessions, the town and District of Anjar were ceded by him in 18 16
to the East India Company. In 1822, the arrangement was modified
by a new treaty, under which the territory ceded was restored, on con-
dition of an annual money payment of ^8800. The only sum which



ANJENGO. 29 r

had hitherto been required from the State of Cutch was a contribution
of 2 lakhs of rupees (^20,000) towards the expenses of the British
subsidiary force. This, however, was not paid with regularity, and a
large debt was allowed to accumulate. In 1832, therefore, a new
treaty was executed, remitting to Cutch all arrears, and limiting the
demand to 2 Idkhs, to be reduced in proportion to reductions made in
the subsidiary force, provided that the sum to be paid should never be
less than ^8800. [See Aitchison's Treaties and Engagements, 2nd ed.]
Outside the town is a temple containing the image on horseback of
Ajepal, brother of the Chauhan Chief of Ajmere, who in the beginning
of the 9th century was driven out of Ajmere, and established himself
as an anchorite in the town of Anjar, to which he gave his name.
Some land has been assigned for the maintenance of this temple, and
a large number of ascetics have settled there. The spiritual head of
these ascetics is called a Mr, or saint.

AnjengO (Attinga, A?iju-tenga ; < Five Cocoa-nut Trees'). — Town
enclosed within the territory of Travancore State, but under the juris-
diction of Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Lat. 8° 40' n., long.
76 47' 50" e. ; population (1881) 2534, being 1315 Christians, 1054
Hindus, and 165 Muhammadans. Situated 72 miles north-west-by-
west of Cape Comorin, on a strip of sandy soil on the coast of the
Arabian Sea. An extensive back-water stretches behind the town.
Station of a sub-magistrate. Formerly an important place, Anjengo
has now declined to a mere fishing town. Owing to its isolation in
native territory, its land trade suffers, while from the want of shelter
for shipping it attracts little sea commerce. A strong surf beats on the
shore ; and as ships can find no safe anchorage nearer than \\ miles,
communication with the land is always difficult. The water supply,
moreover, is scanty and indifferent in quality. In 1684, the East India
Company obtained permission from the Rani of Attingal to occupy the
site; and in 1695 a factory, with fortifications, was erected. Though
the defects of the situation were from the first apparent, it was hoped
that the facilities afforded for the collection of pepper, coir, and calicoes
would compensate ; and for a while Anjengo ranked as an important
port. The ' Factor' was second in Council in Bombay ; and under him
were placed the ports of Koleche, Eddawa, and Villinjum. During the
wars of the Karnatic, Anjengo was also found of use as a depot for
military stores, and as the point from which the first news of outward-
bound ships reached Madras. These factitious advantages, however,
did not compensate for natural defects; and in 1792, the town was
reported to be in hopeless decline. In 1809, during the disturbances
in Travancore, its roadstead was completely blockaded ; and in the
following year the post of Commercial Resident was abolished, and the
station made subordinate to the Political Resident at Trevandrum. The



2 9 2 ANJI— ANKLES WAR.

old fort, now a ruin, was once of considerable strength. Robert Orme,
the historian, was born here ; and here, too, lived Eliza Draper, the
lady of Sterne's affections.

Allji. — Town in Wardha District, Central Provinces ; situated on the
left bank of the Dham river, about 9 miles northwest of Wardha town.
An important town under the Marathas, by whom the present mud
fort was built. Population (1881) 2530; namely, Hindus, 2199;
Muhammadans, 281; Jains, 21; persons following aboriginal rites,
29. With the exception of a few weavers, the inhabitants are all
cultivators. Weekly market, with considerable trade in woven cloth.
Vernacular school.

Anjinad. — A tract now dependent on Travancore State, Madras
Presidency, comprising a valley and hill range; area, 231 square miles.
The hills form a part of the Palani (Pulney) mountains, and are divided
into two ranges, the higher having an average elevation of 7500 feet
above the sea level. Coffee, tea, and cinchona plantations have recently
been opened on these hills.

Ankewallia. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ;
consists of three villages, with two independent tribute-payers. Esti-
mated revenue (1876), ^1486 ; tribute paid to the British Government,
^130; to the Nawab of Junagarh, ^22, 12s.

Ankleswar. — Sub-division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 294 square miles, with 1 town and 99 villages; number of
occupied houses, 14,272. Population (1881) 65,054; namely, Hindus,
40,862; Muhammadans, 10,942; 'others,' 13,250; average density,
221 per square mile. Of the total area, 74-3 per cent, is cultivated,
4'6 per cent, cultivable, and i6 - 6 per cent, uncultivable waste; while
4*5 per cent, is occupied by village sites, roads, tanks, and rivers.
Seven square miles are occupied by the lands of alienated villages.
Average rainfall, 32 inches. The total assessment on Government and
alienated lands, at rates assessed in 1871-72 and to remain in force
until 1 900-1 90 1, amounts to ^60,364. Of the cultivated land 49
per cent, is occupied by cotton, 47-3 per cent, by grain crops, the
remainder by pulses, oil-seeds, etc. Water supply good.

Ankleswar. — Chief town of the Sub-division of Ankleswar in Broach
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 21 37' 58" n., long. 73 2 50" e.
It is also a station on the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway,
6 miles south of Broach, and 3 miles from the left bank of the Nar-
bada. Connected by a road with Hansot (in the Ankleswar Sub-
division), 12 miles to the west, and with another running for
9 miles eastward towards Nandod, in the State of Rajpipla (Rewa
Kantha Agency). Population (1881) 9535; namely, Hindus, 5586;
Muhammadans, 2381; Jains, 234; Parsfs, 294; Christians, 2;
'others,' 1038. Ankleswar has of late become the chief mart of a



ANKOLA— ANTORA. 2 9 3

considerable area of country. Cotton is the staple article of
commerce, and within the last twenty years the town has been
supplied with cotton ginning factories. There is also a trade
in rafters and bamboos, brought from the Rdjpipla forests, and a
small manufacture of country soap, paper, and stone hand-mills.
Municipal revenue (1881-82), £1272, of which £"1215 was derived
from taxation ; incidence of taxation per head of population
within municipal limits, 2s. 6d. ; municipal expenditure, £1066.
Subordinate judge's court, revenue and police offices, dispensary and
post-office.

Ankola.— Sub-division of North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 367 square miles, containing 8S villages. Population (1881)
34,189 souls, of whom 17,593 wer e returned as males, and 16,596 as
females. Of Hindus there were 32,778, of Muhammadans T013, and
of 'others' 398. Formerly a portion of the Coompta (Kumpta)
Sub-division, from which it was separated in 1880.

Ankola.— Seaport and chief town of the Ankola Sub-division of
North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 14 39' 30" n., and
long. 74 20' 55" e. Population (1881) 2467. Average annual value
of trade for five years ending 1880-81— exports, ^17,564; imports,
,£11,501; total, ^29,065. Post-office and school. Contains an old
fort in ruins, and numerous temples, of which the one dedicated to
Bhiimi Devati is the most famous.

Annamarazpet. — Village in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presi-
dency; once the residence of a branch of the Vizianagram family.
Large pagoda. Endowment, £363, derived from land.

Annigeri. — Town in Dharwar District, Bombay Presidency ; 29
miles east of Dharwar, on the main road from Dharwar to Bellary, rid
Gadag. Lat. 15 24' 52" N., and long. 75 28' 31" e. ; population,
7098 in 1872; no separate return received for 1881. A considerable
trade in grain and cotton, and a large weekly market.

Anta Dhlira (Untk Dhurd). — A pass on the Tibetan frontier of
Kumaun District, North-Western Provinces; situated 156 miles north-
east of Almora, in lat. 30 35' n., long. 8o° 17' e. It traverses
a ridge to the north of the main Himalayan range, and forms the
watershed between the upper feeders of the Gogra from its southern
slopes and the tributaries of the Sutlej (Satlej) to the north. The
elevation is estimated at 17,500 feet. Snow lies on the pass for eleven
months of the year.

Antivili. — Village in the Bhusawal Sub-division, Khandesh District,
Bombay Presidency. Situated about 1 2 miles north of Edlabdd ; has
a fine well, in good preservation, about 150 years old.

Antora. — Seaport in Kolaba District, Bombay Presidency. Lat.
19 14' n., and long. 73" 18' 30" e. Average annual value of trade for



2 94 ANTRA VEDI—ANUPSHAHR.

five years ending 1SS1-82— exports, ,£64,402; imports, .£35,795;
total, ,£100,197. Population (1881) 420.

Antravedi. — Shrine on the coast in Godavari District, Madras Presi-
dency ; situated near Narsapur, and visited during the five days' festival
of the Kalydnam by 20,000 pilgrims. Besides being an object of
direct pilgrimage, Antravedi forms the last of the seven sacred stations
on the Godavari, at each of which devotees performing the ceremony
of Saptasaganayatra have to bathe. The Vasishtha branch of the
river falls into the sea at this place.

Antri. — A pargand of Indore State, under the Western Malwa
Agency of Central India.

Amimakonda. — The ancient capital of the Warangal kingdom,
established in the Deccan, south of the Godavari river, by the
Kakatiya or Ganapati dynasty, who claimed to be descendants of
the old Hasti'napur line. Situated 88 miles e.n.e. of Haidarabad,
Deccan. At first probably merely a pastoral chieftain, the founder of
the kingdom gradually acquired influence and estates, and organized a
sort of government at Amimakonda. The seventh in descent, Kakatiya
Pralaya (Prola or Prole) seems to have assumed the regal style and
dignity, and from him the Warangal line received its original name.
The Ganapati dynasty was overthrown by Muhammadan invaders
in a.d. 1323, after a rule of about a century and a half. The
most famous sovereigns were the two Pratapa Rudras, both of whom
made extensive conquests, and Rudramma the queen, mother of
Pratapa Rudra II., who ruled for about 40 years, as mentioned by
Marco Polo. — See Telixgaxa.

Amipgarh. — Chief town of the district of the same name in Bikaner
State, Rajputana. Situated on the Sotra river, and contains a strong fort.

Amipshahr. — TahsU of Bulandshahr District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, lying along the right bank of the Ganges, and comprising the
pargands of Amipshahr, Ahar, and Dibal. Area, 448 square miles, of
which 330 are cultivated; population (1881) 213,294; land revenue,
,£29,352; total revenue, .£33,308; rental paid by cultivators,
,£82,467. The administrative staff consists of one tahsilddr and four
honorary magistrates. Five police stations (thdnds) ; strength of regular
police force, 69 men ; with 79 municipal and town police, and 491 village
watchmen [chaukiddrs).

Amipshahr. — Town in Bulandshahr District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, and head-quarters of Amipshahr tahsil. Lat. 28 21/ x., long.
7 8° 18' 55" e. Situated on the military route from Aligarh to Budaun,
75 miles south-east of Delhi on the high western bank of the Ganges,
which is liable to erosion when the river is in flood. Founded in the
reign of Jahangir by the Badgujar Raja, Anup Rai, from whom it
derives its name. In 1757, Ahmad Shah Abdali placed his canton-



ANWA— AONLA. 295

ments here, where two years later he organized his coalition against
the Jats and Marathas, which led to their overthrow at the battle of
Panipat in 1761. In 1773, the combined forces of the Oudh Wa/ir
and the British made Anupshahr their rendezvous, when opposing
the Maratha invasion of Rohilkhand ; and from that date till 1806,
Anupshahr was garrisoned with British troops, afterwards removed to
Meerut. Population (1SS1) S234; namely, Hindus, 6479; Muhamma-
dans, 1 73 1 ; Jains, 24 ; area of town site, 55 1 acres. Municipal revenue
in 18S0-S1, £579; expenditure, ^588. With the revenue derived
from octroi and a house tax, a proper conservancy establishment is
kept up, and much attention is directed to local improvements. The
Ganges is here crossed by a bridge of boats in the dry weather, and
by a ferry in the rainy season. The town is resorted to by Hindu
pilgrims, who bathe in the Ganges at certain seasons. The largest
assemblage is on the full moon of Kartik (November-December),
when about 50,000 persons collect together from all quarters ; but as a
bathing place, Rajghat, owing to its position on the railway, has become
more popular. Owing to its central position on a great navigable river,
Anupshahr has great commercial advantages ; but since the opening of
the railway station at Rajghat on the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway,
9 miles to the south-east, much of the traffic of the town has been
diverted to Dibhai. The population is yearly decreasing, and the trade
is now confined to timber and bamboos, for which it is still a large
depot. There is some local manufacture of coarse and fine cloths,
blankets, boots, bullock carts, soap, shoes, etc. ; but the traffic is mainly
confined to the neighbouring villages in exchange for grain. Tahsili,
post-office, dispensary, vernacular school, mosque, and several small
temples, but none of any interest ; good sardi or inn for native
travellers.

Anwa. — Town in Silod taluk, Haidarabad territory, Nizam's
Dominions; situated on the river Jiia, 5 miles south of Sheoni.
Population, 2000. Large depot for cotton, which is exported to
Khamgaon and Jalgam. The chief object of interest is a small temple
with a stone roof, supported on a number of pillars, covered with small
sculptured figures, beautifully carved. The annual fair, held in con-



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