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Ichapur, town in Madras, v. 504.

Ichapur, town in Bengal, v. 505.

Ichanli, town in Oudh, v. 505.

Ichawar, town in Central India, v. 505.

Ichra, suburb of Lahore, v. 505.

Idar. See Edar.

Idha. See Aidaha.

Igatpuri, town and Sub-division in Bom-
bay, v. 505, 506.

Iggutappa-kunda, mountain in Coorg, v.
506.

Iglas, town and tahsil in N.-W. Pro-
vinces, v. 506, 507.

Ihtimad-ud-Daula, wazir of the Emperor
Jahangir, his mausoleum at Agra, i.

75-
Ikauna, town and pargand in Oudh, v.

507, 5o8.

Ikhtiyarpur, town in Oudh, v. 508.

Ikhtiyar-ud-din Malik Usbeg, invaded
Kamrup (1256), but defeated and
mortally wounded, vii. 356, 357.

Ikkeri, village in Mysore, v. 508.

Ilambazar, town in Bengal, v. 508.

Ilavarasanandal. Sec Elavarasanandal.

Ilichpur. See Ellichpur.

Iliyas Kivaja Sultan, first Muhammadan
king of Bengal, moved capital from
Gaur to Panduah (1353), xi. 40, 41 ;
invaded and plundered Tipperah, xiii.

314-

Ilkal, town in Bombay, v. 50S, 509.
Ilol, town and State in Bombay, v. 509.
Imad Shahi, Muhammadan dynasty of

S. India (1484-1572), article ■ India,'

vi. 288.
Imam or revenue - free grants and the

Imam Commission in Madras, ix.

Imamgarh, historic fortress in Bombay,
v. 509.

Imlak, Col., took Deogadh (1818), iv.233.

Immigration. See Emigration and im-
migration.



152



INDEX.



Immobility of the Indian peasant, article
' India,' vi. 47.

Impediments to improved husbandry,
namely, want of cattle, want of manure,
and want of water, article ' India,' vi.

517-519-

Impey, Sir Elijah, Portrait of, in the

High Court, Calcutta, iii. 25 1 ; Loretto

Convent on the site of his house there,

iii. 253.
Impey, Major, his policy in Sambalpur

(1861), xii. 181.
Imports and Exports. See Exports and

Imports.
Import trade of India, Analysis and

principal staples of, article ' India,' vi.

565-568 ; coasting imports and exports,

vi. 584-586.
Incarnations of Vishnu, article ' India,'

vi. 215, 216 and footnote.
Ince, Dr., quoted on Srinagar, xiii. j6.
Inchalkaranji, State in Bombay, v. 509,

5io.
Inchalkaranji, town in Bombay, v. 510.
Income and Expenditure of British India,

article ' India,' vi. 465-470.
Increase of population between 1872 and

1 88 1, article ' India,' vi. 47, 49, 50 ;

and Population section in the several

District articles.
Indapur, town and Sub - division in

Bombay, v. 510.
Indarpat, village in Punjab, v. 510, 511.
Indaur. See Indore.
Independent Nayaks and Palegars of

S. India, article ' India,' vi. 288.
Independent States, bordering on British

India, Afghanistan, i. 27-53 5 Afghan-

Turkistan, i. 53-56 ; Baluchistan, ii.

27-40; Bhutan, ii. 411-417; Inde-
pendent (now Upper) Burma, iii. 209-

229; Nepal, x. 274-291 ; Sikkim, xii.

483-488.
Indi, town and Sub-division in. Bombay,

v. 511.



India, Empire of, vol. vi. : —

Chap. I. Physical Aspects. — Gene-
ral description of India, boundaries,
1-4; the three regions of India, 4.
First region — the Himalayas, their
scenery and products, 4-10. Second
region — the northern river plains, 10-
34 ; the great rivers, their work, land-
making, 10-33 ; tne Indus, Brahma-
putra, and Ganges, 10-16; the Gangetic
river system, the highway of Bengal,
16-20; great Gangetic cities, 20, 21 ;
three stages in the life of an Indian
river, 21, 22 ; delta of the Ganges, its
age and process of formation, 23-28 ;
the rivers as highways and as destroyers,



29



scenery and crops of the



northern river plains, 32 - 34 ; third
region of India, the southern table-
land, 34-41 ; the Deccan, the ghats and
their passes, 35-38 ; the four forest
regions of Southern India, 38-40; crops
and scenery of Southern India, 40, 41 ;
British Burma, its geography and pro-
ducts, 41, 42.

Chap. II. The Poptdation of India.
— Feudatoiy India, the chiefs and their
powers, 43 ; the twelve British pro-
vinces, how governed, 43, 44 ; popula-
tion tables, 44, 45 ; pressure of popula-
tion, overcrowded Districts, 46 ; under-
peopled Provinces, the ' immobile '
Indian peasant, 47 ; nomadic system
of husbandry, 47 ; the land and labour
question in India, serfdom, 48, 49;
unequal pressure of population, its
remedies, 49, 50 ; population of India
in 1872 and 1 88 1, increase, 50; the
ethnical elements of the Indian people,

5i, 52.

Chap. III. The Non-Aryan Races.
— Kistvaen builders, flint and bronze
periods, 53 ; the non-Aryans of Vedic
India described, 53, 54 ; Andaman
islanders, Anamalai Hill tribes, 55 ;
polyandry among the Nairs ; the Gonds,
55, 56 ; leaf-wearing Juangs of Orissa,
Himalayan tribes, 56, 57 ; the Santals —
village and tribal government, 57; Santal
customs, religion, and history, 58-60 ;
the Kandhs — tribal government, wars,
and blood revenge, 60, 61 ; Kandh
marriage by capture, human sacrifice,
61, 62; the three non- Aryan stocks —
Tibeto-Burmans, Dravidians, and Kol-
arians, their languages, 63-69 ; statis-
tics of non- Aryan races in 1872 and
1 88 1, 69-71 ; crushed tribes, gipsy
clans, predatory tribes, 71, 72; char-
acter of the non-Aryan tribes, 72, 73 ;
Mhairs and Bhils, their reclamation by
good government, 73, 74.

Chap. IV. The Aryans in Ancient
India. — The Indo-European stock, 75 ;
its early camping-ground in Central
Asia, 75, 76 ; common origin of
European and Indian religions, 76 ;
the Indo-Aryans on the march, and in
their new homes, 76, 77 ; the Rig-
Veda, widow-burning unknown, 77,
78 ; development of caste, 78, 87, 88,
89, 90, 91, 94, 95, 96 ; Aryan civilisa-
tion in the Veda, 79-86 ; the Aryan
tribes organized into kingdoms, 87 ;
origin and growth of priestly families,
87, 88 ; the four Vedas, Brahmanas,
Sutras, 88, 89 ; the warrior and cul-
tivating castes, 89, 90 ; the four castes
formed, 90, 91 ; struggle between the



INDEX.



53



Brahmans and Kshattriyas, 92 - 94 ;
Brahman supremacy established, Brah-
man ideal life, 94-97 ; Brahman theo-
logy, 97 ; rise of the post-Vedic gods,
the Hindu triad, 97, 98 ; Brahman
philosophy, its six schools, 98, 99;
Brahman science and grammar, Panini,
100, 101 ; Sanskrit and Prakrit dialects
and MSS., 101-104; the Indian alpha-
bets, 102, 103 ; Brahman astronomy,
its three periods, 104-106; Brahman
mathematics, medicine, and surgery,
106- no; Hindu art of war, no;
Indian music, its peculiarities and
modern revival, 110-112; Indian archi-
tecture, art-work, and painting, 112,
113; Brahman law — codes of Manu
and Yajnavalkya, 113-1 15 ; Hindu
customary law, perils of codification,
116-118 ; secular literature of the
Hindus, 11S; the Mahdbhdrata, its
growth and central story, 1 19-122 ; the
polyandry of Draupadi, 121, 122; the
Rdmdyana, its story and its author,
Valmiki, 122, 124; later Sanskrit epics,
124, 125 ; the Hindu drama, Kalidasa,
125-127 ; the Hindu novel, beast
stories, 127, 128; Sanskrit lyric poetry,
Jayadeva, 128 ; mediaeval theology,
the Puranas, 128-130; 216, 217; the
six attacks on Brahmanism, 130, 131.

Chap. V. Buddhism (543 B.C. to
1000 A. D.). — Buddha's story modelled
on the Sanskrit epic, 132 ; Buddha, the
spiritual development of the heroic
Aryan man, 133, 134 ; Buddha's
parentage, early life, and great renun-
ciation, 133, 134; his forest life, temp-
tation, and teachings, 134, 135 ; his
later years and death, 136, 137 ; the
northern and southern Buddhist schools,
138 ; political life of Buddha, his
opponents, Devadatta. 139, 140; doc-
trines of Buddha, Karma, Nirvana,
141, 142; moral code of Buddha, its
missionary aspects, 143 ; political de-
velopment of Buddhism, the four
Councils, 143, 144, 147 ; the work of
Asoka, his council and edicts, 144-147;
the work of Kanishka, 147 ; the
northern and southern Buddhist canons,
147-149; spread of Buddhism through-
out Asia, 149, 150; Buddhist influences
on Christianity, 150; Buddha as a
Christian saint, 151, 152; Buddha's
personality denied, 153; Buddhism did
not oust Brahmanism, 154, 155 ; the
Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, Fa Hian
and Hiuen Tsiang, 155, 156 ; Buddhism
under Siladitya, monastery of Xalanda,
J 56, 157 ; mingling of Buddhism and
Brahmanism, 157; Buddhism an exiled
religion, its foreign conquests, 158 ;



Buddhist survivals in India, 157-162;
the Jains, their relation to the Bud-
dhists, 157-162.

Chap. VI. The Greeks in India
(327 to 161 B.C.). — Early Greek writers
— Hekataios, Strabo, Pliny, and Arrian,
163 ; Alexander in India, results of
his invasion, 164-166; Seleukos and
Chandra Gupta, 166, 169 ; the India
ofMegasthenes, 168, 169; Indo-Greek
treaty, later Greeks, 170 ; Greek sur-
vivals in Indian art, 171, 172; ancient
and modern Greeks, the Yavanas, 172,

Chap. VII. Scythic Inroads into
India (126? B.C. to 544 A. D.).— Early
Scythic migrations towards India, Tue-
Chi settlements, 174, 175 5 pre-Bud-
dhistic Scythic influences, the horse
sacrifice, 175, 176; was Buddha a
Scythian? Tibetan traditions, 176-178;
Scythic Buddhism and settlements in
India, 178, 179; Scythian elements in
India, the Jats and Rajputs (?), 179,
180 ; Indian struggle against the
Scythians, 180-182 ; Indo - Scythic
settlements — Sen, Gupta, and Valabhi
dynasties, 181, 182 ; pre- Aryan king-
doms in Northern India, 183, 184 ; the
Takshaks and Nagas, 184-186; Ghak-
kars, Bhars, Bhils, Kochs, Ahams,
Gonds, etc., 186 -1 89; Scythic and
Naga influences on Hinduism, 189,
190.

Chap. VIII. Rise of Hinduism
(750 to 1520 a.d.).— Decay and per-
secution (?) of Buddhism, 191, 192;
twofold basis of Hinduism — caste
and religion, 192 ; caste founded_ on
'race,' 'occupation,' and 'locality,'

192, 193 ; the Brahman caste analysed,

193, 194 ; building up of caste, Hindu
marriage law, 194, 195 5 changes of
' occupation ' by castes, 196, 197 ;
plasticity and rigidity of caste, 197 ;
caste a system of trade - guilds, an
Indian strike, 197, 198 ; practical
working of caste, no poor-law, rewards
and punishments, 198-200 ; religious
basis of Hinduism, 200, 201 ; Buddhist
influences, beast hospitals, monasteries,
201, 202 ; a Japanese temple and a
Christian church, 202, 203 ; shrines
common to different faiths, 203; ser-
pent worship, Naga rites, phallic em-
blems, 204 ; fetish worship in Hin-
duism, the Sdlagrdm, 205, 206 ; Brah-
man founders of Hinduism, low-caste
apostles, 207 ; the Acta Sanctorum of
Hinduism, the Bhakta - Mala, 208 ;
Kumarila Bhatta, Sankara Acharya,
209 ; growth of Siva worship, its two-
fold aspects, 210-212 ; human offerings,



154



INDEX.



the Charak Puja, 212, 213 ; the thirteen
Sivaite sects, their gradations, 213,
214 ; Siva and Vishnu compared, 215 ;
friendly Vishnu, the Vishnu Purana,
215, 216; Brahmanical and popular
Vishnuism, 217 ; Vishnuite founders
— Ramanuja, Ramanand, 217, 218 ;
Kabir, Chaitanya, Vallabha - Swami,
218-222; Krishna - worship, the chief
Vishnuite sects, 222, 223 ; the Brah-
manical and Buddhist origin of Jagan-
nath, 224 ; Christian calumnies against
Jagannath, 224-226 ; modern fate of
the Hindu triad, 227, 228.

Chap. IX. Christianity in India
{circa 100 to 1881 A.D.). — Christianity
coeval with Buddhism for 900 years,
229 ; origin of Christianity in India,
229 ; the three legends of St. Thomas,
230-239 ; St. Thomas the Apostle,
Thomas the Manichaean, Thomas the
Armenian, 231, 232; wide meaning of
' India ' in the Fathers, 233 ; early
Indian Christians (190 A.D.), 234, 235 ;
the Nestorian church in Asia, its wide
diffusion, 235, 236 ; ' Thomas Chris-
tians ' of Persia and of India, 237 ;
mixed worships at the alleged shrine of
St. Thomas near Madras, 238 ; troubles
of the ancient Indian church, 240 ;
extinction of the Nestorian church, 241,
242, 243 ; first Portuguese missionaries
(1500 a.d.), the Syrian rite, 243-245;
Xavier and the Jesuits, work done by,
244, 245 ; Jesuit literature in India,
246, 250, 253 ; parochial organization
of Portuguese India, 247; Jesuit colleges
and rural settlements, 247 - 250 ; the
Jesuit Malabar mission in the 17th and
1 8th centuries, 251, 252; the Portuguese
inquisition at Goa, 253, 254 ; the
Jesuits suppressed (1759-73), re-estab-
lished (1814), 254, 255; organization
of Roman Catholic missions, 255, 256 ;
distribution of Roman Catholics in
India, 257, 259 ; first Protestant mis-
sionaries (1705), Danish, Lutherans,
259, 260 ; Schwartz, Kiernander, the
Serampur missionaries, 260 ; bishopric
of Calcutta, Indian sees, 261 ; Presby-
terian and other missions, 261 ; statis-
tics of Protestant missions, and their
progress, 261, 263, 265 ; general statis-
tics of Christian population in India,
264 ; the Indian ecclesiastical establish-
ment, 266, 267.

Chap. X. Early Muha?nmadan
Rulers (711 to 1526 A.D. ). — Early Arab
expeditions to Bombay and Sind, 268 ;
India on the eve of the Muhammadan
conquest, 268, 269 ; Hindu kingdoms
(1000 A.D.), 269; the Muhammadan
conquests only short-lived and tem-



porary, 270; table of Muhammadan
dynasties (1001 to 1857 A.D.), 271;
first Turki invasions, Subuktigin (977
A.D.), 272 ; Mahmud of Ghazni, his 17
invasions, Somnath, 273, 274 ; house
of Ghor (1001-30 A.D. ), Muhammad of
Ghor's invasions, 275 - 278 ; Hindu
kingdoms, Rajput dissensions (1184
A.D.), 276, 277; Muhammadan con-
quest of Bengal, 277, 278; Slave dynasty
(1206-90 A.D.), Altamsh, the Empress
Raziya, 278, 279 ; Mughal irruptions
into Northern India, and Rajput revolts,
279, 280 ; Balban's cruelties and his
royal pensioners, end of Slave dynasty,
280 ; house of Khilji, Ala-ud-din's
conquest of Southern India, 280, 282 ;
Mughal mercenaries for the suppression
of Hindu revolts, 282, 28}; house of
Tughlak(i320-I4i4 A.D.), Muhammad
Tughlak's expeditions and cruelties,
283 ; his forced currency, revenue exac-
tions, and revolts against him, 283, 284 ;
Firuz Shah Tughlak's canals (1351-88
A.D.), 285 ; Timur (Tamerlane), (1398
A.D.), Sayyid and Lodi dynasties, 285,
286 ; Hindu kingdoms of the Deccan,
Vijayanagar, 286, 287, 288; five Mu-
hammadan States of the Deccan, Bah-
mani kings, 287, 288 ; independent
Nayaks and Palegars of Southern India,
288 ; state of India on the eve of the
Mughal conquest, 288, 289. '

Chap. XI. The Mughal Empire
(1526 to 1761 A.D.). — Babar's early
life, his invasion of India, Panipat
(1526), 290; Humayun, Sher Shah
the Afghan, 290, 291 ; Akbar the
Great, his work in India (1560- 1605),
291-297 ; his conciliation of the Hindus,
intermarriages, 293 ; Akbar's Hindu
military and revenue officers, 293 ;
reform of Hindu customs, change of
capital to Agra, 293, 294; Akbar's
subjugation of Khandesh, his death,
294, 295 ; Akbar's religious principles,
his new faith, 295, 296; Akbar's
organization of the empire, army and
judicial reforms, 296 ; Akbar's financial
system, table of his revenues, 296-298 ;
revenues of the Mughal Empire (1593-
1761), 299, 300; Jahangir Emperor
(1605-27), the Empress Nur Jahan,
300, 301; Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador,
drinking bouts at court, 301, 302;
Jahangir's personal character, his jus-
tice and religion, 302 ; Shah Jahan
Emperor (1628-58), his Deccan con-
quests, 302-304 ; Shah Jahan's archi-
tectural works — Taj Mahal and Moti
Masjid, 304 ; the Great Mosque and
Imperial Palace at Delhi, 304 ; rebel-
lion of Prince Aurangzeb, and deposi-



INDEX.



r 55



tion of Shah Jahan, 305 ; Provinces
and revenues under Shah Jahan, 305 ;
Aurangzeb Emperor (1658-1707), 306-
312; murder of his brothers, 307;
conquests in Southern India, rise of
the Marathas, 307, 308 ; Aurangzeb's
twenty years' Maratha war, his despair
and death, 308, 309 ; Aurangzeb's
oppression of Hindus, Rajput revolts,
309, 310; Aurangzeb's Provinces and
revenues, 310, 311 ; character of Aur-
angzeb, 312 ; six puppet successors of
Aurangzeb, 313 ; decline and fall of the
Mughal Empire (1707-1858), 312, 313 ;
independence of the Deccan, Oudh,
and Rajput States, 314; invasions of
Nadir Shah the Persian, and Ahmad
Shah the Afghan (i739" 6l ) 5 3 X 4> 3 X 5 5
last battle of Panipat (1761) and fall of
the Mughal Empire, 315, 316.

Chap. XII. The Maratha Power
(1634 to 1818 A.D.).— India won, not
from the Mughals, but from the Hindus,
317 ; rise of the Marathas, Shahji
Bhonsla (1634), 317 ; the Hindu party
in Southern India, 317, 318; Sivaji
the Great (1627-80), 318, 319; his
guerilla warfare with the Mughals, 319 ;
Sambhaji (1680-89), Sahu (1707), 319,
320 ; rise of the Peshwas, Balaji Vis-
wanath, 320 ; growth of the Maratha
confederacy, 320 ; Maratha raids in the
Deccan, Bengal, and the Punjab,
chauth, 320, 321 ; defeat of the
Marathas at Panipat (1761), 321 ; the
five great Maratha houses, decline of
the Peshwas, 321-323 ; British wars
with the Marathas (1779-81, 1803-04,
and 1817-18), 3*3, 324-

Chap. XIII. The Indian Verna-
culars and their Literature. — The
three stages in Indian history, 325,
326 ; the Dravidian route through
India, 327 ; the Dravidian language,
its place in philology, 327, 328 ; pre-
Aryan Dravidian civilisation, 328 ;
Brahmanic influence on the Dravidians,
329 ; Dravidian dialects, Tamil, 330-
333 ; Aryan languages of Northern
India, Sanskrit, 334, 335 ; the Prakrits
or ancient Aryan vernaculars, 336-338 ;
the modern vernaculars evolved irom
the ancient Prakrits, 338 ; Sanskrit,
Prakrit, and non-Aryan elements in
modern vernaculars, 339-342 ; the seven
modern vernaculars, 342-344 ; the
modern vernaculars, their literature
and authors, 343-355 ; Hindi, its his-
torical development and chief authors,
345, 346 ; Marathi, its historical de-
velopment and chief authors, 346 ;
Bengali, its historical development,
literature, and chief authors, 346-354.



Chap. XIV. Early European Settle-
ments (1498 to 1 8th Century A.D. ). —
Vasco da Gama's expedition (1498),
356-358 ; Portuguese voyages and sup-
remacy in the East, Albuquerque and
his successors, 357-360; downfall of
the Portuguese, their possessions in
1881, 361 ; the Dutch in India (1602-
1824), 361, 362; their brilliant pro-
gress, but short-sighted policy, 362 ;
fall of the Dutch power, Dutch relics
in India, 362, 363 ; early English
adventurers (1496-1596), 363, 364;
English East India Companies, 364,
365; early English voyages (1602-11),
365, 366 ; naval fights with the Portu-
guese, Swally (1615), 366, 367; wars
with the Dutch, massacre of Amboyna,
367, 368 ; early English factories —
Surat, Masulipatam, Hugh, 368, 369 ;
Madras founded (1639), Bombay ceded
(1661), 369, 370; Calcutta founded
(1686), 371 ; other European East
Indian Companies, 371-377-

Chap. XV. History of British Rule
(1757 to 1885). —First British territorial
possessions, 378 ; French and English
wars in the Karnatik, Dupleix, Clive,
378-380; the English in Bengal (1634-
96), 380 ; native rulers of Bengal (1707-
56), the 'Black Hole '. tragedy, 380,
3S1 ; battle of Plassey (1757)1 and its
results, 381-383 ; Clive, first Governor
of Bengal (1758), list of governors and
viceroys, 384 ; Clive's wars in Oudh,
Madras, and Bengal, 385 ; massacre of
Patna, first Sepoy Mutiny, battle of
Baxar, 386 ; the grant of the ' DiivanV
(1765), 3S7 ; Clive's reorganization of
the Company's service (1766), 387.
Administration of Warren Hastings
(1772-85), 387-392; abolition of the dual
system of administration (1772), 388;
Hastings' policy towards Native powers,
388-390 ; Rohilla, Maratha, and My-
sore wars, 390-392 ; charges against
Hastings, his poor excuse, 391. Lord
Cornwallis (1786-93), the permanent
settlement, 392, 393 ; second Mysore
war, 394. Marquis of YYellesley (1798-
1805), his work in India, 394 - 398 ;
treaty with the Nizam, and extinction
of French influence, 395, 396 ; third
Mysore war, and fall of Seringapatam
( I 799)> 396> 397 ; second Marathawar
(1802-05), and extension of British
territory, 397, 398. Sir George Barlow
(1805), the Vellore Sepoy Mutiny, 399;
Earl of Minto (1807-13), embassies to
Persia and Afghanistan, 399, 400.
Marquis of Hastings (1814-23), 4°o-
402 ; the Nepal, Pindari, and last
Maratha wars, 401,402. Lord Amherst



i56



INDEX.



(1823-28), 403, 404 ; first Burmese war,
capture of Bhartpur, 404. Lord William
Bentinck (1828-35), 404-406; his finan-
cial reforms, sati and thagi suppressed,
404, 405 ; renewal of Charter, Mysore
protected, Coorg annexed, 405, 406.
Lord Metcalfe (1835-36), liberty of the
Press, 406. Lord Auckland (1836-42),
406-408; the first Afghan war (1839-
41), its disastrous termination, 408.
Lord Ellenborough (1842-44), 408,
410 ; the army of retribution, ' Gates
of Somnath,' 408, 409 ; Sind war, and
Gwalior outbreak, 409, 410. Lord
Hardinge (1S44-48), the first Sikh war,
410, 411. Earl of Dalhousie (1848-56),
411-417; second Sikh war, and an-
nexation of the Punjab, 412, 413 ;
second Burmese war, and annexation
of Pegu, 413, 414 ; Dalhousie's policy
towards Native States, the doctrine of
Lapse, 414 ; Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur,
Berar, 415 ; annexation of Oudh, 415-
417; Lord Dalhousie's work, extensions
of territory, 417. Earl Canning (1856-
62), 417-424 ; the Mutiny of 1857-58,
417-422; downfall of the Company,
India transferred to the Crown, 422,
423 ; Queen's proclamation of Novem-
ber 1st, 1858, 423, 424 ; financial and
legal reforms, 424. Lord Elgin (1862),
Lord Lawrence (1864-69), 424, 425.
Lord Mayo (1869-72), Ambala Darbdr,
Duke of Edinburgh's visit, 425; financial
reforms, abolition of inland customs
lines, 425. Lord Northbrook (1872-
76), visit of Prince of Wales, 425, 426.
Lord Lytton (1876-80), proclamation of
the Queen as Empress, 426, 427 ;
famine of 1877-78, second Afghan war,
426, 427. Marquis of Ripon ( 1 880-84),
end of the Afghan war, 427 ; rendition
of Mysore, legal and revenue reforms,
427-429; Education Commission, aboli-
tion of import duties, 429 ; Bengal Ten-
ancy Bill, 429. Earl of Dufferin ( 1 884),
430; annexation of Upper Burma, 430.
Chap. XVI. British Administration
of India. — Control of India in England,
431 ; under the Company and under
the Crown, 431 ; the Secretary of
State, the Viceroy, 431 ; the Executive
and Legislative Councils, 432, 433 ;
High Courts, the law of India, 433,

434 ; Provincial administration in dif-
ferent Provinces, 434, 435 ; ' Regula-
tion ' and ' Non-Regulation ' Districts,

435 ; the District officers, their duties,
435> 436 ; Districts and Sub-Districts
of India, 436, 437 ; the Secretariats-
Imperial and Provincial, 437, 438 ;
the land-tax, 438-441 ; ancient land
system under Hindus and Musalmans,



438, 439 ; land system under the Com-
pany, the zaminddr, 439 ; landed pro-
perty in India, growth of private
rights, 439, 440 ; rates of land-tax,
Government share of the crop, 440,
441 ; the land settlement, 'survey and
settlement,' 441 ; permanent settlement
of Bengal, 441-443; Land Law of
1859, Rent Commission of 1880, 443,
444 ; temporary settlements, in Orissa,
in Assam, 445 ; rdyatwdri settlement
in Madras, Sir Thomas Munro, 445,
446 ; permanent settlement in Madras,
sub-tenures, 446, 447 ; extension of
tillage in Madras, reduction of average
land-tax, 447, 448 ; land system of
Bombay, the ' Survey ' tenure, 448,
449 ; the Deccan cultivator, Agricul-
turists' Relief Acts (1879 and 1881),
449, 450; land system in N.-W. Pro-
vinces and Punjab, 451 ; in Oudh and
the Central Provinces, 451, 452; land
revenue of British India, 452 ; the salt-
tax, systems of manufacture, 453, 454 ;
Excise — distilleries and breweries,
454, 455 ; opium, gdn/d, charas, 455 ;
municipal administration, the old pan-
chdyat, 455-457 ; finance and taxation
of British India, 457-470 ; obscurities
in Indian accounts, 458 ; taxation
under the Mughals and the British
compared, 459-463 ; heavy taxation in
Native States, 464 ; incidence of taxa-
tion in British India, 464, 465 ; balance-
sheet of British India, 465-468 ; analy-
sis of Indian revenues, 465 ; 467, 468 ;
Indian expenditure — army, public
debt, famine relief, 468, 469 ; ex-
change, public works, railways, irriga-
tion, 469, 470 ; imperial and muni-
cipal finance, 470 ; the army of India,
its constitution, 470, 471 ; police and
jails, 472 ; education, 472-479 ; educa-
tion in ancient India, Sanskrit tols
and village schools, 472, 473 ; early
English efforts, the Calcutta Madrasa
and other colleges, 473 ; mission
schools, 473 ; State system of educa-
tion in India, 473, 474 ; Education
Commission of 1882-83, 474 ; educa-
tion statistics, 1878 to 1883, 474,
475 ; Indian universities, colleges, and
schools, 475-477; primary schools,
girls' schools, normal and other special
schools, 477-479 ; the vernacular press,
newspapers and books, 480, 481.

Chap. XVII. Agriculture and Pro-



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 14) → online text (page 29 of 65)