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The Imperial Gazetteer of India.



CLE., LL.D., B.A.











"•"ED ST








- "- - •


Since the earlier volumes of this edition went to press
in 1885, important changes have taken place in India,
to some of which it is needful here to refer. A new
Province, larger than France, has been added to the
Indian Empire; the long contemplated railway which
will traverse inner India direct from Calcutta to Bombay,
has been commenced ; the Lusitanian schism, which
during two centuries rent the Roman Catholic Church in
India, has been closed. Less conspicuous local changes
— administrative, legislative, educational, and economic —
have occurred in every Province. Their bare enumera-
tion would involve a supplement quite beyond the scope
of this work. In the Preface to the present edition I
put forward the view that, ' so far from represent-
ing the " stationary stage " of civilisation, accordino-
to a former school of English economists, India is
now one of the most rapidly progressive countries
of the earth.' The onward movements in India,


during the brief period which has since elapsed, justify
these words. 1

In order, however, to prevent misconceptions, it is
expedient to narrate very briefly the events which render
the lengthy articles on British and Independent Burma
in volume iii., and various lesser notices throughout the
other twelve volumes dealing with the same territories,
no longer a correct representation of the actual state of
things. The aggressive attitude of the King of Upper
Burma, and his obstinate refusal to redress the wrongs
done by his servants to British subjects, compelled Lord
Dufferin at the close of 1885 to send an expeditionary
force to Mandalay. The King was dethroned, and
deported for safe custody to British India. After an
attempt to administer the country through the Central
Council of Burmese Ministers, an attempt frustrated by
the old corrupt officials in the Districts, and by the
dynastic discords of the pretenders to the throne, Upper
Burma was annexed to British India by proclamation on
the 1st January 1886. In February 1886, Lord Dufferin
proceeded to Burma to organise the administration of
the new Province. The disorders incident to the dis-

1 The considerations which would have pointed to the expediency of amplifying
this Postscript have been anticipated by a recent remarkable essay on India by Sir
Henry Sumner Maine. 'From 1858 to 1887,' he says, 'India has been governed
by the Crown under the control of Parliament, and the facts and figures which I have
given seem to me to show that, taking the standards of advance which are employed
to test the progress of Western countries, there is no country in Europe which, accord-
ing to these criteria, and regard being had to the point of departure, has advanced
during the same period more rapidly and farther than British India.' — The Reign of
Queen Victoria, vol. i. p. 518. (Smith, Elder, & Co., 1887.)


banding of the royal troops, and the struggles of various
party leaders and pretenders to the sovereignty, gave
rise to numerous marauding bands known as dacoits.
These plunderers were active throughout the hot months
and the malarious rainy season of 1886 ; sometimes as
petty gang-robbers, sometimes as bodies of well-armed
banditti, and in certain localities as an organised array,
operating on a scale which might almost be dignified
with the name of guerilla war.

The close of the unhealthy season, and the approach
of the cold weather of 1886-87, enabled the British
authorities to deal with these depredators. In November
1886 a force of troops and armed police was gradually
spread over Upper Burma in such numbers as to render
plunder a very perilous livelihood. The peasantry
began to array themselves more actively on the side
of order ; in many cases taking their protection into
their own hands, and slaughtering or capturing the
dacoits. The Buddhist clergy were almost from the
first on our side, and they made their influence decisively
felt as the country settled down. Meanwhile, the
annexed territories had been divided into British
Districts of more convenient size, and placed under
a carefully selected staff of civil administrators. By
the end of the cold weather of 1886-87 order was
fairly established ; and during the ensuing hot weather
(1887) the work of pacification went forward. Satis-
factory relations were also established with the adjoining
States and hill tribes to the North and East. The new
Districts are now firmly united with Lower Burma into


a single British Province under a Chief Commissioner.
So far as can be foreseen at present (August 1887),
the period of conquest in Upper Burma is over, and
the task of consolidation is being accomplished by rapid
strides. 1

While dealing with recent changes in Upper Burma,
I take the opportunity of correcting an oversight in
regard to the educational system in Lower Burma.
Sixteen years ago, when I was collecting materials
for the first edition of this work, it seemed to me a
subject of regret that the British authorities had not
availed themselves more heartily of the system of
indigenous instruction given in the monasteries and
religious houses by the Buddhist clergy. During the
interval which has since elapsed, the system of public
instruction in British Burma may almost be said to have
been reconstituted on the basis of indigenous monastic
teaching. I have mentioned the function assigned to
such native agency at page 207 of volume iii. and in
other places. But there are also passages in which I

1 In the Preface to this edition I regretted that the necessity of printing in England,
while the author was in India, unavoidably led to errors in the press. An unfortunate
example of this class occurs in my account of recent transactions in Burma at page
430 of volume vi. I had kept back the sheet in order to incorporate the facts of the
Proclamation of Annexation and of Lord Dufferin's visit to Burma. But the new
sentences, when forwarded to England, got transposed ; and the events of January
and February 1886 are made to precede the expeditionary force and occupation of
Mandalay in November 1885. A clerical error, also due to the insertion of a new
sentence in the proof, and more likely to lead to confusion, had escaped me in the
same volume. In line 5 of footnote 2, page 230 of volume vi., for ' The latter •'
please read ' The former.'' Again, in lines 22 and 24 of p. 471 of volume v., the
words ' right ' and c left ' have been inadvertently transposed.


omit to notice or to sufficiently emphasize the change.
I gladly therefore take this occasion to again acknow-
ledge the educational work done by the monastic
institutions and the Buddhist clergy in Burma, and
also the wise use which the English authorities in
the Province have, for years past, made of this
indigenous basis of public instruction.

The ancient schism between the Catholic Priests
and Bishops appointed under the jurisdiction of the
King of Portugal or his representative, the Archbishop
of Goa, and the Vicars-Apostolic sent to India under
the direct authority of the Pope, has been narrated in
volume vi. 1 Since that volume was written, the
provisional arrangement therein mentioned has been
matured into a permanent settlement of the long-
conflicting claims. The local jurisdiction of the Arch-
bishop of Goa, as representing the King of Portugal,
has been respected. But, generally speaking, the Roman
Catholic Church in India has now been brought under
the authority of the Pope. His Holiness has issued
an instrument setting forth the new settlement of the
Indian Catholic Church; and a hierarchy of Arch-
bishops and Bishops, under the direct regulation of
Rome, has taken the place of the Vicars and Prefects
Apostolic in partibus infidelium.

During the printing of the fourteen volumes, much
new information has come into my possession, some-

1 V6L vi. pp. 255, 256.


times too late to be used. Thus, while I correctly state 1
that the style of ' the Governor-General-in-Council ' was
first authorized by the statute of ^ Geo. III., I else-
where mention, on the authority of an official Report
on the Old Records of the India Office, that the title
of Governor-General had occurred incidentally a century
before. 2 A personal examination of the original manu-
scripts has since convinced me that this is erroneous ;
and that the official reporter probably misread the
title of ' Captain-General ' for ' Governor- General.' I
am indebted to Colonel Yule, C.B., for materials, also
derived from the India Office MSS., which throw
grave doubts on the popular derivation of Chanak (or
Achanak), the native name for Barrackpur, from its
supposed founder, Job Charnock. The name seems
to have existed before that worthy could have given it
his patronymic.

For these and other deficiencies I respectfully plead
the necessity imposed upon me to finish the undertak-
ing within stringent limits as to time. The present
fourteen volumes endeavour to truthfully condense the
data which I have been able, during sixteen years, to
collect concerning an Empire nearly equal in size to all
Europe, less Russia. They were intended to subserve
the purposes of administration, and the Government
wisely declined to permit of leisure for literary complete-
ness, at the cost of delays which would have impaired
the practical utility of the work. Every year adds new

1 Vol. vi. p. 431. 2 Vol. vi. p. 370 (footnote).


stores to our information regarding India ; and each
decennial Census enables the economist and the admini-
strator to handle Indian problems with a surer grasp.
It may perhaps be my privilege, at some future time, to
bring out a further edition of these volumes, with ampler
knowledge and clearer lights. If this be not granted, I
leave with confidence to the servants of the Crown in
India who come after me, the task of perfecting the
work which I have begun.

In conclusion, I wish to express my obligations to Mr.
J. S. Cotton, late Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford,
and Mr. H. Morse Stephens, B.A. of Balliol College,
for the Index which forms this volume. That Index
is a careful expansion of the one to the first edition.
It brings to a point, and renders available at a glance,
the masses of local information collected throughout the
250 Districts of India during the past sixteen years.
Its plan, general outline, and major headings, are
necessarily my own : but to Mr. Cotton and Mr.
Stephens belongs the merit of its execution.

W. W. Hunter.

August 24, 1887.






Abaji Somadeo, Sivaji's general, took

Kalyan, vii. 347.
Abar or Abor Hills, in Assam, i. 1,2.
Abars, independent tribe, probably of

Tibetan stock, i. I ; in Assam, i. 353 ;

in Lakhimpur, viii. 431 ; article ' India,'

vi - 57-

Abazai, fort in Punjab, i. 2.

Abbott, Gen., settled Hazara, v. 362;

founded Abbottabad, v. 363 ; suggested

that Arrian's Aornos was Mahaban Hill,

xi. 506.
Abbottabad, tahsil in Punjab, i. 2.
Abbottabad, town and cantonment in

Punjab, i. 2, 3.
Abdalis, Arab tribe near Aden, i. 24.
Abdu, town in Bombay, i. 3.
Abdul Ghani, Nawab, gave water-supply

and almshouses to Dacca, iv. 89, 90, 91.
Abdul Nabi Khan, Nawab of Cuddapah,

conquered the Baramahal, iv. 48, 56.
Abdul Nabi Khan, last Kalhora chief of

Sind, his history, xii. 512, 513.
Abdul Rahim Khan, mutineer leader,

ruled Budaun, iii. 118.
Abdul Samad Khdn, Governor of Kash-
* mir, defeated the Sikhs (1716) and

took Banda prisoner, xi. 263.
Abdul Wahab, first Nawab of Karmil,

turned the temples into mosques, viii.

42 ; his mausoleum, viii. 45.
Abdul Wahab Khan, Nawab of Arcot,

held fort of Chandragiri, iii. 363.
Abdulla Khan, Sayyid, Wazir, helped his

brother against Farukhsiyyar, defeated

by Muhammad Shah, v. 257, 258.
Abdulla Khan Talpur, expelled the last

Kalhora chief from Sind, xii. 513.


Abdulla Kutab Shah, king of Golconda,
defeated by Aurangzeb, v. 255.

Abdur Rahman Khan, made Amir of
Afghanistan (July 1 880), i. 52 ; defeats
Ayiib Khan, vii. 275, 398; interview
with Lord Dufferin at Rawal Pindi,
vii. 275.

Abdur Razai, Wazir of Mahmud of Ghazni,
conquered Sind, xii. 509.

Abdurrazak, Arab traveller, his mention
of Kayal, viii. 107.

Abercromby, Lieut., translated History of
the Rajas of Coorg, iv. 30.

Abercromby, Gen. John, acting Governor
of Madras, ix. 67.

Abhana, village in Central Provinces, i. 3.

Abhrambara, leader of insurrection in
Kanara and Coorg (1837), iv. 31.

Abingdon, Major, relieved siege of Tel-
licherri, xiii. 238.

Abiraman, town in Madras, i. 3.

Abji, town in Bombay, i. 3.

Ablagundi, pass in Madras, i. 3, 4.

Abor Hills and Abor Tribe. See Abar.

Aboriginal tribes, non-Aryan population,
article ' India,' vi., chap. iii. pp. 53-74.
Kistvaen builders, flint and bronze
periods, 53 ; non-Aryans of Vedic
India, 53, 54 ; Andaman islanders,
55 ; Anamalai hillmen, 55 ; Gonds
and aboriginal tribes of the Central
Provinces, 55, 56 ; the Juangs or leaf-
wearers of Orissa, 56 ; tribes of the
Himalayas, 56 ; of Assam, 57 ; Santals,
their tribal government, history, re-
ligion, 57-60 ; the Kandhs of Orissa,
their tribal government, blood revenge,
marriage by capture, and human sacri-
fice, 60-63 ; origin of the non-Aryan
tribes, 6^ ; the three non-Aryan stocks


— Tibeto-Burman, Dravidian,Kolarian,
— their languages, 63-68 ; statistics of
non- Aryan races in 1872 and 1 88 1,
69-71 ; Hinduizing tendency among
aboriginal tribes, 70, 71 ; crushed
aboriginal tribes, 71 ; gipsy clans, 71 ;
aboriginal criminal tribes, 71, 72 ; the
non-Aryan hill tribes as soldiers, 72 ;
Colonel Dixon's work among the
Mhairs of Rajputana, 73 ; Sir James
Outram's work among the Ehils, 73 ;
fidelity of the hill races, 73. — For notices
of special tribes, see Abars, Ahams,
Akas, Andamanese, Andhs, Badagas,
Bagdis, Baigas, Baltis, Bants, Baoris
or Bauris, Bathudis, Bhars, Bhilalas,
Bhils, Bhogtas, Bhotiyas, Bhumijs,
Bhutias, Bhuiyas, Binjwars, Birhors,
Bishnois, Botwas, Brokpas, Brushas,
Bunas, Bushkariks, Chakmas, Cham-
pas, Chandals, Chaungthas, Chaws,
Chenchuwars, Cherus, Chilasis, Chins
or Khyins, Chitralis, Chutiyas, Dagis,
Dalus, Daphlas, Denwas, Deswalfs,
Dhangars, Dhiims, Dommaras, Doms,
Gadwas or Gadbas, Garos, Gaudas,
Gaulis, Gonds, Gurungs, Haburas,
Hajungs, Halbas or Halwas, Hallanis,
Holiyars or Holiaru, Irulars, Kaders,
Kakhyens, Kakus, Kamis, Kandhs,
Kanets, Karens, Kaswas, Kathkaris,
Kathodis, Kehars, Khamtis, Kharwars,
Khasis, Kirantis, Kochs, Kolis, Kols,
Koragars, Korachavandlu, Koris, Kor-
kus, Korwas, Kotas, Kukis, Kunawars,
Kuns, Kurubas, Kurumbas, Kurkus,
Kurus, Kway-mies, Ladakhis, Lalungs
Lepchas, Limbus, Madahis,Malaikudis,
Malassers, Malayalis, Magars, Maghs,
Manas, Manipuris, Maravars, Marias,
Maris, Matak, Mechs, Mehras, Meos,
Merats, Mers, Mikirs, Minas, Miris,
Mishmis, Moamarias, Morangs, Mros,
Murmis, Musahars, Nagas, Nahab,
Naikdas, Nairs, Nawars, Nepalis,
Newars, Nicobarians, Nihals, Nilangs,
Nimchas, Puliyars, Pwons, Rabhas,
Rantias, Rawats, Riangs, Sak, Santals,
Saonts, Saraniyas, Savars or Sauras,
Selungs, Shandus, Shens, Shins, Siar-
khawas, Singphos, Soligars, Sugalis,
Sunwars, Syntengs, Taalas, Takkars,
Takings, Taughgthas, Tiors, Tip-
perahs, Todas, Torwaliks, Unions,
Vellalars, Wagris, Warlis, Yabeins,
Yanadis, Yaws, Yerukalas, Yeshkuns.

A bras, Muhammadan tribe in Larkhana,
viii. 463.

Absentee landholders. See especially
Chengalpat, iii. 387 ; Saharanpur, xii.

Abu, mountain and sanitarium in Rajput-
ana, i. 4, 12; physical aspects, 4-6;

climate, 6, 7 ; sanitarium, 7 ; Jain tem-
ples, 7-12 ; held sacred by the Jains, vi.
35, 159; xiii. 3. 4.

Abu Husain, last king of Golconda, made
treaties with Sivajf and Sambhaji, at-
tacked by Aurangzeb, and sent prisoner
to Daulatabad, v. 258.

Abul Fazl, Akbar's finance minister and
historian, vi. 300 ; retired to Jalna,
when exiled from Akbar's court, vii.
106 ; murdered at Prince Salim's advice,
vii. 217 ; mentions the frequency of
earthquakes in Kashmir, viii. 67.

Abulfeda, Arab geographer, mentions
Honawar, v. 440.

Abwabs or customary cesses. See especi-
ally Bogra, iii. 29 ; Budaun, iii. 121.

Academies for Hindu pandits. See Tols.

Achakzais, a tribe in Afghanistan, expedi-
tion against, xi. 189.

Achala Basanta, peak in Bengal, i. 12.

Achandaviltan, town in Madras, i. 12.

Achanta, town in Madras, i. 12.

Achenkoil, pass and temple in Madras,
i. 12.

Achipur, village and signalling station in
Bengal, i. 12.

Achnera, town in N.-W. Provinces, i.

Achra, port in Bombay, i. 12.

Aconite, found in Mishmi Hills, ix.

Acquisition by the British of the various
Districts. See Historical section under
each District.

Acta Sanctorum, The, of the Hindus,
article 'India,' vi. 208.

Adalpur, town in Bombay, i. 13.

Adam, Sir Frederick, Governor of Madras
(1837), ix. 67.

Adam, John, acting Governor-General,
ii. 279 ; article ' India,' vi. 403.

Adam, W. P., Governor of Madras, ix.

6 7-

Adam-jo-Tando, town in Sind, i. 13.

Adampur, village in Punjab, i. 13.

Adams, Major, defeats of Mir Kasim by,
at Gheria and Udha-nala (1763), article
' India,' vi. 386 ; xi. 95, 96 ; xiii. 415.

Adams, General, occupied Hoshangabad,
v. 450 ; defeated the Peshwa at Pandar-
kaura (1818), xi. 35, xiii. 540.

Adam's Bridge, ridge of sand and rocks
near Ceylon, i. 13.

Adam's Peak in Ceylon, shrine common
to Buddhism, Siva- worship, and Mu-
hammadanism, article ' India,' vi. 203.

Adavad, town in Bombay, i, 13.

Addanki, town in Madras, i. 13, 14.

Addison, Gulston, Governor of Madras
(1709), ix. 67.

Adegaon, village and tract of country in
Central Provinces, i. 14.


Aden, peninsula, isthmus, and fortified
town in Arabia, i. 14-24 ; history,
15-17; under British rule, 17, 18;
trade, 18, 19; administration, 19,
20; climate and water-supply — (1)
wells, (2) aqueduct, (3) tanks or re-
servoirs, (4) condensers, 20-24 ; forti-
fications, 24 ; Arab tribes — Abdali,
Fadhli, Akrabi, 24.

Adevi Avulapalli, mountain in Madras, i.

Adhidri, system of usury rife in Bogra,
iii. 29.

Adil Shahi, Muhammadan dynasty in
Deccan, article ' India,' vi. 288.

Adil Muhammad, Nawab of Garhi Ama-
pani, rebelled during Mutiny, and was
defeated at Rahatgarh, xiii. 103.

Adina Masjid, historic mosque in Bengal,
i. 24. See Panduah.

Adjai, river in Bengal, i. 24, 25.

Adjunta. See Ajanta.

Administration, British, of India, article
'India,' vi., chap. xvi. pp. 431-481.
Control of India in England under the
Company and under the Crown, 431 ;
Council of the Secretary of State, 431 ;
the Viceroy and Governor-General in
Council, 431, 432 ; Executive and
Legislative Councils, 432, 433 ; High
Courts of Justice, 433 ; Law of British
India, 433, 434 ; Provincial administra-
tion, 434, 435 ; ' Regulation' and : Non-
Regulation ' territory, 435 ; duties of
District Officers, 435, 436 ; Districts,
number of, in India, 436, 437 ; the
Secretariats of the Government of India
and of the Local Governments, 437,
438 ; the land-tax, 438-452 ; ancient
land system of India, 438 ; the Musal-
man land-tax, 439 ; the Zaminddrma.de
landlord, 439; landed property in India,
and the growth of private rights, 439,
440 ; rates of assessment, Government
share of the crop, 441 ; methods of
assessment, 440, 441 ; the Permanent
Settlement of Bengal, creation of pro-
prietors by law, 441, 442 ; intermediate
tenure-holders, 443 ; Statistical Survey
of Bengal, 443 ; oppression of the
cultivators, 443 ; Land Law of 1 859,
443, 444 ; subsequent enhancements of
rent and appointment of a Rent Com-
mission, 444, 445 ; its recommendations,
three years' tenant right, and com} en-
sation for disturbance, 444, 445 ; Orissa
temporary Settlement, 445 ; Assam
yearly Settlement, 445 ; r&yatw&H
Settlement in Madras, 445, 446 ; Sir
Thomas Munro's method of assessment,
446 ; Permanent Settlement in estates
of zaminddrs and native chiefs in
Madras, 446, 447 ; growth of cultivators

into proprietors in Madras, and exten-
sion uf tillage, 447 ; reduction of average
land-tax in Madras, 448 ; Bombay land
system, the ' survey tenure,' its advan-
tages and disadvantages, 448, 449 ;
debts of the Deccan peasant, 449 ;
Bombay Agricultural Relief Acts of
1879 and 18S1, and rural insolvency
procedure, 449, 450 ; land Settlement
in the North-Western Provinces and
Oudh, corporate holdings, 451 ; land
system of Oudh, the Valukddrs, 451,
452 ; land system of the Central Pro-
vinces, 452 ; land revenue of British
India, 452 ; salt administration, sources
of salt supply, and realization of salt
duty, 452, 453 ; working of the salt
monopoly, 453, 454 ; process of salt
manufacture, 444 ; excise on country
spirits, rice-beer, opium, gdnjd, and
c haras i 454, 455 ; municipal adminis-
tration and statistics, 455-457 ; Im-
perial finance, and the ' business ' of
the Indian Government, 457, 458 ;
changes in systems of account and the
obscurities resulting therefrom, 458,
459 > gross and net taxation of British
India, 459-461 ; English and Indian
taxation, 459-461 ; Indian taxation
under the Mughals and under the
British, 462, 463 ; incidence of taxa-
tion in Native States and British terri-
tory, 463-465 ; gross balance sheet of
British India, and analysis of Indian
revenues, 465, 466 ; nature of the land-
tax, 467 ; items of taxation summarized,
460, 461 ; 467, 468 ; Indian expendi-
ture, — the army, public debt, loss by
exchange, public works, railways, etc. ,
468-470 ; local and municipal finance,
470 ; constitution and strength of the
three Presidency armies, 471 ; police
and jail statistics, 472 ; education, 472-
479 ; education in ancient India, village
schools and Sanskrit tols, 472, 473 ;
the Company's first efforts at education,
the Calcutta Mad rasa and other
colleges, 473 ; mission schools, 473 ;
State system of education, 474, 475 ;
the Education Commission of 18S2-83,
and its recommendations, 474 ; educa-
tional statistics of British India, 474,
475 ; the Indian Universities and their
constitution, 475, 476 ; colleges, middle
schools, and primary schools, in the
various Provinces, 476-478 ; girls'
schools, 478, 479 ; normal and other
special schools, 479 ; the vernacular
press and native journalism, 480 ;
registered publications in India, 480,
481. — For historical details, see Eng-
lish in India, and History of British


Local notices — Aden, i. 19; Ajmere-
Merwara, i. 129, 130; Assam, i. 369-371 ;
Bengal, ii. 315-317 ; Bombay, iii. 65,
66 ; Lower Burma, iii. 206, 207 ; Cen-
tral Provinces, iii. 320, 321 ; Coorg,
iv. 39, 40 ; Berar, v. 272 ; Madras, ix.
64-66 ; North-Western Provinces, x.
397, 398 ; Oudh, x. 508, 509 ; Punjab,
xi. 270, 271 ; Sind, xii. 523, 524; and
see also the section on Administration
in each District article.

Administration of European possessions
other than British : French possessions,
iv. 455, 456 ; Portuguese possessions,
see Daman, iv. 103 ; Diu, iv. 306 ;
Goa, v. 95-99.

Administration in Native States : Afghan-
istan, i. 47 ; Ahvar, i. 206 ; Bahawal-
pur, i. 422, 423 ; Baluchistan, ii. 39 ;
Baroda, ii. 166-168 ; Bhartpur, ii. 375 ;
Bhopal, ii. 405 ; Bhutan, ii. 416 ;
Upper (when Independent) Burma, iii.
213-216; Chutia Nagpur Tributary
States, iii. 464-466 ; Cochin, iv. 8, 9 ;
Cutch, iv. 62, 63 ; Dholpur, iv. 275 ;
Dungarpur, iv. 324 ; Gwalior, v. 230 ;
Haidarabad, v. 248 ; Hill Tipperah,
v. 398, 400, 401 ; Indore, vii. 7, 8 ;
Jaipur, vii. 58 ; Jaisalmer, vii. 68, 69 ;

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