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Haidarabad (Sind), v. 287, 288; Har-
rand, v. 342 ; Hazaribagh, v. 381 ;
Hingoli, v. 422 ; Hoshangabad, v. 450 ;
Iloti-Mardan, v. 460; Indore Resi-
dency, vii. 10 ; Jabalpur, vii. 37 ; Jacob-
abad, vii. 38 ; Jalandhar, vii. 92 ; Jalna,
vii. 106 ; Jamner, vii. 131; Jamrud,
vii. 134; Jehlam, vii. 178; Jhansi
Naoabad, vii. 228; Jutogh, vii. 265;
Kamthi (Kamptee), vii. 367 ; Kangra,
vii. 430 ; Karachi, vii. 453 ; Kasauli,
viii. 58, 59; Kirki, viii. 220, 221;
Kohat, viii. 250; Kolaba, viii. 271;
Lahore, viii. 418 ; Lakhimpur, viii.
439 ; Landaur, viii. 459 ; Liindi Kotal,
viii. 460 ; Lohaghat, viii. 474 ; Luck-
now, viii. 517; Madras, ix. 107;
Malapuram, ix. 237 ; Malegaon, ix.
253> 2 54 5 Mangalore, ix. 314; Mang-
rota, ix. 317; Maulmain, ix. 371;
Meean Meer, ix. 379, 380 ; Meerut,
ix. 393 ; Mehidpur, ix. 398 ; Mhow,
ix. 420 ; Fort Michni, ix. 423 ; Monier-
khal, ix. 491 ; Moradabad, ix. 513,
514; Multan, x. 13; Murree, x. 19;
Muttra, x. 54 ; Nagpur, x. 174 ; Nasir-
abad, x. 238, 239 ; Naushahra, x. 242 ;
Nimach, x. 326, 327 ; Noarband, x.
35 2 >, 353 J Nowgong, x. 415, 416 ;
Palkivaram, xi. 13, 14 ; Paratwara, xi.
59 ; Perim, xi. 158 ; Peshawar, xi. 160,
161 ; Pishin, xi. 191 ; Pithoragarh, xi.
193; Poona, xi. 21 1, 213 ; Punamallu,
xi. 241, 242 ; Purandhar, xi. 297, 298 ;
Quetta, xi. 338 ; Quilon, xi. 340 ;
Raipur, xi. 378 ; Rajanpur, xi. 384 ;
Rajkot, xi. 389 ; Rangoon, xi. 483,
484 ; Ranikhet, xi. 506, 507 ; in Rawal
Pindi District, xii. 34, 35 ; Rawal
Pindi, xii. t>7 ', Rurki, xii. 86 ; Sadiya,
xii. 93 ; Sagar, xii. 109 ; St. Thomas



6o



INDEX.



Mount, xii. 142, 143 ; Secunderabad,
xii. 301-303 ; Segauli, xii. 303 ; Sehore,
xii. 304 ; Shabkadar, xii. 322 ; Shah-
jahanpur, xii. 356 ; Shillong, xii. 398 ;
Sholapur, xii. 421 ; Shwe-gyin, xii.
435 ; Sialkot, xii. 452 ; Sikrol (for
Benares), xii. 488 ; Silchar, xii. 489 ;
Sirur, xiii. 23 ; Sitapur, xiii. 38, 39 ;
Solan, xiii. 49 ; Subathu, xiii. 85 ;
Surat, xiii. 132 ; Sutna, xiii. 141, 142 ;
Taung-ngu, xiii. 227 ; Thayet-myo,
xiii. 287 ; Trichinopoli, xiii. 364 ;
Trivandrum, xiii. 369 ; Vellore, xiii.
469 ; Vizianagram, xiii. 502, 503 ;
Waltair, xiii. 516; Sadra in Wasna,
xiii. 533 ; Wellington, xiii. 536.

Caoutchouc or india-rubber, in Assam, i.
349 ; Balipara, ii. 13 ; Upper Burma,
iii. 211 ; Cachar, iii. 234; Chard war,
iil- 371 ; Jirang, vii. 233 ; Kamriip, vii.
355 ; Khasi Hills, viii. 173 ; Khyrim,
viii. 215 ; Kulsi, viii. 335 ; Lakhimpur,
viii. 426 ; Manipur, ix. 325 ; Mergui
Archipelago, ix. 412 ; Sibsagar,' xii.
460.

Capes and headlands, Agoada, i. 59 ;
Calimere Point, iii. 270 ; Comorin, iv.
25; Divi Point, iv. 308; Dolphin's
Nose, iv. 312; False Point, iv. 390,
391 ; Manapad Point, ix. 275 ; Manora,
ix - 33%, 339 5 Monze, ix. 503 ; Negrais,
x. 259; Palmyras Point, xi. 15, 16;
Ras Muari, xi. 513, 514.

Capital and interest. See Interest, Rates
of.

Capitation tax, imposed in the Arakan
Hill Tracts, i. 303 ; (on infidels)
Balkh, ii. 15 ; Bassein, ii. 199 ; Lower
Burma, iii. 206 ; Upper Burma, iii.
216 ; Chittagong Hill Tracts, iii. 452 ;
Darjiling, iv. 134, 135 ; Jalpaiguri,
xiii. 116; Kuram, viii. 369; Lakhim-
pur, viii. 434 ; Mergui, ix. 411 ; Prome,
xi. 234 ; Salwin Hill Tracts, xii. 175 ;
Sandoway, xii. 204 ; Shwe-gyin, xii.

434-

Capsicum, grown in Upper Burma, iii.
210; Kumaun, viii. 354; N.-W. Pro-
vinces, x. 382.

Caragola. See Karagola.

Carbonate of soda, generally found in
an impure form known as sajji,
in Chitaldrug, iii. 423 ; Dera Ghazi
Khan, iv. 210; Dera Ismail Khan,
iv. 220 ; Ghazipur, v. 69 ; J hang, vii.
207, 211; Mi'iltan, x. 3; Shahpur,
xii. 366 ; Sibi, xii. 456 ; Sirsa, xiii.
18.

Carbuncles, found in Jaipur, vii. 52 ;
Udaipur, xiii. 401.

Cardamom Hills, ranee in Madras, iii.
276.

Cardamoms, in the Anamalai Hills, i.



271; Cardamom Hills, iii. 276;
Cochin, iv. 2, 7 ; Coorg, iv. 36, 37,
38 ; Darjiling, iv. 134 ; Western Ghai>,
v. 59 ; Hassan, v. 349 ; Jalpaiguri, vii.
108 ; Kadattanad, vii. 279 ; Kadur, vii.
286 ; North Kanara, vii. 372 ; South
Kanara, vii. 376 ; Karattanad, vii. 469 ;
Madras, ix. 83; Madura, ix. 121 ;
Malabar, ix. 229, 230 ; Mysore, x. 103 ;
Nelliampati Hills, x. 260; Nepal, x.
277 ; Padinalknad, x. 525 ; Palni
Mountains, xi. 19 ; Sagar (Mysore),
xii. in; Shimoga, xii. 400, 403;
Sikkim, xii. 486 ; Travancore, xiii.

345, 349- „ .

Carey, Rev. W., founder of the Baptist
Mission at Serampur, xii. 318.

Car-festival of Jagannath, article 'India,'
vi. 224-226 ; self-immolation not prac-
tised, 224 ; bloodless worship and gentle
doctrines, 225, 226. Local notices —
Ballabhpur, ii. 17 ; Prodattiir in Cud-
dapah, iv. 54 ; Gopalswami-betta, v.
162 ; Jammalammadugu, vii. 129 ;
Mahesh, ix. 172; Manchenhalli, ix.
286; Mannargudi, ix. 338; Manjangad,
x. 196 ; Nayakan-hatti, x. 257 ; Puri,
x. 448, 449, xi. 316, 317 ; Rayachoti,
xii. 40 ; Sakraypatna, xii. 148 ; San-
karkati, xii. 222 ; Sivaganga, xiii. 42 ;
Sonda, xiii. 60 ; Srivillipatur, xiii. 83 ;
Yelahanka, xiii. 551.

Carless, Lt., quoted, on the crocodiles
and mosque of Magar Talao, ix. 136-
138 ; on the Khedewari channel of the
Indus in 1837, xii. 274 ; on Shahbandar,
xii. 340 ; on the harbour of Sonmiani,
xiii. 61.

Carleton, Rev. Dr., founded the American
Presbyterian Mission at Kulu, viii.
340.

Carmelite Mission in Malabar (1656), ix.
228 ; their mission and monastery at
Verapoli, xiii. 471, 472.

Carmichael, D. F., quoted, on the Jaipur
zaminddri, vii. 62, 63, 64 ; his descrip-
tion of Vizianagram, xiii. 503.

Carmichael, C. P., Joint Magistrate of
Pilibhit in Mutiny of 1857, xi. 173.

Carnac, Col., his defeat of Shah Alam and
M. Law at Gaya (1760), xii. 264.

Carnac, Capt., his interference in Palamau
(1770), viii. 478. _

Carnac, Capt., Resident at Baroda, made
arrangement between the Gaekwar and
the Nawab of Radhanpur (1813), xi.

343- .
Carnal ic. See Karnatic.
Carnelian ornaments, Cambay famous for,

iii. 274.
Carnelians, article 'India,' vi. 629;

mines at Ratanpur in Rajpipla, xi.

392, 516 ; in Rewa Kantha, xii. 49.



INDEX.



6r



Caron, M., President of the French East
India Company (1668-74), iv. 451.

Carpet- weaving, article ' India,' vi. 604.
Local notices — At Adoni, i. 26 ; in
Afghanistan, i. 39 ; Afghan-Turkistan,
i. 55 ; at Ahmadnagar, i. 109 ; Akot,
i. 148 ; Ambala, i. 222 ; Bangalore,
ii. 64, 70 ; Bellary, ii. 247 ; Bhavani,
ii. 383; Bubak, iii. 115; Cambay, iii.
272 ; Daudnagar, iv. 158 ; Ellore, iv.
352 ; Godavari, v. 129 ; Berar, v. 270 ;
Hoshiarpur, v. 456 ; Jabalpur, vii.
35 ; Jewar, vii. 193 ; Kashmir, viii. 73 ;
Kasur, viii. 85 ; Kohat, viii. 248 ;
Mirzapur, ix. 462 ; Mult an, x. 13 ;
Nawalgund, x. 251 ; Rajamahendri,
xi. 382 ; Rangpur, xi. 498 ; Salem, xii.
163 ; Sandi, xii. 197 ; Sarjapur, xii.
269 ; Sehvvan, xii. 305, 306; Shahabad,
xii. 332 ; Sherkot, xii. 380 ; Shikarpur,
xii. 393> 396 ; Shimoga, xii. 404 ;
Tando Muhammad Khan, xiii. 191,
196 ; Upper Sind Frontier, xiii. 447 ;
Walajapet, xiii. 515.

Cartier, Mr., Governor-General (1769-72),
ii. 278 ; his attempts to improve Cal-
cutta, iii. 244.

Carts and cart-wheels, manufacture of, at
Anupshahr, i. 295 ; Athni, i. 378 ;
Atur, i. 383 ; Badin, i. 409 ; Brahma-
puri, iii. 393 ; Dodderi, iv. 211 ; Erode,
iv. 356; Hunsur, v. $02; x. 120;
Jahangirabad, vii. 44 ; Ludhiana, viii.
523, 526 ; Purniah, xi. 53 ; Pilibhit,
xi. 179 ; Taloda, xiii. 168.

Carving. See Shell-carving, Stone-carv-
ing, and Wood -carving.

Cashmere. See Kashmir.

Cassergode, town and taluk in Madras,
iii. 276, 277.

Caste, formation of the four castes, article
' India,' vi. 87-91.

Caste rewards and punishments, article
1 India,' vi. 199, 200.

Caste system, its religious and social
aspects, article ' India,' vi. 192-200.

Caste and trade guilds and associations.
See Trade guilds and associations.

Castes, Distribution of the principal. See
Population section under each District,
and the following Provincial articles —
Assam, i. 353-357 ; Behar, ii. 225 ;
Bengal, ii. 296, 297 ; Central Provinces,
iii. 316, 317; Madras, ix. 19-21;
N.-W. Provinces, x. 371, 372 ; Orissa,
x. 434-436; Oudh, x. 498, 499;
Punjab, xi. 274 ; Rajputana, xi. 408.

Castello-Novo, Marquis de, Governor of
Goa, v. 104.

Castles. See Forts.

Castro, Dom Joao de, relieved Diu and
defeated king of Gujarat (1545), iv.
307 ; took away stone, now lost, fixing



date of temples of Elephanta, iv. 343 ;
on Mahad in 1538, ix. 154.

Casuarina plantations, in Chengalpat, iii.
381, 382, 383 ; Bhaunagar in Kathia-
war, viii. 89; Kistna, viii. 226; Madras,
ix. 7, 30, 85 ; Nellore, x. 268 ; Ratna-
giri, xii. 3; Shevaroy Hills, xii. 383;
Trichinopoli, xiii. 355.

Catechu. See Cutch.

Catena of Buddhist Scriptures from the
Chinese, by Mr. S. Beal, quoted, article
'India,' vi. 142 (footnote 1); 147
(footnote 2); 150 (footnote 3); 157
(footnote 2) ; 176 (footnote 2) ; 204
(footnote 2).

Cathay and the Way Thither, by Col.
Yule, quoted, article ' India,' vi. 233
(footnote 2) ; 238 (footnote 3).

Cathedrals, Allahabad (Roman Catholic),
i. 198 ; Bassein (Roman Catholic,
ruined), ii. 192 ; Bombay, iii. 79 ;
Calcutta, iii. 251, 252; Old Goa
(Roman Catholic), v. 107 ; Madras,
ix. 106, 116; Sardhana (Roman
Catholic), xii. 266 ; Thana (Portuguese),
xiii. 258.

Catholic ( Roman) Missions, article ' India, '
vi. 229-259. Origin of Christianity in
India, 229, 230 ; the three legends of
St. Thomas the Apostle, Thomas the
Manichcean, and Thomas the Armenian,
and their respective claims to be the
founder of Indian Christianity, 231-
235 ; Nestorian Church in Asia side by
side with Buddhism for 1000 years, its
wide diffusion, 235, 236 ; the forcible
conversion of the Nestorians, or St.
Thomas Christians, to the Church of
Rome, by the Portuguese, 241-243 ;
Syrian and Jacobite Catholics in Mala-
bar, 243, 244; labours of Saint Francis
Xayier, 244, 245 ; early Jesuit priests,
their conversions and literary labours,
agricultural settlements, and collegiate
city of Cochin, 245-253 ; Portuguese
inquisition establi-hed at Goa, autos de
fe, and abolition of the inquisition, 253,
254; suppression of the Jesuits (1759-
73), and their re-establishment (1814),
254, 255 ; organization of modern
Roman Catholic Missions, 255 ; juris-
diction of the Archbishop of Goa, 255,

256 ; distribution of Roman Catholics,

257 ; Syrian and Roman Catholic
Christians, 257 ; Roman Catholic
population of India, 258 ; progress
of Roman Catholicism, its missions,
colleges, and schools, 259. Local
notices — At Aden, i. 19 ; Agra, i. 75 ;
Maulmain, i. 242 ; North Arcot, i.
315 ; South Arcot, i. 323 ; Bassein, ii.
201 ; Bellary, ii. 249 ; Bettia, ii. 328 ;
Bhawal, ii. ^3 5 Calcutta, iii. 253 ;



62



INDEX.



Calicut, iii. 268 ; Cannanore, \\\. 276 ;
Chuhari in Champaran, iii. 339 ;
Chengalpat, iii. 389 ; Cochin, iv. 7 ;
Coimbatore, iv. 16 ; Covelong, iv. 44 ;
Dharwar, iv. 260 ; Ellore, iv. 352 ;
Kamthi, vii. 367 ; Karniil, viii. 36 ;
Karwar, viii. 53; Krishnagar, viii. 317,
x. 134; Lucknow, viii. 517; Madras,
ix. 23, 25 ; Madura, ix. 126 ; Malabar,
ix. 228 ; Mangalore, ix. 314 ; Mergui,
ix. 411 ; Mudgal, ix. 526 ; Mysore, x.
112; Nellore, x. 265; Palghat, x.
543 ; Pattukotai, xi. 118 ; Pondicherri,
xi. 199; Ramnad, xi. 451 ; Rangoon,
xi. 481 ; Ranipet, xi. 508 ; Salem, xii.
165 ; Sardhana, xii. 266 ; Singhbhum,
xii. 516 ; Sudharam, xiii. 87 ; Tagasseri,
xiii. 180 ; Tanjore, xiii. 186 ; Taung-
ngu, xiii. 224, 226 ; Thana, xiii. 252,
253 ; Tinnevelli, xiii. 302, 303 ; Tra-
vancore, xiii. 348, 352 ; Trichinopoli,
xiii. 358, 365 ; Trichur, xiii. 365 ;
Tuticorin, xiii. 385 ; Verapoli, xiii.
471, 472 ; Vizagapatam, xiii. 491,
497. See also Churches, Convents,
St. Thomas Christians, and Syrian
Christians.

Cattle, Breeds of, article * India,' vi. 520.
Local notices — Afghanistan, i. 38 ;
Ahmadabad, i. 84 ; Akola, i. 144 ;
Baroda, ii. 164 ; Bikaner, ii. 439 ;
Broach, iii. 102 ; Buldana, iii. 146 ;
Chhindwara, iii. 402 ; Chitaldrug, iii.
426 ; Coimbatore, iv. 15 ; Dharwar,
iv. 262; Dongertal, iv. 314; Hassan,
v. 349 ; Hissar, v. 430 ; Hoshangabad,
v. 446 ; Hunsiir, v. 502 ; Jath, vii.
148 ; Jhang, vii. 210 ; Kandukur, vii.
407 ; Kangayam, vii. 407 ; Kangundi,
vii. 431 ; Kolar, viii. 276 ; Palamau
in Lohardaga, viii. 476 ; Madgiri, viii.
539 ; Madras, ix. 8 ; Melghat, ix. 403 ;
Mysore, x. 119, 120; Nagaur, x. 159;
Nawalgiind, x. 251 ; Nellore, x. 267 ;
Oudh, x. 483 ; Panahat, xi. 25 ; Pili-
bhit, xi. 175 ; Punganur, xi. 243 ;
Punjab, xi. 280 ; Rajputana, xi. 418 ;
Sagar, xii. 105 ; Shimoga, xii. 404 ;
Sirsa, xiii. 16 ; Thar and Parkar, xiii.
264 ; Tiimkiir, xiii. 379 ; YVardha,
xiii. 526 ; Wun, xiii. 543. See also
Pasture lands for cattle.

Cattle, Wild, found in Oudh, x. 483 ;
Partabgarh, xi. 69 ; Rai Bareli, xi. 353.

Cattle disease, especially prevalent in
Aligarh, i. 177; Amherst, i. 243;
Anantapur, i. 277, 279 ; N. Arcot, i.
319 ; S. Arcot, i. 328 ; Bakarganj, i.
449 ; Banda, ii. 55 ; Bara Banki, ii.
114; Bellary, ii. 249; Bulandshahr,
iii. 140 ; Lower Burma, iii. 209 ;
Coimbatore, iv. 21 ; Cuttack, iv. 74 ;
Darrang, iv. 150; Etawah, iv. 377;



Godavari, v. 130; Hardoi, v. 328;

Jalaun, vii. 102 ; Kamriip, vii. 365 ;

Karnul, viii. 44 ; Kheri, viii. 198 ;

Khulna, viii. 209 ; Kumaun, viii. 358 ;

Lakhimpur, viii. 438 ; Lalitpur, viii.

457 ; Malabar, ix. 234 ; Midnapur, ix.

443 ; Muzaffarnagar, x. 76 ; Nadiya,

x. 140, 141 ; Nowgong, x. 415 ; Puri,

xi. 309 ; Rai Bareli, xi. 359 ; Rawal

Pindi, xii. 35 ; Rohtak, xii. 74, 75 ;

Salem, xii. 165 ; Saran, xii. 259 ;

Sialkot, xii. 450; Sibsagar, xii. 471 ;

Sultanpur, xiii. 103; Tarai, xiii. 211 ;

Thayet-myo, xiii. 287 ; Twenty-four

Parganas, xiii. 399 ; Unao, xiii. 438.
Cattle fairs and markets, held at Agar, i.

57; Amingadh, i. 244; Amritsar, i.

259, 266 ; Avani, i. 390 ; Bachhrawan,

i. 406 ; Bahraich, i. 454 ; Batesar, ii.

216 ; Chetra, iii. 374 ; Deoli, iv. 203 ;

Dholpur, iv. 278 ; Dinanagar, iv. 299 ;

Muktesar in Firozpur, iv. 445 ; Garha-

kota, v. 13 ; Georgegarh, v. 54, vii.

45 ; Hongal, v. 440 ; in Kolar, viii.

276, 277 ; Kurai, viii. 368 ; Makhanpur,

ix. 215 ; in Western Malvva, ix. 271 ;

Meh'ir, ix. 305 ; Mhaswad, ix. 420 ;

Nandi, x. 190, 191 ; Nekmard, iv.

296 ; x. 259 ; Koreke, near Pasrur,

xi. 80 ; Punganur, xi. 242 ; Ranipet,

xi. 509 ; Saoner, xii. 248 ; Sarsaganj,

xii. 271 ; Belandi in Satara, xii. 282 ;

Savda, xii. 295 ; Chhapara, xii. 313 ;

Shahpur, xii. 365, 368 ; Sialkot, xii.

447 ; Sirsa, xiii. 18 ; Sirur, xiii. 23 ;

Sitamarhi, xiii. 26 ; Subrahmanya, xiii.

86 ; Thatia, xiii. 275 ; Tiruchendur,

xiii. 223 ; Ulubaria, xiii. 419 ; Vanarasi,

xiii. 463.
Cautley, Sir P. T., his report, which led

to the Ganges Canal, iv. 473 ; recon-
structed Eastern Jumna Canal, xii. 14.
Cauvery, great river of S. India, iii. 277-279.
Cavagnari, Sir L., murdered at Kabul

(1879), i. 52, vii. 273.
Cave inscriptions of Asoka, article ' India,'

vi. 145, 146. See also Asoka.
Caves and caverns, at Bamian in Afghan-

Turkistan, 56 ; Amherst, i. 235 ;

Bhareng, ii. 370 ; Bijli, ii. 427 ; Dar-

jiling, iv. 130 ; Ganeswari river, iv.

464 ; Guptasar, v. 205 ; Hathpor, v.

353> 354 5 Hpa-gat, v. 465, 466;

Cherra Funji and Rupnath in the

Khasi Hills, viii. 174 ; Mahagaon, ix.
155; in Mandla, ix. 301 ; Manpur, ix.

340 ; Mugdai, ix. 528 ; Rupnath, xii.

85 ; Sansar Dhara, xii. 225 ; in the

Shahpur Hills, xii. 369 ; Siju, xii. 477 ;

Talaja, xiii. 163 ; Taliparamba, xiii.
167 ; Tavoy Island, xiii. 235.
Cave-temples and rock-temples, at Ajanta,

i. 113 -116; Akouk-toung, i. .148;



INDEX.



63



Amarnath (Kashmir), i. 211 ; Ambacl,
i. 212; Aror, i. 332; Aurangabad, i.
388 ; Badami, i. 407 ; Bagh, i. 414 ;
Balsane, ii. 26; Barabar Hills, ii.
116; Bezwada, ii. 336; Bhandak, ii.
359 ; Bhimaveram, ii. 396 ; Chaul,
iii. 277 ; Dam-ma-tha, iv. 104 ; Ele-
phanta, iv. 341-343 ; Ellora, iv. 349-
351 ; Gavipur, v. 42 ; Ghugus, v.
75 ; Gwalior, v. 235 ; Harchoka, v.
320; Hpa-gat, v. 465, 466; Jogesh-
wari, vii. 247 ; Junagarh, vii. 263 ;
Junnar, vii. 264 ; Kalinjar, vii. 336 ;
Karli, viii. 13-16 ; Khandjdri, viii.
159 ; Khed, viii. 187 ; Mahabalipur,
ix. 147-149 ; Pale, near Mahad, ix.
154; Manjira, ix. 336; Nasik, x. 237 ;
Ramgarh Hill, xi. 447; Rani-Niir, xi.
507, 508; Salsette, xii. 169, 170;
Shivner, xii. 410 ; Undavalli on the
Sitanagaram Hills, xiii. 27 ; Sivaganga,
xiii. 42 ; Sudasna, xiii. 87 ; Udayagiri,
xiii. 414, 415.

Cave-tomb of the introducer of coffee
into India, Baba Budan, i. 402, 403.

Cave-tunnel at Hathpor, v. 353, 354
xi. 447.

Cawnpur, District in N.-W. Provinces
iii. 279-289 ; physical aspects, 279
280 ; history, 280-283 ; population
283-285 ; agriculture, 285, 286 ; natural
calamities, 287 ; commerce and trade
287, 288 ; administration, 288, 289
medical aspects, 289.

Cawnpur, city in N.-W. Provinces, iii
289-293 ; situation and appearance
289, 290 ; history, 290-292 ; popula
lation, 292 ; communications, trade
etc., 292, 293 ; the Mutiny at, massacre
of the garrison and the women and
children, article ' India,' vi. 420.

Cavley, Dr., his report on the trade of
Kashmir (1867), viii. 399, 400.

Ceded Districts, term applied to the
territory in the Deccan ceded to the
British in 1800, for the maintenance of
the Nizam's subsidiary force. See
Hyderabad State.

Ceded and Conquered Provinces, term
formerly applied to the N.-W. Pro-
vinces, iii. 293.

Census, The results of the. See Popula-
tion section under each Province,
Division, District, and town.

Central Asia, Trans-Himalayan trade
with, article ' India,' vi. 586-590.

Central India, group of States, iii. 293-
297 ; population, 295 ; climate, 295-
297.

Central India Agency. See Central India.

Central jails. See Jails, Central and
model.

Central Provinces, Chief Commissioner-



ship, 297-323; physical aspects, 297-
299 ; forests, 299, 300 ; coal, 300 ;
iron, 300; history, 300-303; popula-
tion, 303-305 ; religion, 305 ; abori-
gines, 305-308 ; physical appearance,
etc., 308-311 ; Hindu population, 311,
312; local sects, 312; Satnamis, the,
312, 313; Kabirpanthis, the, 313-315 J
Kumbhipathias, the, 315; Nanakpan-
this, the, 315, 316 ; Singhapanthis, the,
316 ; Dhamis, the, 316; Hindu castes,
316, 317 ; Muhammadans, 317 ; Jains,
317; Christian sects, 317 ; distribution
into town and country, 317, 318 ;
occupations, 318 ; agriculture, 318,
319 ; commerce and manufactures,
319; means of communication, 319,
320 ; administration, 320, 321 ; educa-
tion, 321 ; climate and meteorology,

32I-323-

Cereal crops. See Agricultural section
under each District, and also Barley,
Oats, and Wheat.

Ceremonies. See Funeral ceremonies,
Marriage ceremonies, and Customs,
ceremonies, and mode of life.

Cesses, Customary, illegal or local. See
Abxudbs.

Ceylon, India's trade with, article ' India,'
vi. 578, 579. Local notices — Adrampel,
i. 27 ; Karikal, viii. 10 ; Laccadive
Islands, viii. 396 ; Negapatam, x. 258 ;
Pambam, xi. 2^ ; Tuticorin, xiii. 386.

Chabramau. See Chhibramau.

Chach, tract of country in Punjab, iii.

323.,
Chachana, State in Kathiawar, iii. 323.
Chachra. See Umarkot taluk.
Chachra, town in Sind, iii. 323.
Chadchat, State in Gujarat, iii. 323, 324.

See also Santalpur.
Chagdah, town in Bengal, iii. 324.
Chaibasa, town in Bengal, iii. 324.
Chain armour, Manufacture of, article

' India,' vi. 606, 607.
Chainpur, town in Bengal, iii. 324.
Chainpur, village in Bengal, iii. 325.
Chains, aboriginal tribe in Maldah, ix.

2 43-

Chaitanpur, hill range in Bengal, iii. 325.

Chaitanpur, village in Bengal, iii. 325.

Chaitanya, Hindu religious reformer
(1485-1527), his life and teachings,
article ' India,' vi. 219-221. Local
notices — Became an ascetic at Katwa,
viii. 103 ; born at Nadiya, x. 141 ; his
life and doctrines, x. 443, 444.

Chaitpet, village in Madras, iii. 325.

Chait Singh, Raja of Benares, exactions
of Warren Hastings from (1780), article
'India,' vi. 390. Local notices — Re-
belled (1781), and was deposed, ii.
256 ; fled to Bijaigarh, ii. 423 ; allowed



6 4



INDEX.



to succeed his father in Ghazipur ( 1 770),

v. 64 ; expelled the Rohilla ruler of

Jaunpur, vii. 153.
Chak, town in Sind, iii. 325.
Chaken, town in Rajputana, iii. 325.
Chaki, stream in Punjab, iii. 325.
Chakiria, village in Bengal, iii. 325.
Chaklasi, town in Bombay, iii. 326.
Chakmas, Arakanese tribe, numerous in

the Chittagong Hill Tracts, iii. 449 ;

their manners and customs, iii. 449,

450-

Chakrabari, village in Bengal, iii. 326.

Chakradwaj, the first Aham Raja who
became a Hindu, vii. 357.

Chakrata, cantonment in N.-W. Pro-
vinces, iii. 326.

Chakultor, village in Bengal, iii. 326.

Chakwal, town and tahsil in Punjab, iii.
326, 327-

Chalakiidi, river in Madras, iii. 327.

Chalan Bil, lake in Bengal, iii. 327.

Chalauni, river in Bengal, iii. 327.

Chalcedony, found in Aden, i. 15 ; Banga-
lore, ii. 59; Madura, ix. 122.

Chalisgaon, town and Sub-division in
Bombay, iii. 327, 328.

Chalmers, Gen. Sir John, his defence of
Coimbatore (1791), iv. 16.

Chalukya, dynasty in the Deccan. See
Biriidankarayapuram, iii. 13 ; Berar, v.
261 ; Kaladgi, vii. 315 ; Kolaba, viii.
262; Madras, ix. 10, 11; Mysore, x.
93 ; Poona, xi. 201 ; Satara, xii. 277 ;
Sawantwari, xii. 297 ; Shimoga, xii.
400; Sholapur, xii. 412.

Chamardi, State in Kathiawar, iii. 328.

Chamarlakota, town in Madras, iii.
328.

Chamars, caste of leather-workers and
shoemakers, numerous or otherwise
important in Aligarh, i. 172; Allah-
abad, i. 189 ; Ambala, i. 218 ; Azam-
garh, i. 396 ; Ballia, ii. 20 ; Banda, ii.
50; Basti, ii. 210; Behar, ii. 225;
Bengal, ii. 296; Budaun, iii. 119;
Cawnpur, iii. 283, 284 ; Central India,
iii. 295 ; their adoption of the new
religion of Ghasi Das in Chhatis-
garh {see Satnamis), iii. 312, 313 ; in
the Central Provinces, iii. 316; Etah,
iv. 361 ; Etawah, iv. 373 ; Faizabad,
iv. 383 ; Fatehpur, iv. 424 ; Gurdaspur,
v. 210; Jhansi, vii. 222; Meerut, ix.
386 ; Moradabad, ix. 507 ; Muzaffar-
nagar, x. 71 ; Nadiya, x. 133 ; Oudh,
x. 499 ; Raipur, xi. 372 ; Rajputana,
xi. 408, 410 ; Sagar, xii. 104 ; Saha-
ranpur, xii. 118; Sitapur, xiii. 33 '■>
Sultanpur, xiii. 98 ; Tarai, xiii. 209 ;
Tonk, xiii. 337 ; Unao, xiii. 430.

Chamba, Hill State in Punjab, iii. 328,
330.



Chamba. town in Punjab, iii. 331.

Chambal, great river in Central India, iii.
33i, 332.

Chambal, town in Bengal, iii. 332.

Chamber, Sir Thomas, Governor of
Madras (1659-61), ix. 66.

Chamberlain, Gen. Sir N. B., conducted
Ambela campaign (1863), i. 227 ; in
the battle of Kandahar (1842), vii. 394 ;
stopped at Ali Masjid on his way to
Kabul (1878), i. 52, viii. 127 ; besieged
in Chichawatni (1857), ix. 496.

Chambra Mala, mountain in Madras, iii.

332.,

Chamiani, town in Oudh, iii. 332.
Chamomeril, lake in Kashmir, iii. 332.
Champa, estate in Central Provinces, iii.

332.
Champahati, village in Bengal, iii. 332.
Champanagar, village in Bengal, iii. 333.
Champaner, historic hill fort in Bombay,

iii- 333, 334..

Champaran, District of Bengal, iii. 334-
344 ; history, 334, 335 ; physical as-
pects, _ 335 - 337 ; people, 337 - 340 ;
antiquities, 340, 341 ; agriculture, 341,
342 ; natural calamities, 342 ; industrial,
342, 343; administration, 343, 344;
medical aspects, 344.

Champaran, Sub-division in Bengal, iii.

344, 345-
Champas, nomadic Tibetan tribe in the

Himalayas, v. 412.
Champat Rai, Bundela chief, father of

Chhatar Sal, harassed the Muhamma-

dans, iii. 154, 155.
Champdani, village in Bengal, iii. 345.
Champion, Col., defeated the Rohillas at

Tisua (1774), xiii. 334.
Chamrajnagar, town and taluk in Mysore,

iiL 345-.

Chamrauli, town in Oudh, iii. 345.

Chamiindibetta, hill in Mysore, iii. 345.

Chamursi, town in Central Provinces,
iii- 345, 346.

Chanar, tahsil in N.-W. Provinces, iii.
346.

Chanar, historic fortress and town in
N.-W. Provinces, iii. 346, 347.

Chanchra, village in Bengal, iii. 347, 348.

Chanda, District in Central Provinces,
iii. 348-355 ; physical aspects, 348,
349; history, 349-351; population,
351, 352 ; antiquities and places of
interest, 352 ; agriculture, 352, 353 ;
natural calamities, 353 ; commerce and
trade, 353, 354 ; administration, 354,
355 ; medical aspects, 355.

Chanda, town in Central Provinces, iii.
355,356.

Chanda, pargana in Oudh, iii. 356.

Chandala, zamind&rl in Central Pro-
vinces, iii. 356.



INDEX.



65



Chanda's, the great low caste in Bengal
in which most of the semi-Hinduized



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