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family trace back their descent to Raja Bhoj, and through him to
Vikramaditya. About 1681 a.d., the chiefs son, who was also the
diwdn or minister, compelled his father to divide the territory. The
portion assigned to the dkvdn was called Narsinghgarh, while that
retained by the chief or Rawat was known as Rajgarh. Eventually
Narsinghgarh became tributary to Holkar, and Rajgarh to Sindhia. The
area of Rajgarh (including Sutalia) is 655 square miles. Population
(1881) 117,533, namely, 56,977 males and 60,556 females, dwelling in
638 villages. Hindus number 104,166; IMuhammadans, 5830; Jains,
352; Christians, 6; Sikhs, 4; and aboriginal tribes, 7175. The aborigines
include Bhils, 3568 ; Minas, 3209 ; and Moghias, 398. The revenue is
returned at ;£5o,ooo, of which ;£85i7, 4s. is paid to Sindhia as tribute
for the District of Tallian ; and about ;£^ioo to Jhalawar for Kalipit
parga7id. The prinicipal products of the State are opium and grain.
In 187 1, the Rawat Moti Singh announced his conversion to the



RAJGARH—RAJGIIA T. 387

Muhammadan faith, and took the name of Muhammad Abdul Wasih
Khan. He received the title of Nawab from the British Govern-
ment in 1872, and is entitled to a salute of 11 guns. On the death
of Muhammad Abdul Wasih Khan in 1880, his son Bakhtawar Singh
succeeded to the chiefship; the latter died in 1882, and was suc-
ceeded by his son Balbahadur Singh, the present chief. Having been
but a child at the time of his grandfather's change of faith, Balbaha-
dur Singh has been again received by his brother chiefs as one of
themselves, and the family have resumed their position as Rajputs
of the Omat clan. 'I'he military force consists of 240 cavalry, 360
infantry, 4 field and 8 other guns, with 12 artillerymen. The town of
Rajgarh contains a population (1881) of 6881, namely, Hindus, 5617;
Muhammadans, 1134 ; and 'others,' 130. It lies in lat. 24° o' 23° n.,
and long. 76° 46' 38" r. ; elevation above sea-level, 12 10 feet.

Rajgarh. — Guaranteed Thakurate under the Deputy Bhil Agency
of Central India. Population (1881) 706. The chief or Bhiimid
holds the villages of Rajgarh (with a hill fort) and Dhal under a
sanad from the British Government dated i8th March 187 1, and
receives payment from both Holkar and the Dhar State, on condition
of keeping the roads free from thieves, and being answerable for all
robberies in certain tracts.

Rajgarh. — Pargaud in Mill tahsil, Chanda District, Central Pro-
vinces ; comprising 140 villages, with an area of 447 square miles. The
AVainganga river bounds it on the east ; it is intersected from the north
by two branches of the Andhari, which meet about its centre, and a
third branch flows along its western boundary in a south-easterly
direction. The western and northern portions are hilly and covered
with forests ; in the lowlands, the soil is sandy, and produces rice and
sugar-cane. Principal towns, Saoli and Mul. Rajgarh formerly
belonged to the Gond princes of Wairagarh.

Rajgarh.— Fort in Sirmur (Sarmor) State, Punjab. Lat. 30° 52' n.,
long. 77° 23' E. Situated upon a natural terrace, projecting from the
side of a mountain. Square outline ; tower at each corner, about 40 feet
high and 20 square. Fired and nearly demolished by the Gurkhas in
1814, but recently restored. Elevation above sea-level, 7 115 feet.

Rajgarh. — Town in Ajmere-Merwara District, Rajputana; distant
from Ajmere city 10 miles south, from Nasirabad 6 miles west. Lat.
26° 17' 50" N., long. 74° 40' 35" E. Ruins of a fort, with rampart of
massive rough stones. Small lake, apparently artificial. Held by
Gaur Rajputs before the ascendency of the Rahtors, and restored in
jdgi/'to the descendant of its original rulers in 1874.

Rajghat. — Fort in Benares District, North - Western Provinces,
commanding the city of Benares, and situated on an eminence 50 feet
above the plain, at the junction of the Barna river with the Ganges.



388 RAJGIR—RAJKOT.

Erected during the Mutiny of 1857 to command the ferry, but now
abandoned. The ferry will shortly be superseded by a handsome
bridge across the Ganges, now (1885) under construction by the Oudh
and Rohilkhand Railway at Rajghat. Considerable remains of Buddhist
buildings have been found on the site of the fort.

Rajgir. — Ruins in Patna District, Bengal. — See Rajagriha.

Rajim. — Town in Raipur tahsil, Raipur District, Central Provinces,
at the junction of the Pairi and Mahanadi rivers, 24 miles south-east
of Raipur town. Lat. 20° 58' 30" n., long. 81° 55' o" E. Famous for
the temple of Rajiva Lochan, and for the pilgrimage and fair held in
his honour every February. The fair lasts a month, and attracts from
20,000 to 30,000 persons. The temple contains an image 4 feet high,
of black stone, standing, and facing the west. Its four arms hold the
Hindu emblems of the conch, the discus, the club, and the lotus.
Garuda, the bird of Vishnu, faces the god in a posture of devotion ;
and behind him are images of Hanuman and of Jagat Pal, the founder
of the temple. The doorway between them, finely carved with Nagas
(serpent demi-gods) entwined in endless folds, leads to two modern
temples of Mahadeva ; and a third, behind, is dedicated to the wife of
an oil-seller, contemporary, according to a popular story, with Jagat Pal.
In the same court of the great temple are shrines sacred to Narsinha,
Waman, Varaha, Badrinath, and Jagannath. The temple of Ram-
chandra contains two ancient inscriptions, one of them dated Samvat
796, or A.D. 750. Both commemorate the origin of Jagat Pal, and
recount the enemies he conquered. Mention is also made of a fort
called Durga (doubtless Drug, 25 miles west of Raipur), which Jagat
Pal obtained by marrying the Rajas daughter. On a small rocky
island at the junction of the rivers stands a temple of Mahadeva, called
Kuleswar, said to have been built by the widow of Jagat Pal. It bears
an inscription, now illegible. Rajim has a town school, a District post-
office, and a police station. Population (1881) 3252, namely, Hindus,
2751; Satnamis, 369; Kabirpanthis, 71; and Muhammadans, 61.
Rajim is also a depot for the collection and export of lac, of which
from 3000 to 4000 bullock-loads are annually sent to the markets
of Nagpur and Jabalpur.

Rajkot. — Native State in the Hallar division of Kathiawar, Bom-
bay Presidency. Area, 283 square miles, comprising i town and 60
villages. Population (1881) 46, 5 4°? namely, 24,778 males and 21,762
females, occupying 9325 houses. Hindus number 36,929 ; Muham-
madans, 6775; and 'others,' 2836. An undulating country, with a
stony soil, watered by several streams, of which only one, the Aji, is
perennial. The common kinds of grain, sugar-cane, and cotton are
the principal agricultural products. They are exported from Gogo and
Jorya, and to a certain extent by rail from Wadhwan. Carts are the



RAJKOT TOWX—RAJMAHAL. 3S9

chief means of transport, but pack-bullocks and horses are also employed.
'I'he climate, though hot in the months of April, May, and October,
is generally healthy. Rainfall, 22 5 inches in 1882. The prevalent
disease is fever.

Rajkot is an offshoot of Nawanagar, and ranks officially as a 'second-
class' State in Kathiawdr. In 1807, the ruler executed the usual
engagements. The chief has power to try his own subjects for capital
offences, without the express permission of the Political Agent. The
family follow the rule of primogeniture in matters of succession, and
hold no sanad authorizing adoption. The present (1881-82) chief,
Thakur Sahib Bawaji, is a Hindu of the Jareja Rajput caste, and
administers his State in person. He received his education at the
Rajkumar College at Rajkot. He enjoys an estimated gross yearly
revenue of ;^ 17, 2 7 8, and pays a tribute of ;^2i32 jointly to the
British Government and the Nawab of Junagarh. He maintains a
military force of 336 men. The State contains 14 schools, with a total
of IT 68 pupils. No transit dues are levied.

Rajkot. — Chief town of the State of Rajkot in Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 22° 17' 40" n., long. 70° 55' 45" e. Population
(1872) 11,979, exclusive of the civil and military station; (18S1)
15,139, namely, 7725 males and 7414 females. Hindus number
10,305; Muhammadans, 3032; Jains, 1795; Christians, 2; and
Parsi's, 5. Rajkot is a cantonment, and the head - quarters of the
Political Agent for Kathiawar. Population of the civil and military
station (1881) 6013, namely, Hindus, 3908; Muhammadans, 1631 ;
Parsis, 142; Christians, 126; Jains, 89; and 'others,' 117. It con-
tains a college for the sons of chiefs, a sort of Eton for the aristo-
cracy of Western India, which has already done good work in the
education and moral training of those who will hereafter be the rulers
of the Kathiawar Native States. Famous for its dyes ; good general
trade. Post and telegraph offices ; School of Art ; Alfred High School ;
churches ; Irish Presbyterian Mission House ; jail ; travellers' bungalow
and dhannsdla. Will shortly be connected with the Bhaunagar-Gondal
Railway.

Rajmahal.— Sub-division of the Santal Parganas District, Bengal.
Lat. 24' 42' 15" to 25° 18' 30" N., and long. 87° 29' 45" to 87° 57' e.
Area, 751 square miles; villages, 1326; houses, 47j24I- Popu-
lation (1881) 253,825, namely, males 126,420, and females 127,405.
Average density of population, 338 persons per square mile ; average
number of villages per square mile, I'S; persons per village, 191;
houses per square mile, 62*05; inmates per house, 5*37. Classified
according to religion, Hindus number 114,702; Muhammadans,
21,564; Christians, 1182; Jains, 2 ; Jews, 6; non-Hindu Santals,
99,116; other non- Hindu aborigines, i7>253. In 1884 the Sub-



390 RAJMAHAL TOWN—RAJMAHAL HILLS.

division contained 3 civil and 3 criminal courts, with a regular police
force of 41 men, and a village watch or rural police of 448 chaukiddrs.

Rajmah^l. — Town in the Santal Parganas District, Bengal ; situated
in lat. 25° 2' 51" N., and long. 87° 52' 51" e., on the right bank of
the Ganges. Now a mere collection of mud huts, interspersed with
a few respectable houses. The ruins of the old Muhammadan city,
buried in rank jungle, extend for about 4 miles to the west of the
modern town. Man Singh, Akbar's Rajput general, after his return
from the conquest of Orissa in 1592, selected Rajmahal (formerly
Agmahal) as the capital of Bengal, on account of its central
position with respect to that Province and to Behar, and from its
commanding the Ganges and the pass of Teliagarhi, through which
the railway now runs. The chief antiquities of Rajmahal are the
Jama Masjid of Man Singh, the palaces of Sultan Shuja and Mir
Kasim Ali, Nawab of Bengal, the Phulbari or flower - garden, and
numerous mosques and monuments. [For a full account of these, and
of the history of Rajmahal, see Statistical Accoimt of Bengal^ vol. xiv. pp.
325. 326.]

In the beginning of the present century. Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton
estimated that the town contained from 25,000 to 30,000 persons. In
1 88 1, the Census returned the population at 3839. Rajmahal is a
distributing centre for cotton goods, and also a seat of export trade in
grain, tasar silk, small-sized timber, hill bamboos, oil-seeds, etc. In
i860, when the loop-line of the East Indian Railway was opened to
this town, an arm of the Ganges ran immediately under the station,
forming a navigable channel for steamers and boats of all sizes. In
1863-64 the river abandoned this channel, leaving an alluvial bank in
its place. Rajmahal was, till 1879, 3 miles distant from the main
stream of the Ganges, and could only be approached by large boats
during the rains. In 1879 the Ganges returned to its old bed, but in
1882 it showed indications of again deserting it. In consequence of
these changes, the bulk of the trade has been transferred to Sahibgan'J,
though Rajmahal still retains the local traffic across the Ganges with
Maldah District.

Rajmahal Hills. — Hill tract in the Santal Parganas District, Bengal,
known as the Daman-i-koh ; estimated to cover an area of 1366 square
miles. The height nowhere exceeds 2000 feet above sea-level, and
the average elevation is considerably less. The most striking feature
of the northern portion of this range is the great central valley, which
extends 24 miles north and south, with an average width of 5 miles,
and is surrounded by hills on every side. The Rajmahal Hills were
long regarded as a continuation of the Vindhyan range of Central India;
but Mr. V. Ball, of the Geological Survey, after a detailed examination
of these hills, came to the conclusion that they form an isolated



RAJNA GAR—RAJPIPL A. 391

group, the north-eastern extremity of which constitutes the turning-
point of the Ganges. Geologically there is nothing in common between
the two. The Vindhyas are composed of quartzite, sandstone, lime
stone, and shales of great age; while the Rajmahal Hills consists of
overflowing basaltic trap of comparatively recent date, resting upon coal
measures and metamorphic rocks of a gneissose character.

Rajnagar.— Town and fort in the Native State of Udaipur, Raj-
putana; situated on the southern side of the Raj Samand lake, about 39
miles north north-east of Udaipur ciry.

Rajnagar. — Town in Birbhiim District, Bengal. — See Nagar.

Rajoli. — ZiWiUiddri estate in Sakoli tahsil in the south-east of
Bhandara District, Central Provinces ; comprising 1 2 villages, with an
area of 43 square miles, less than 2 of which are cultivated. Population
(1881) 1625. The chief is aMuhammadan; but the population consists
for the most part of Gonds and Gaulis. The forests afford pasturage to
large herds of cattle. The village of Rajoli lies in lat. 20° 40' n., and
long. 80° 16' E.

Rajpara. — Petty State in the Gohehvar pranth or division of Kathia-
war, Bombay Presidency. It consists of i village, with 2 separate
shareholders or tribute-payers. Population (188 1) 610. Area, i square
mile; situated 2J miles north-east of Jesar. The revenue is estimated
at ^252 ; and tribute of ^25, 12s. is paid to the Gaekwar of Baroda,
and J[^\, i6s. to the Nawab of Junagarh.

Raj pipla.— Native State within the British Political Agency of Rewa
Kantha, Bombay Presidency, lying between lat. 21° 23' and 21° 59' n.,
and between long. 73° 5' and 74° e. Bounded on the north by the
river Narbada (Nerbudda) and the Mehwasi estates of Rewa Kantha ;
on the east by the Mehwasi estates under the District of Khandesh ; on
the south by the State of Baroda, and Surat District ; and on the west
by Broach District. Its extreme length from north to south is 42
miles, and its extreme breadth from east to west, 60 miles. Area
(comprising i town and 211 villages), 15 14 square miles. Population
(1872) 120,036, of whom about 60 per cent, were Bhils. The Census
Report of 1881 returned males 59,834, and females 54,922 ; total,
114,756 ; occupying 22,494 houses; density of population, 75*8 persons
per square mile. Hindus numbered 47,811; Muhammadans, 5161 ;
and 'others,' 61,784, mostly Bhi'ls.

Two -thirds of the State are occupied by a continuation of the
Satpura range, known as the Raj pipla Hills, nowhere exceeding 2000
feet in height above the sea, which form the watershed between the
rivers Narbada and Tapti. Towards the west, the hills gradually
subside into gentle undulations. The State contains several forests,
yielding valuable teak, blackwood, and other timber, which is exported
in large quantities to the neighbouring British Districts. In the



392 RAJPIPLA,

Narbadd. valley the soil is alluvial and very productive, and by far
the largest share of the revenue is derived from lands lying in the
vicinity of that river. The more valuable crops, such as cotton, oil-
seeds, tobacco, and sugar-cane, are grown on lands annually submerged
by the Narbadd floods. The principal rivers of Rajpipla are the
Narbada, skirting the territory north and west for nearly loo miles ;
and the Karjan, which rises in the hills of the Nanchal pargand, and,
flowing north into the Narbada, divides the State into two equal
portions. Carnelian mines are worked at Ratanpur, a village about 14
miles above the town of Broach. Iron of good quality used to be made
near Ratanpur. The chief routes through the country are a cart-track
between Khandesh and Gujarat, and a road from Surat to Malwa,
which crosses the Narbada at Tilakwara. The climate is exceedingly
unhealthy, malarious fevers being prevalent from September to February.
Rainfall, 58 inches in 1881.

The family of the Rajpipla chief is said to derive its origin
from one Chokarana, son of Saidawat, Raja of Ujjain, a Rajput of the
Parnar tribe, who, having quarrelled with his father, left his own country
and established himself in the village of Pipla, in the most inaccessible
part of the hills to the west of the modern town of Nandod. The
only daughter of Chokarana married Mokers or Makheraj, a Rajput of
the Gohel tribe, who resided in the island of Premgar or Perim, in the
Gulf of Cambay. Makheraj had by her two sons, Dungarji and
Gemarsinghji. The former founded Bhaunagar, and the latter succeeded
Chokarana. Since that time (about 1470) the Gohel dynasty has ruled
in Rajpipla.

The Musalman kings of Ahmadabad had before this taken an
agreement from the Raja to furnish 1000 foot-soldiers and 300 horse-
men. This arrangement remained in force until Akbar took Gujarat,
in 1573, when he imposed a tribute on the country of jQzsSS i"
lieu of the contingent. This was paid until the end of the reign
of Aurangzeb (1707), when, the imperial authority declining, the pay-
ments became irregular, and if opportunity favoured, were altogether
evaded. Subsequent to the overthrow of the Muhammadan authority,
Damaji Gaekwar, in the latter half of the i8th century, succeeded in
securing a half-share of four of the most fertile sub-divisions of the terri-
tory. These were afterwards released at the cost of an annual payment
of ;^4ooo to the Gaekwar. and this sum later on was raised to ;£"92oo.
Such rapid and frequent encroachments on the State, and internal
quarrels, led to the intervention of the British Government. About
the close of 1821, of two disputants, the rightful claimant, Verisalji,
was placed on the throne by the British. Verisalji ruled till i860,
when, with the permission of the British Government, he abdicated
in favour of his only son, Gambhersinghji. The present (1883)



RAJPIPLA CAPITAL— RAJPUR. 393

chief is thirty-six years of nge. His estimated gross revenue in 1878
was ^67,000; in 1882-83, ;£6o,ooo. A tribute of ;^65oo is paid
to the Gaekwar of Baroda, through the British Government. He
maintains a force of 566 men, horse and foot, and is entitled to a
salute of 1 1 guns. He has power to try for capital offences, with-
out the permission of the Political Agent, any person except British
subjects. The capital of the State, Naxdod, is situated on the river
Korjan, in lat. 21° 54' n., long. 73° 34' e. A palace was built here
about fifty-five years ago, previous to which time the rulers of the
country resided in a fort on the hills, called Rajpipla. Ten schools for
boys and one for girls. Dispensary.

Rajpipla. — Old capital and fort of Rajpii)la State, Rcwa Kantha,
Bombay Presidency ; situated on a spur of the Devsatra hill, about 8
miles west of Nandod, the present capital. On the spur are two forts ;
one, Pipla, being the original stronghold of the chiefs, where they lived
till 1730. It is almost inaccessible to any but a Bhil. No wheeled
vehicles can pass, the road lying through a narrow gorge between high
overhanging hills. In former times it was a safe retreat, when, if
invaded, the chief blocked the path with wood and rubbish. There
are still traces of the village, now inhabited only by a few Bhils.

The new fort of Rajpipla, built about 1730, is approached, along the
bank of the Karjan, through two miles of a wild and beautiful mountain
gorge. Both sides of the hills overhanging the stream are crowned by
breastworks, and the road is rugged enough to make access to the fort
difficult. In front of the fort, the Ldl Danvdza, a gateway with
tianking towers, completely bars the road. The fort, a square court
with walls about 10 feet high, enclosing an area of 8 acres, contains the
palace, a paltry structure with flanking towers.

Rajpur. — Petty State in the Jhalawdr division of Kathiawdr, Bom-
bay Presidency ; consisting of 2 villages, with i tribute-payer. Situated
about 3 miles north-east of Wadhwan civil station, and close to the
Bombay and Baroda Railway. Area, 15 square miles. Population (1881)
1674. The revenue is estimated at jQi^oo ; tribute of ;^24i is paid to
the British Government, and ^18, 12s. to the Nawib of Junagarh.

Rajpur. — Petty State of Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency. Area,
i^ square miles. The chief is named Rawal Siir Singh. The revenue
is estimated at ;^26 ; and tribute of y?5, 2s. is paid to the Gaekwar of
Baroda.

Rajpur. — Town and municipality in the District of the Twenty-four
Parganas, Bengal. Population (1881) 10,576, namely, males 5101,
and females 5475. Hindus number 9733 : Muhammadans, S41 ; and
'others,' 2. Municipal income (1883-84), ;£64o, of which ^592 was
derived from taxation ; incidence of taxation, is. I'^d. per head.

Rajpur.— Town in Dehra Diin District, North- Western Provinces;



394 RAJPURA—RAJFUR ALL

situated 7 miles north of Dehra town, at the foot of the hills. Popula-
tion (1881) 3293. The town or rather village is simply a halting-stage
on the road to Masuri, where ponies, coolies, etc., are procured for the
last stage of the journey up the hill. Rajpur contains three or four
hotels, and a rest-house for the convenience of travellers. Post-office
and dispensary.

Rajpura. — Petty State in the Hallar division of Kathiawar, Bombay
Presidency. Consists of 7 villages, with i tribute-payer. Situated
14 miles south-east of Rajkot. Area, i square mile. Population
(1881) 2094. The revenue is estimated at £^1200 \ tribute of
^2^2 9 2 is paid to the British Government, and £,2^, to the Nawab of
Junagarh.

Rajpur All. — Native State under the Bhopawar Agency of Central
India ; lying between the Narbada (Nerbudda) river and the Vindhya
Mountains. Area, 837 square miles. Population (1875) 29,000;
(1881) 56,827. Hindus number 35,834 ; Muhammadans, 187 1 ; Jains,
167 ; and aborigines, 18,955. The products dJ^bdjrai^oXoM's, spicatus)
and inakka or Indian corn. No richer crops can be raised in the hilly
tracts, of which the greater part of the State is composed. The revenue
in 1870-71 was returned at ^16,154, and the expenditure at ;£"i2,977;
revenue (1882), ;£"95oo; expenditure, ;£"8874.

The chiefs of Rajpur Ali are Sesodia Rajputs, connected with
the Udaipur (Oodeypore) family. There is no record of the date
when the State was established, or of its first rulers. It appears,
however, owing to its wild and hilly position, to have been little
disturbed during the turmoils caused by the Maratha invasion of
Malwa. Immediately before the establishment of British supremacy in
Malwa, Rana Pratab Singh was chief of Rajpur Ali. He had in his
service a Mekrani adventurer named Musafir, who put down pretenders
to the succession, and managed the State, after the Rana's death, in
trust for his posthumous son, Jaswant Singh. Jaswant Singh died in
1862, leaving a will by which he divided the State between his two
sons. The British Government, in consultation with the neighbouring
chiefs, set this will aside, and allowed the elder son, Gangdeo, to succeed
to the whole State ; but during the later years of Gangdeo's life, his
incompetence, and the anarchy arising therefrom, compelled the British
authorities to take the territory temporarily under management.
Gangdeo died in 187 1, and was succeeded by his brother Riipdeo, who
died in 1881. The State is at present under British administration,
while the adopted chief is being educated during his minority at the
Rajkumar College at Indore. The State pays a tribute of ;^iioo
to the British Government, of which ;£"iooo is paid over to the
State of Dhar, to which Rajpur Ali was formerly feudatory. Rajpur
Ali also contributes ;£i5o per annum towards the cost of the Malwa



RAJFUTANA.



395



Bhil Corps. The military force consists of 2 guns, 9 horsemen, and
150 poUcemen. The chief is entitled to a salute of 9 guns. The
State contains (1882) one Urdu and six Hindi schools.

Rajputana.— In the administrative nomenclature of the Indian
Empire, Rajputana is the name of a great territorial circle, which
includes 20 States, having each its own autonomy and separate chief,



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