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Athni. — Sub - division of Belgaum District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 787 square miles, containing one town and 80 villages; popula-
tion (18S1) 105,961, of whom 51,998 were returned as males, and
53,963 as females. Of Hindus there are 83,428 ; Muhammadans,
10,909; and others, 11,624.

Athlli. — Chief town of the Athni Sub-division, Belgium District,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 6o° 43' 45" N., long. 75° 6' 30" e. ; popula-
tion (1881) 11,186; namely, Hindus, 9266; Muhammadans, 1462;
Jains, 458. Municipal revenue (1880-81), ^"1167; expenditure, ,£919;
rate of taxation, 2s. id. per head of the population. Athni is a place of
increasing importance as a local centre of trade. Its wheel-wrights are
known as excellent workmen, and it has manufactures of coarse cotton
cloth, native blankets, and saltpetre. It is the chief rural market in
Belgaum District, sending cotton and grain westwards to Miraj (24 miles),
and receiving from the sea-coast through Miraj, rice, cocoa-nut and
dried fish. There is a sub-judge's court, a dispensary, and a post-office.

Athpadi.— Town in the State of Aundh, Satara District, Bombay
Presidency. Population (1881) 5841, comprising 5634 Hindus, 194
Muhammadans, and 13 Jains.

A-thllt {A-thoot). — Tidal river in Bassein District, British Burma ;
rises in the Kyiinlaha lake or swamp, and after a south-westerly mean-
dering course through plains sparsely covered with forests, falls into the
Kyiin-kabo above Paya-thun-zu. Navigable for 15 miles from its mouth
during the rains ; in the dry season the A-thiit is divided off into fisheries.

Atia.— Sub-division of Maimansingh District, Bengal, lying between
2 3° 57' 3°" an d 2 4° 49' N - l at -> an d between 89 43' and 90 16' 15" e.
long.; area, 1061 square miles ; population (188 1) 754,241, comprising
509,085 Muhammadans, 243,988 Hindus, 2 Christians, and 1166
others; number of villages, 2486 ; of houses, 104,203, of which 103,132
are occupied; average density of population, 710-88 per square mile;
villages per square mile, 2*34 ; houses per square mile, 98*21 ; persons
per village, 303 ; persons per occupied house, 7*31. The Sub-division
contains the three thdnds, or police circles, of Pingna, Gopalpur, and
Atia. Strength of regular police force, 76 men, besides 1388 chankiddrs
or village watchmen. Civil courts at Pingna and Tangail. The head-
quarters of the Sub-division are at Tangail town, which is connected
with the civil station of the District by a good road.

Atmaklir.— Taluk in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Con-



ATMAKUR—ATRAXJI KHER* I.

tains no villages. Area, 63 8 square miles; houses, [6,823; p
tion (iSSr) 87,752, being 44,495 m ales and 43,257 femal . I
revenue (1882-83), .£20,909. The tdluk contains 2 criminal courts,
and in civil matters is under the jurisdiction of the munsifoi K

Number of police stations, 9 ; strength of police, 65 men. Chief towns
— Atmakiir, Kalavaya, Chijerla, Mahimalur, and Anantasagaram. The
tdluk is divided by the Pennair (Ponnaiyar) river, which, with thi
geru, irrigates 10 per cent, of the arable land. Indigo is largely grown
on the river banks. There are several fine tanks, those of Ana*.
GARAM and Kalavaya being specially noteworthy. The chief antiquities
of the tdluk are the temples at Somisilla, Kotitirtham, Kalavaya,
Mahimalur, and Chijerla, the forts and pagodas of Prabhagiripatnam, and
the mosque of Anamasamudrampet.

Atmakur. — Town in Nellore District, Madras Presidency. Popula-
tion (1881) 3760; namely, 3094 Hindus and 666 Muhammadans.
The head-quarters of the tdluk of the same name. Post-office.

Atner. — Town in Betiil ta/isi/, Betul District, Central Provinces.
Population (1881) 2429; namely, Hindus, 1869; Muhammadans, 388;
Jains, 101 ; aboriginal tribes, 71. Large weekly market, at which a
considerable trade is carried on with inhabitants of the Berar Districts.
Police station, dispensary, and good school. Remains of an old
Maratha fort, from which fine squared stone blocks are still dug up.

Atpadi (Athpddi). — Town in the State of Aundh, included within
the boundaries of Satara District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17° 25'
25" N., long. 74 59' e. ; population (1SS1) 5841; namely, Hindus,
5634; Muhammadans, 194; and Jains, 13.

Atrai. — A river of Northern Bengal, by which the waters of the
Tista found their way to the Ganges before the great change in the
course of the Tista in 1787-S8. Assuming its name at a point close to
the northern boundary of Dinajpur, it flows in a southerly direction
through that District, and then south-east through Rajshahi and a
small portion of Pabna, finally joining the Ganges in the latter District,
having previously taken the name of the Baral. Since the diversion
of the waters of the old Tista into the Brahmaputra, the Atrai has
suffered considerably as a navigable channel ; but in its upper reaches it
still allows of the passage of boats of about 2 tons burthen during the
dry season, and in the rains it is navigable by vessels of about 35 tons.
The country through which it flows is level, and the stream very slug-
gish. Chief tributary, the Jamuna ; smaller feeders, the Kastuakhari,
Satkharia, Khan, Darna, Irabati, Nagar, and Phuljhur. Total length,
more than 250 miles.

Atranji Khera.— Prehistoric mound in Etah District, North-Westem
Provinces ; 10 miles north of Etah town, and 15 miles south of Soron.
Lat. 27 40' n., long. 7S 45' 15" e. Its surface is covered with



380 A TRA ULI—A TTARAN.

fragments of statues and broken bricks of large size. Ancient coins are
frequently found among the ruins. A temple of Mahadeo and five
lingams stand upon the mound, and all the sculpture is of Brahman
origin. General Cunningham identifies Atranji Khera with the site of
Pi-lo-chan-na, visited by the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Hwen Thsang in
the 7th century a.d. Local tradition connects the ruins with the capital
of Raja Ben, who was defeated by Shahab-ud-din Ghori in 1193, while
his fort and city were blown into the air by the Muhammadan conqueror;
but many inconsistencies in the story, and especially the mention of
gunpowder in the 12th century, render this tradition untrustworthy.

Atrauli. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Aligarh District, North-Western
Provinces, lying along the right bank of the Ganges, and traversed by
the Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. Area, 226,371 acres, of which
150,305 are cultivated, and 73,406 irrigated; population (1881)
146,536; number of villages, 306. Land revenue, ^29,096; total
revenue, ^32,140. The tahsil contains 1 civil court, and 4 police
stations at Atrauli, Dadon, Barla, and Gangiri; strength of regular police,
51 men, with 320 village watchmen or chaukiddrs.

Atrauli. — Town in Aligarh District, North-Western Provinces, and
head-quarters of Atrauli tahsil, situated 16 miles from Aligarh town, on
the road thence to Ramghat; lat. 28° i' 50" N., long. 78° 19' 40" e.
Area, 166 acres. Population in 1881, 14,374, composed of 8684 Hindus,
5593 Muhammadans, and 97 Jains. A well-built, clean, and healthy
town, with tahsili, police station, post-office, and school. Trade in cotton,
iron, brass utensils, and local produce. Founded about the 1 2th century,
but little is known of its local history. Centre of local disaffection during
the Mutiny of 1857. The Muhammadan inhabitants, who are converted
Hindus, have always had a bad reputation for turbulence ; and during
the rebellion, the town was in the hands of the insurgents from June till
September 1857, when order was restored. Municipal income in
1880-81, ^840, of which ^763 was derived from octroi; expenditure,
^820; average incidence of taxation, is. ofd. per head of the population.

Atrauli. — Town in Hardoi District, Oudh ; 1 1 miles north-east from
Sandila. Population (1881) 2031, principally Bais Kshattriyas, living
in 297 houses, whose ancestors are said to have wrested it, with 80
other villages, from the Gaurs, about eleven generations ago. Weekly
market and Government school.

Atri. — Village and police station in Gaya District, Bengal. Lat. 24
55' 5" n., long. 75° 17' 40" e. Police force, 1 sub-inspector and 9
constables. Distance from Behar, 28 miles south-west.

Atsanta. — Town in Godavari District, Madras Presidency. — See
Achanta.

Attaran {Ahtaran). — River in Amherst District, British Burma,
formed by the junction of the Zami and Winraw rivers. It falls into



ATTARI— ATTOCK. - ,

the Salwfn (Salween) river at Maulmain. Narrow, deep, and sin
course north-west; navigable for nearly its whole Length. The
forests on the banks of the Zami and Winraw arc now nearly
exhausted. There are several hot springs on the Attaran, the
important being those at Attaran Rebu, in Amherst I >isi 11 i.

Attari.— Village in Tarn-tdran tahsil, Amritsar I district, Punjab, on the
Grand Trunk Road, and a railway station on the Sind, Punjab, and 1 >elhi
line. Population (18S1) 2853. Founded by Gaur Singh, a Jat of the
Sindu tribe. His descendants, the Sirdars of Attari, still reside in the
village. The family was of great importance under the early Sikh com-
monwealth, and afterwards under Ranjit Singh. Their present represen-
tative, an honorary magistrate, enjoys large estates in the neighbourhood.

Attigada. — Estate in Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. Area,
149 square miles. Land revenue, ^6000. — See Kallikot.

Attikuppa. — Taluk in Hassan District, Mysore State. Area, 371
square miles; population (1872) 46,182; land revenue (1881-82),
exclusive of water rates, ^13,735, or an average of 4s. iod. per cultivated
acre. Fertile black and red soil, on which are cultivated rice, plantains,
and garden produce; manufacture of cotton cloth and silk articles.

Attikuppa {'Heap of Wild Fig').— Village in Hassan District,
Mysore State, and head-quarters of the taluk of the same name. Lat
12 41' n., long. 76° ^ e. ; population (1881) 1347.

Attili (Atri). — Town in Godavari District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
i6°4i' 10" n., long. 8i°38'36"e.; population (1 88 t) 7080; namely, 6784
Flindus, 289 Muhammadans, and 7 Christians. Houses, 1353. Situated
on one of the navigable Godavari canals. A centre of wet-crop cultivation.

AttOCk (Atak). — Tahsil in RaVal Pindi District, Punjab, lying along
the left bank of the Indus, and containing the rocky range known as
the Attock Hills. Area, 568 square miles; population (1881) 138,752 ;
namely, males, 79,629; and females, 59,123. Revenue of the tahsil
(1883), ^12,088. The administrative staff consists of one Assistant
Commissioner ; one tahsilddr and 1 munsif. These officers preside
over 3 civil and 2 criminal courts; with three police stations, 145
regular police, and 149 village watchmen.

AttOCk {Atak). — Town and fortress in Rawal Pindi District. Punjab,
and head-quarters of Attock tahsil. Lat. -$■$ 53' 15" n., long. 72 16'
45" e. The fort is situated on a commanding height (lat. $3° 53' 29" x.,
long. 72 17' 53" e.) overhanging the Indus, almost opposite the point
where it receives the Kabul river. Below their junction, a dangerous
whirlpool eddies between two jutting precipices of black slate, known
as Kamalia and Jalalia, from the names of two famous Roshnai heretics,
who were flung from their summits during the reign of Akbar. The
buildings of the town stood formerly within the fort, but have been
removed to a lower site beneath it. The Emperor Akbar here



382 ATUR.

established a ferry, and built the fortress in 1583. Akbar granted the
revenues of a village in Chach to be enjoyed by the Attock boatmen ;
this was confirmed to them by the British Government, and is still in
their possession. The fort is an irregular polygon, built on the crest of
the end of a spur running down to the Indus. The Muhammadan
historians call it Atak Benares, in contradistinction to Katak Benares in
Orissa, at the opposite extremity of the empire. Ranjft Singh occupied
the post in 1813 ; and it remained thenceforth in the hands of the
Sikhs till the British conquest in 1849. It i s now nel d by a consider-
able European detachment, including a battery of artillery. Attock
forms an important post on the military road to the frontier. Formerly,
during eight months of the year abridge of boats was maintained across
the Indus, and for the remaining four months the passage was effected
by a ferry. The bridge on the Northern State Railway from Lahore to
Peshawar was completed in 1883, and the railway line to the frontier
opened throughout. The bridge has a subway for goods and passenger
traffic. The town, which is intersected by four main streets meeting in
an open space in the centre, contains a court-house, police station, staging
bungalow, two sardis, church, school-house, and dispensary. The popula-
tion, which at the time of the Census of 1868 numbered 1454, had risen
in 1 88 1 to 42 10, composed of 2912 Muhammadans, 1283 Hindus, 2 Sikhs,
and 13 ' others.' The town has been constituted a municipality of the
third class; municipal revenue in 1880-81, .£669; expenditure, ,£361.
Atlir (Attur). — Taluk in Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
n° 19' to n° 52' n., long. 77 44' to 78 55' e. ; area, 767 square miles
(570,758 acres), containing 1 town and 178 villages. The acreage liable
to revenue is distributed as follows : — Government villages, 402,477 ;
hill ranges, 157,933 ; Mitta and Shrotriem villages, 10,348 acres. The
extent actually under cultivation is 107,524 acres, paying a Government
revenue of ^20,332 in 1882-83. Population (1881) 158,554, being
76,238 males and 82,316 females. Classified according to religions,
there are 152,620 Hindus, including Sivaites, Vishnuvites, and
Lingayats; 3046 Muhammadans, 2888 Christians, chiefly Roman
Catholics. Four-fifths of the whole are engaged in agriculture, and
very poor. Houses number 28,298 occupied and 3391 unoccupied;
average number of inmates per house, 6*4. The taluk is situated in
the south-east of the District. Hill ranges surround it on three sides,
and the Paithiir Malai range runs across the taluk, dividing it into the
two watersheds of the Vellar (or Vasishthanathi) and Swathanathi rivers,
which water the rich grain tracts on either side. Magnetic iron beds
of great extent exist in the higher hill groups. These are the Periya
and Chinna Kalrayan, under petty chiefs ; the forests in the former are
held by Government on lease. The pagoda of Kari Raman on the
Periya Hill is a shrine of great sanctity. The soil alternates in stretches



ATUR.



3*1



of red loam and black alluvium, its fertility being in many parts greatly
reduced by the excessive quantity of lime contained. Ragi on 'dry,'
and paddy on 'wet' lands, form the staple of cultivation; but Other

grain crops — varagu, kambu, diohnn, wheat, etc.— are grown largely.
Areca palms and palmyras are cultivated along the river drainage lines,
and cotton occupies a large proportion of the black soil. The N ••
Orleans plant has been tried with success. A grove of sandal-wood,
flourishing near Valapadi, disproves the opinion that that tree requires a
high elevation. Irrigation is carried on from all the rivers, 75 tanks,
64 minor reservoirs, and 8561 wells; irrigated area, 14,837 acres,
assessed at ^10,168. The rates of assessment vary on 'dry' lands
from 6d. to 10s. per acre ; on ' wet ' lands from 3s. to 19s. The trunk
road from Salem to Cuddalore intersects the taluk, and there are
besides 89 miles of road. The chief towns are Atur, Thamampatti,
Thadaviir, and Viraganur ; four other towns have a population of over
2000. The Local Fund Board has established 7 boys' and 1 girls'
schools in the taluk, which have an attendance of 250 scholars ; the
London Mission has 2 schools ; and there are besides about 100 native
schools or pidls. Travellers' bungalows have been erected at Atur,
Valapadi, Thalaivasal. Twelve weekly and four annual fairs are held in
the taluk. The taluk contains two criminal courts, and in civil matters
is under the jurisdiction of the munsif at Salem. Strength of regular
police force, 65 men.

Atur (Attin-ur, 'the Village by the River:' Attur, Athih). — Chief town
of the taluk of the same name in Salem District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
1 1° 35' 50" n., long. 78 39' e. Situated on the trunk road from Salem to
Cuddalore, and on the Vasishthanathi river. Population (1SS1) 8334,
namely, 7219 Hindus, 880 Muhammadans, and 235 Christians; houses,
161 7. Head-quarters of the tahsilddr, and of the forest, public works,
and police departments ; has a charitable dispensary, post - office,
travellers' bungalow, two schools, and weekly market. Cart-making,
iron-smelting, and the manufacture of indigo (four factories being at
work) form the chief industries. Except in grain, the town has no
trade, although there is much through traffic along the trunk road.
The water of the river has a bad reputation. On the north bank stands
a large fort, the ramparts of cut stone, with four bomb-proof chambers.
Commanding, as it did, the pass from Salem to Sankaridrug, this fort
was of importance in the wars with Haidar Ali. It was captured by
the British in 1768, after the surrender of Salem ; and during the war
with Tipu was again occupied by British troops.

Atlir (Aht&r). — Town in Tinnevelli District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
8° 37' 30" n., long. 78°6'3o"e. ; pop. (1881) 5744, namely, 2701 males,
and 3043 females. Situated near the mouth of the Tambraparni river.

Atlir. — Town in Madura District, Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 16'



384 ATWA PIPARIA—AUNDH.

n., long. 77 53' e. ; population (1881) 7232, namely, 5170 Hindus,
1665 Muhammadans, and 397 Christians; houses, 1224. Situated 10
miles south-west of Dindigal, in the centre of a highly cultivated tract.

Atwa Piparia. — Pargand in Kheri District, Oudh; situated between
the Kathna and Gumti rivers. A scantily populated jungle tract.
On the breaking up of the great Muhamdi estate, of which it formed
part, many of the sub-holders obtained direct engagements for their
villages ; among them the father of Bhagwant Singh, who held Atwa
Piparia. The whole pargand was subsequently engrossed by Bhagwant ;
but in 1836 he lost part of it. In resentment, he went into rebellion,
and for several years led a life of successful robbery. He had a fort
at Atwa, on the Kathna river, situated amid dense jungle, from which
he used to emerge at night, and commit raids and robberies of cattle
on the neighbouring Districts. Colonel Sleeman relates how on one
occasion, in 1841, this man, with 200 followers, completely defeated
three companies of the King of Oudh's troops under a European
officer, who had been despatched to effect his capture. He was sub-
sequently assassinated, and his head sent in triumph to the king.
The estate was then put under the management of Captain Faida
Husain Khan, an officer of the King of Oudh. On our annexation of
Oudh the settlement was made with him, and a tdlukddri sanad granted,
whereby he obtained a permanent and hereditary proprietary title to the
pargand. The estate, however, has now passed out of his hands. Area,
64 square miles, of which 23 are cultivated; population (1881) 10,575,
namely, Hindus 9244, Muhammadans 133 1. Land revenue, £775.

Auckland Bay. — Bay on the coast of Mergui District, British
Burma. Lat. 12 10' n., long. 98 30' e. Forms part of the Mergui
Archipelago, the rocky islands of which guard its entrance.

Augasi. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Banda District, North-Western
Provinces. Also called Baberu, q.v.

Aundh. — A petty State (jdgir) within the Satara Political Agency,
under the supervision of the Collector, in the Bombay Presidency, lying
between 17 6' 15" and 17 34' 15" n. lat, and between 74 16' 15" and
74 52' 30" e. long.; area, 447 square miles ; population (1881) 58,916,
namely, Hindus 56,237, Muhammadans 2393, 'others' 286. Number
of occupied houses, 8496; number of villages, 71; estimated gross
revenue, inclusive of export and import duties, ,£19,377- Pro-
ducts — wheat, the ordinary varieties of millet and pulse, and cotton ;
molasses, clarified butter, and oil are also prepared. There are (1881)
19 schools (one for girls), with 723 pupils. The present chief is a Hindu
of the Brahman caste, with the title of Panth Pratinidhi. This title,
meaning ' Representative of the RajaV or ' Viceroy,' was held, with the
office, by several Maratha chiefs, under the descendants of Sivajf, and
eventually became hereditary in the family of the present holder. The



A UNDH—A URANCA.

fdgir is under the direct control of the Bombay Government, and its

Chief ranks in the first class among the Deccan Sardars. 1 [e maintains
a retinue of 280 armed police and 20 horsemen. He holds a sanad
authorizing adoption. The family follows the rule of primogeniture ;
but during the last six successions either an adopted son or a sole son
and heir has succeeded.

Aundh. — Chief town of the State of Aundh, in the District of Satara,
Bombay Presidency; 26 miles south-east of Satara. Lat. 17° 32'45"n..
long. 74 22' 30" e. Population (18S1) 2600.

Aundhi. — Estate or za?ninddri, in Brahmapurf tahsil, Chanda District,
Central Provinces; area, 21 square miles ; villages, 25 : occupied houses,
185 ; population (1881) 1066, namely 553 males and 513 females.

Auraiya (C/riya). — Tahsil of Etawah District, North- Western Pro-
vinces ; extending on either side of the Jumna (Jamuna), the Chambal,
and the Kuari Nadi, and much intersected by the ravines which run up
from their beds. Area, 308 square miles, of which 175 are cultivated ;
population (1881) 117,980; land revenue, ^23,041; total revenue,
^25,813; rental paid by cultivators, ^42,237. In 1883, the tahsil
contained 1 civil and 1 revenue court, with 2 police stations ; strength
of regular police, 52 men, with 247 village watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Auraiya. — Town in Etawah District, North- Western Provinces, and
head-quarters of the tahsil ; situated on the Etawah and Kalpi road, 42
miles distant from the former town. Lat. 26 28' N., long. 79 33' 15" e.
Area, 428 acres. A steadily improving and prosperous town, carrying
on a considerable trade with Gwalior and Jhansi. Population (1881)
7299, composed of 6267 Hindus, 1017 Muhammadans, and 15 Chris-
tians. A small revenue for police and conservancy purposes is raised
under the provisions of the Chaukidari Act (xx. of 1856). The metalled
road from Jhansi passes a little outside the town, and on it is built the
tahsili, a handsome structure. Opposite the tahsili, a wide metalled
road, lined with fine shops, runs down to the new market-place known
as Humeganj, and which consists of a large well-kept square, with a
central metalled roadway, and good masonry shops at the sides. The
town proper comprises about 200 masonry houses, around which mud
huts are closely packed. Three good sard is or travellers' rest-houses,
two large tanks, two fine mosques, and several Hindu temples. During
the Mutiny, the town was more than once at the mercy of the in-
surgents ; it does not, however, appear to have been plundered, and it
is stated that some of the more wealthy traders saved themselves from
that fate by bribing the rebel leaders.

Auranga.— River in Surat District, Bombay Presidency, rising in
the Dharampur hills, and falling into the sea about 8 miles south of the
Ambika. For the last 15 miles of its course the Auranga is a tidal
stream, navigable by boats of 50 tons and under for about 6 miles from

vol. 1. 2 B



3 S6 A URANGABAD SUB-DIVISION AND TO WN

the sea. A mile above the town of Balsar the railway crosses the river
by a bridge iooo feet long, and raised 32 feet above the stream. At
Balsar the channel is 600 feet wide, with a depth of from 7 to 9 feet
at low tide. There is a bar at the mouth, the tidal rise over which
is 18 feet.

Aurangabad— Sub-division of Gaya District, Bengal, lying between
24° 29' and 25° 7' 30" n. lat., and between 84 2' 30" and 84 46' 30" e.
long.; area, 1246 square miles; population (1881) 445> 6 4i> comprising
398,070 Hindus, 47,564 Muhammadans, 3 Christians, and 4 Santals
density of population, 357 per square mile ; number of villages, 2667
of occupied houses, 70,481. The Sub-division comprises the three
police circles of Aurangabad, Daiidnagar, and Nabinagar. In 1883
it contained 1 civil and 2 criminal courts ; strength of regular police
103 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 843.

Aurangabad.— Village on the Grand Trunk Road, in Gaya District
Bengal, and head-quarters of Aurangabad Sub-division. Lat. 24 45' 3'
n., long. 84° 25' 2" e. Population (1881) 4626, namely, males 2290,
and females 2336. Municipal income (1881), ^79. The village con-



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