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xiii. 225.

Petrie, Major, took Cochin from the
Dutch (1795), iv. 12.

Petrie, William, acting Governor of
Madras (1807), ix. 67; established an
observatory (1787), which in 1792
became the Madras Observatory, ix.
117.

Petroleum, or mineral oil, article ' India,'
vi. 4.2 ; mines and oil-refining com-
panies in Burma, vi. 626, 627. Local
notices— Assam, i. 348 ; Bannu, ii. 90 ;
Bisrampur, iii. 18 ; Jaipur (Assam),
iii. 166; Lower Burma, iii. 201 ; Upper
Burma, iii. 211 ; Cachar, iii. 234;
Cheduba Island, iii. ^?S ; Henzada, v.
384 ; Jehlam, vii. 167 ; Kheri, viii.
190 ; Panoba in Kohat, viii. 243 ;
Kyauk-pyu, viii. 385 ; Lakhimpur, viii.'
427 ; Makum, ix. 216 ; Ramri, xi. 463 ;
Rawal Pindi, xii. 22 ; Sibsagar, xii.
460 ; Thayet-myo, xiii. 278.

Pettai. See Paittapattu.

Petty kingdoms of ancient India in the
time of Megasthenes, vi. 17.

' Peutinger Tables,' The, quoted, on
Andhra, i. 287 ; Kolkai, viii. 286 ;
Kotai, viii. 309.

Phaeton, shoal off Lower Burma, xi. 162.

Phagu, halting station near Simla, Pun-
jab, xi. 162.

Phagwara, town in Punjab, xi. 163.

Phalalum, peak in the Himalayas, Bengal,
xi. 163.

Phalauda, town in N.-W. Provinces, xi
163.

Phalgu, river of Bengal, xi. 163.

Phalian, talis il in Punjab, xi. 163, 164.

Phaljar, village in Assam, xi. 164.

Phallic emblems in Hinduism, vi. 204, 205.

Phaltan, town and State in Bombay, xi.
164, 165.

Phalut See Phalalum.

Phaphund, town and tahsil in N.-W.
Provinces, xi. 165, 166.



254



INDEX.



Pharamgiri, village in Assam, xi. 1 66.

Pharha, town in N.-W. Provinces, xi.
166.

Phayre, General Sir A. P., settled Bilii-
Gywon Island, ii. 460 ; Chief Commis-
sioner of British (now Lower) Burma
(1862-67), iii. 176; envoy to Inde-
pendent Burma (1855), iii. 227 ; intro-
duced Cuba tobacco into Sandowav,
xii. 202 ; quoted on the Chins, xiii.
281.

Phayre, General Sir R. , nearly poisoned
by Mulhar Rao Gaekwar (1874), ii.
164; reached Kandahar (1S80), and
commanded there till the evacuation
(1881), vii. 397.

Pheni, Sub-division in Bengal, xi. 166.

Pheni, river of E. Bengal, xi. 166,
167.

Phillaur, town and tahsil in Punjab, xi.
167.

Philosophical and terrible aspects of Siva-
worship, vi. 210, 211.

Philosophy of the Brahmans, its six
darsanas or schools, vi. 98, 99.

Phingeswar, chiefship in Central Pro-
vinces, xi. 168.

Phulaguri, village in Assam, xi. 168.

Phuljhar, chiefship in Central Provinces,
xi. 168.

Phulpur, tahsil in N.-W. Provinces, xi.
168, 169.

Physical appearance and physiognomy of
the Afghans, i. 45 ; Andamanese, i.
285 ; Baluchfs, ii. 38 ; Bhiis, ii. 389 ;
Bhutias, ii. 413 ; Brahuis, iii. 99 ;
Takings, iii. 182, 183 ; Gonds, iii.
308 ; the inhabitants of Chitral, iii.
432 ; Coorgs, iv. 34 ; Daphlas, iv.
119; Chandals, iv. 400; Garos, v. 28 ;
Juangs, vii. 252 ; Siahposh Kafirs,
vii. 290 ; Kangra tribes, vii. 420 ;
Karens, viii. 3 ; Kashmiris, viii.
70 ; Khamtis, viii. 145 ; Khasis,
viii. 174; Kotas, viii. 301, x. 311 ;
Kumaunis, viii. 353 ; Kurumbas, viii.
376, x. 311; Ladakhis, viii. 398;
Lushais, viii. 530 ; Maldive islanders,
ix. 251 ; hill tribes in Manipur, ix.
330 ; Korkus, ix. 403 ; Miris, ix.
443, 444, 445, 447 5 Mishmis, ix.
462 ; Kurubas, x. 98, 99 ; Angami
Nagas, x. 148 ; Naikdas, x. 176 ;
Nicobarians, x. 296 ; Todas, x. 309 ;
Rewa Kantha Bhils, xii. 51 ; Santals,
xii. 239, 240 ; Hos or Larka Kols,
xii. 535 ; inhabitants of Spiti, xiii.
72, 73 ; Chins, xiii. 282.

Physical aspects of India, article ' India,'
vi. chap. i. pp. 1-42. General outline,
1; origin of the name of India, 1-3 ;
boundaries, 3, 4 ; the three regions of
India, 4. First region, the Himalayas,



1-10 ; the Himalayan wall and trough,
4-6; Himalayan passes, 6; offshoots of
the Himalayas, 6 ; the gateways of
India, 6, 7 ; Himalayan water-supply
and rainfall, 7 ; scenery, 7, 8 ; vegeta-
tion and forests, 7 ; cultivation, 7, 8 ;
irrigation and mill power, 9 ; saleable
produce, 9, 10; fauna of the Himalayas,
10. Second region, the northern river
plains, 10-34. The three river systems
of N. India, 10, 1 1 — (1) the Indus and
Sutlej, II, 12; lower course of the
Indus, 12, 13 ; (2) the Tsan-pu or
Brahmaputra, 13-16 ; the Kailas water-
shed, 13 ; the Brahmaputra confluents
in Assam, 13, 14 ; the Brahmaputra in
Bengal, 14, 1 5 ; Brahmaputra silt deposits
and islands, 14, 15; changes in Brahma-
putra course, 15 ; the Brahmaputra as
a high-road, 15, 16 ; (3) the Gangetic
river system, 16-29 ; the growth of the
Ganges and its discharges at different
points, 17 ; its great tributary the
Jumna, 17 ; sanctity of the Ganges,
its places of pilgrimage, 17, 18 ; the
Ganges, the water - carrier, fertilizer,
and great water highway of Bengal,
19, 20 ; traffic on the Ganges, 20 ;
great Gangetic cities, 20, 21 ; first
and second stages in the life of a
great Indian river as a silt collector,
21, 22; loss of carrying power in
second stage, 22 ; third stage as a
land-maker, 21, 22; the delta of Bengal,
and of Gangetic deltaic distributaries,
23 ; character of a deltaic river, 23, 24;
section of a deltaic channel of the
Ganges, 23 ; junction of the Ganges,
Brahmaputra, and the Meghna — their
combined delta, 24 ; last scene in the
life of an Indian river, land-making
in the estuary, 24, 25 ; Bengal, the
' gift of the Ganges,' in the same
sense as Egypt the ' gift of the Nile,'
25 ; size of the Bengal delta, 25 ;
successive depressions of the delta, 26,
27 ; its subterranean structure, 26 (foot-
note) ; amount of silt brought down by
the Ganges at Ghazipur, 27 ; estimated
silt of united river at the delta, 28 ;
time required to construct the Bengal
delta, 28 ; river irrigation by means of
canals, 28, 29 ; the rivers as highways
of trade, 29 ; saline deposits caused by
floods, 29 ; changes of river beds and
deserted river capitals, 30 ; the ' bore '
of the Hugh and Meghna, 30, 31 ;
destruction of river-side villages, 31,
32 ; poetry of the Indian river names,
32 ; crops of the river plains of N.-W.
Bengal and the delta, 32-34 ; scenery
of the river plains. Third region, the
southern table-land or the Deccan, 34-



INDEX.



255



42 ; its three supporting mountain
walls, 35 ; the Vindhya mountains and
their ranges, the ancient barrier be-
tween N. and S. India, 35, 36 ; the
E. and W. Ghats, 36 ; the central
triangular plateau, 36 ; the Bhor Ghat,
36; the Thai Ghat, 37; the Palghat pass,
37 ; rivers of the inner plateau, 37, 38;
historical significance of the E. and \Y.
Ghats, 38 ; rainfall of the Deccan, 38 ;
the four forest regions of S. India, 38-
40; scenery of S. India, 40; crops,
40, 41 ; minerals, 41 ; recapitulation
of the three regions of India, their
races and languages, 41 ; Burma, 42.
See also section Physical Aspects in
each Provincial and District article.

Piali, river in Bengal, xi. 169.

Piddington, H., quoted, on the copper
and silver of the Santal Parganas, xii.
227.

Pigeon Island, in Madras, xi. 169.

Pigeon Island, in Bombay, xi. 169.

Pigot, Lord, Governor of Madras (1755-
63, 1775-76), ix. 67 ; his defence of
Madras city (1758), ix. 107 ; nearly
captured with Clive at Viruddhachalam
(1751), xiii. 480.

Pihani, town and pargana in Oudh, xi.
169, 170.

Pihej, town in Baroda, xi. 170.

Pihewa. See Pehoa.

Pilcher, K. H., his account of the
administration of Upper Burma, when
independent, iii. 213-216.

Pilgrimage, places of, Ajodhya, i. 134 ;
Alandi, i. 163, 164 ; Amarnath (Kash-
mir), i. 211 ; Papanassam, i. 226;
Antravedi, i. 294 ; Anupshahr, i. 295 ;
Athirala, i. 377 ; Badrinath, i. 411;
Bagherhat, i. 417 ; Bahraich, i. 435 ;
Baikanthpur, i. 436 ; Baldeva, ii. 14 ;
Bansi, ii. 217 ; Belgaum, ii. 237, 238 ;
Benares, ii. 262 - 266 ; Beyt, ii. 336 ;
Bhadbhiit, ii. 338 ; Mandargiri, ii.
348 ; Bhairoghati, ii. 356 ; Bhavani,
ii. 383 ; Bhilsa. ii. 393 ; Bhim Ghora,
ii. 396 ; the Bhuban Hills, ii. 408 ;
Bhuvaneswar, ii. 417; Biana, ii. 418 ;
Bodhan, iii. 23 ; Brahmakund, iii. 94,
viii. 428 ; Brindaban, iii. 100 ; Buddh
Gaya, iii. 127 ; Chandod, iii. 359,
360 ; Chandranath, iii. 364 ; Chhipia,
iii. 404 ; Chitarkot, iii. 429 ; Com-
baconum, iv. 24 ; Dakor, iv. 96 ;
Amba Bhawani in Danta, iv. 118;
Deoband, iv. 199 ; Deogarh, iv. 201,
202 ; Deoprayag, iv. 205 ; Devjagaon,
iv. 234 ; Dewalwara, iv. 235 ; Diggi,
iv. 287 ; Baneswar in Dungarpur, iv.
324 ; Dwarka, iv. 327 ; Gangal, iv.
466 ; Gangotri, iv. 477 ; Garhmukh-
tesar, v. 16 ; Gaur, v. 38 ; Gaya, v.



47, 48 ; Girnar, v. 84 ; Gobardhan, v.
121 ; Gokaru, v. 142 ; Hajo, v. 292 ;
Hardwar, v. 331, 333, 334; Hodal, v.
438; Jajpur, vii. jy, Jawalamukhi, vii.
162; Jejuri, vii. 178; Kakora, vii.
211 ; Kalighat, vii. 326 ; Kalinjar, vii.
33 J > 335 » Kalipani, vii. 337 ; Kamta
Rajaula, vii. 366 ; Kasipur, viii. 82 ;
Katas, viii. 86, 87 ; Kedarnath, viii.
109 ; Kiching, viii. 215 ; Salimabad,
near Kishangarh, viii. 223 ; Kopilas,
viii. 295 ; Kosa Nag, viii. 299 ;
Kotipalli, viii. 312; Kurukshetra, viii.
374, 375 I Madheswaranmalai, viii.
541; Mahaban, ix. 150-152; Maha-
gaon, ix. 155 ; Mahavinyaka, ix. 170;
on the Mahi, ix. 174 ; Makhanpur, ix.
215 ; Manderhill, ix. 292 ; Mandhata,
ix. 294 ; Mat, ix. 358 ; Ze-da-wun in
Mergui, ix. 408 ; Muttra, x. 54 ;
Nandan Sar, x. 188; Xasik, x. 236;
Nathdwara, x. 240 ; Nekmard, x. 259;
Puri, x. 450-458, xi. 309-320 ; Palitana,
xi. 4, 5; Pambam, xi. 23; Pandharpur,
xi. 37; Papanasham, xi. 53 ; Parasnath,
x j- 57, 58 ; Pehoa, xi. 129 ; Pendhat,
xi. 132 ; Pushkar, xi. 335 ; Rajagriha
Hills, xi. 380 ; Rajim, xi. 388 ;
Rakabdev, xi. 439 ; Rameswaram, xi.
443 ; Ramkail, xi. 449 ; Rampura, xi.
462 ; Ramtek, xi. 466 ; Rupnath, xii.
85 ; Sagar Island, xii. 109 ; Sakhi
Sarwar, xii. 145, 146 ; Sandoway, xii.
201 ; in Sandur, xii. 209 ; Sansar
Dhura, xii. 225 ; Sehwan, xii. 306 ;
Shingnapur, xii. 406 ; Sholinghar, xii.
423 ; Shwe-Dagon, xii. 427 ; Sidhpur,
xii. 474 ; Sikandra, xii. 482 ; Sitakund,
xiii. 25 ; Sitapur, xiii. 39 ; Sivaganga,
xiii. 41 ; Soron, xiii. 67 ; Tarakeswar,
xiii. 211, 212; Thana Bhawan, xiii.
259 ; Thaneswar, xiii. 259 - 261 ;
Tirumurtikovil, xiii. 325 ; Tirupati,
xiii. 325, 326 ; Tirutani, xiii. 327 ;
Tosham, xiii. 339 ; Trichinopoli, xiii.
364 ; Trimbak, xiii. 366 ; Tukreswari,
xiii. 372; Old Udaipur, xiii. 413;
Udipi, xiii. 416; Uloi, xiii. 419;
Umananda, xiii. 419 ; Upmaka, xiii.
438 ; Vadaka Valaiyur, xiii. 460 ;
Wai, xiii. 509 ; Wartul, xiii. 533.

Pilgrim hospitals at Puri, x. 458, xi.
320.

Pilgrim hotels at Puri, xi. 319.

Pilgrim mortality on the way to and
from Puri, xi. 319, 320.

Pilibhit, District in Punjab, xi. 170-178 ;
physical aspects, 170-172 ; history, 172-
174; population, 174; agriculture,
175, 176 ; natural calamities, 176 ;
trade, 176; means of communication,
177; administration, 177; education,
177; medical aspects, 178.



256



INDEX.



Pilibtrit, tahsil in Punjab, xi. 178.

Pilihbit, town in Punjab, xi. 179.

Pilkhuwa, town in N.-W. Provinces, xi.
180.

Pillar and rock inscriptions of Asoka,
article ' India,' vi. 145 (footnote); 146.
For local notices see Asoka.

Piming, pass over Himalayas, Punjab, xi.
180.

Pimpalgaon Raja, town in Berar, xi. 180.

Pimpalner, town and Sub-division in
Bombay, xi. 180, 181.

Pimpladevi, Bhil State in Bombay, xi.
181.

Pimpri, Bhil State in Bombay, xi. 181.

Pin, river in Punjab, xi. 181.

Pinahat, town and tahsil in N.-W, Pro-
vinces, xi. 181, 182.

Pinakini, river in S. India. See Penner.

Pind Dadan Khan, town and tahsil in
Punjab, xi. 182, 183.

Pindari freebooters, Expedition against
the (1S17), article 'India,' vi. 401.
Local notices — Ravaged Basim, ii.
185 ; Bellary, ii. 243 ; allied with the
Nawab of Bhopal, ii. 404 ; ravaged
Bilaspur, ii. 448 ; largely recruited in
the Central Provinces, iii. 302 ;
ravaged or sacked Chanda, iii. 350 ;
Chhapara, iii. 395 ; Dhampur, iv. 241;
Ganjam, v. 4; Hoshangabad, v. 444;
the capture of Malegaon, ix. 254 ;
Mehkar, ix. 399 ; had their head-
quarters in Nimar, x. 330 ; ravaged or
sacked Parla Kimedi, xi. 64 ; Paunar,
xi. 119; Rajputana, xi. 406, 407 ; their
suppression by Lord Hastings, xi. 407 ;
ravaged Satara, xii. 282 ; Sholapur,
xii. 417 ; Wardha, xiii. 525.
Pindigheb, town and tahsil in Punjab,

xi. 183, 184.
Pine apples, cultivated in Assam, i. 362 ;
Upper Burma, iii. 210 ; Haidarabad,
v. 245 ; Jabalpur, vii. ^y, Khasi Hills,
viii. 177; Lahore, viii. 410; Manipur,
ix. 331 ; Mao-don, ix. 343 ; Mergui,
ix. 410; Nepal, x. 276; N.-W. Pro-
vinces, x. 381; Sheila, xii. 378;
Tavoy, xiii. 232.
Pine trees, in Bhutan, ii. 414 ; Himalaya
Mountains, v. 409 ; Mount Jako, vii.
74; Kangra, vii. 410, 411 ; Kashmir,
viii. 71 ; Kedar Kanta, viii. 109 ;
Khasi Hills, viii. 173 ; Kulu, viii. 336,
337 ; Kumaun, viii. 349 ; Kuram, viii.
369 ; Mishmi Hills, ix. 463 ; Murree
Hills, x. 18 ; Nepal, x. 276, 277 ;
N.-W. Provinces, x. 380 ; Punjab, xi.
280 ; Rawal Pindi, xii. 21 ; Safed Koh
Mountains, xii. 99 ; Sahiswan, xii.
136 ; on the Takht-i-Sulaiman, xiii.
161.
Pinjar, village in Berar, xi. 1S4.



Pinjaur, decayed town in Punjab, xi. 184.
Pinu or Pirn, river of Punjab. See Pin.
Pipalgaon, village in Central Provinces,

xi. 184.
Piparia, village in Central Provinces,

xi. 185.
Piparwani, village in Central Provinces,

xi. 185.
Pipes, made in Mainpuri, ix. 210.
Pipe-stems, made in Agra, i. 76.
Piplianagar, chiefship in Central India,

xi. 185.
Pippli, tahsil in Punjab, xi. 185, 186.
Pippli, historic port in Orissa, xi. 186 ;
early settlement of the East India
Company, now far inland, article
' India,' vi. 368, 369.
Pipraich, village in N.-W. Provinces,

xi. 186.
Piram, island in Gulf of Cambay. See

Perim.
Pirmaid, hill station in Travancore, xi.

186.
Pir Mangho. See Magar Talao.
Pirnagar, pargand in Oudh, xi. 1S6,

187.
Pirozpur, Sub-division in Bengal, xi.

187.
Pirpainti, village in Bengal, xi. 187.
Pir Panjal, mountain range in Kashmir,

xi. 187, 188.
Pirs or groups of villages, the old admini-
strative and new fiscal divisions of the
Kols in Singhbhum, xii. 540.
Pisangan, town in Rajputana, xi. 188.
Pishin, District of S. Afghanistan, xi.
188-192; physical aspects, 188; his-
tory, 189; population, 189, 190; agri-
culture, 190; trade, 191 ; administra-
tion, 191 ; medical aspects, 192.
Pistachio nuts, grown in Afgban-Turkis-

tan, i. 55 ; Baluchistan, ii. 36.
Pitari, town in Oudh, xi. 192.
Pith, Articles made of, in Tanjore, xiii.

191, 196.
Pithapur, town and taluk in Madras, xi.

192.
Pithoragarh, military outpost in N.-W.

Provinces, xi. 193.
Pithoria, estate in Central Provinces, xi.

193-
Pitihra, estate in Central Provinces, xi.

193.
Pitlad. See Petlad.
Pitt, G. Morton, Governor of Madras

.(I730-35), ix. 67.
Pitt, Thomas, Governor of Madras (169S-

1709), ix. 66.
Place, Mr., Collector of Chengalpat, con-
structed the Karunguli tank there
(1795). »i.. 382.
Places of pilgrimage. See Pilgrimage,
Places of.



INDEX.



257



Plague, at Pali, xi. I ; Radhanpur, xi.

343,344- . 4 , ,

Plantains, grown in Akola, 1. 143 ; Akyab,
i. 156; Allahabad, i. 190 ; North
Arcot, i. 316; Badnera, i. 409;
Baluchistan, ii. 36 ; Bard wan, ii. 126 ;
Bellary, ii. 245 ; Buldana, iii. 146 ;
Upper Burma, iii. 210; Coimbatore,
iv. 18 ; Coorg, iv. 37 ; Diingarpur, iv.
323 ; Eastern Dwars, iv. 328 ; Farid-
pur, iv. 394; Hanthawadi, v. 315;
Hassan, v. 349 ; Jalgaon-Tumbod, vii.
106 ; Jalpaigurf, vii. 108 ; South
Kanara" vii. 372; Kangra, vii. 412;
Karnul, viii. 38 ; the Konkan, viii. 292 ;
Lahore, viii. 410 ; Lakhimpur, viii.
433 ; Larkhana, viii. 463 ; Madras, ix.
28, 30; Manipur, ix. 331; Nasik, x.
232 ; N.-W. Provinces, x. 381 ; Oudh,
x. 482; Palni Mountains, xi. 19; Ran-
goon, xi. 47S ; Savanur, xii. 293 ;
Sawantwari, xii. 296 ; Shevaroy Hills,
xii. 383 ; Sibsagar, xii. 466 ; Sikkim,
xii. 486 ; Sind, xii. 520 ; Sinnar, xii.
545 ; Sitapur, xiii. 35 ; Tanjore, xiii.
187 ; Tavoy, xiii. 232 ; Thayet-myo,
xiii. 283 ; Thon-gwa, xiii. 291 ; Tin-
nevelli, xiii. 306 ; Tipperah, xiii. 313;
Trichinopoli, xiii. 360 ; Tumkur, xiii.

381.

Plassey, battle-field (1757) in Bengal,
xi. 193, 194; article 'India,' vi.
382.

Platinum, Grains of, found in Dharwar,
iv. 258.

Pliny, mentions Andhra, i. 287 ; king-
dom of Chola as Sora, iii. 455 ;
Coringa as Kalingon, iv. 42 ; his
Gaukasus identified with ' Kush ' in
Hindu Kush, v. 418 ; mentions the
Indus, vii. 13 ; Kalinga, vii. 328, 329 ;
the Savars as Suari, vii. 401 ; Ladakh
as Akhassa Regio, viii. 399 ; Muttra as
Methora, x. 43 ; Nevti as Nitrias, x.
292 ; the people of Magadha as Prasii,
xi. 107; the Sutlej, xiii. 141 ; the
pearl fishery of Tinnevelli, xiii. 308.

Plumbago, found in Gurgaon, v. 216;
Kashmir, viii. 67 ; Travancore, xiii.

34S * . , , ,

Pliitschau, German missionary, founded

the mission at Tranquebar with Ziegen-

balg (1706), xiii. 181, 341.
Pod, the most numerous caste in the

Twenty-four Parganas, xiii. 392.
Poddatura. See Proddutur.
Pogson, Mr., quoted, on the diamond

mines of Panna, xi. 49, 50.
Pohra, village in Central Provinces, xi.

194.
Poicha, petty State in Bombay, xi. 194.
Poini, river in Madras, xi. 194.
Point Calimere. See Calimere.

VOL. XIV.



Point, False. See False Point.
Point, Palmyras. See Palmyras Point.
Pokaran, town in Raj pu tana, xi. 194,

195.
Pokhar. See Pushkar.
Pokri, village in N.-W. Provinces, xi.

195-

Pol, petty State in Bombay, xi. 195.

Polavaram, estate in Madras, xi. 195,
196.

Polekurru, town in Madras, xi. 196.

Polhill, Lieut., stormed Sikhar (1781),
xii. 483.

Poli, town in Madras, xi. 196.

Police statistics, article ' India,' vi. 472.
See also the Administration section in
each District article.

Pollachi, town and tdluk in Madras, xi.
196.

Pollilur, town in Madras, xi. 196.

Pollock, General Sir George, his march
from the Punjab to Kabul (1842),
article ' India,' vi. 409. Local notices
— Relieved Jalalabad, i. 50, vii. 76 ;
took Kabul and destroyed the Char
Chata, i. 51, vii. 273; his advance
through the Khaibar Pass, viii. 126.

Polo, played in Manipur, ix. 331.

Poliir, town and tdluk in Madras, xi.

196, 197. f
Polyandry among the Nairs and Hima-
layan tribes, article ' India,' vi. 55 ;
polyandry of Draupadi, the wife of the
five Pandava brethren in the Maha-
bharata, 121 ; polyandry in the Hindu
marriage law, 195 ; modern survivals
of, 195. Local notices — Bhutan, ii.
412 ; in the Himalayan mountain
tribes, v. 413 ; the Hindu Kush tribes,
v. 419; Jaunsar Bawar, vii. 161 ;
Lahul, vii. 421, viii. 421 ; Kunawar,
viii. 362 ; Ladakh, viii. 398, 399 ;
among the Kallars in Madura, ix. 127 ;
the Nairs in Malabar, ix. 227, 228 ;
the Todas, x. 310 ; in Seoraj, xii. 316.

Pomegranates, grown in Allahabad, i. 190;
Baluchistan, ii. 36 ; Chintamani-pet,
iii. 419 ; Ellichpur, iv. 345 ; Kandahar,
vii. 391 ; Kangra, vii. 412 ; Kashmir,
viii. 71; Khairpur, viii. 136; Kuram,
viii. 369 ; Lahore, viii. 410 ; Larkhana,
viii. 463 ; Muzaffargarh, x. 57 ; N.-W.
Provinces, x. 382; Peshawar, xi. 159;
Safed Koh Mountains, xii. 99 ; Shah-
pur, xii. 360 ; Sind, xii. 520 ; Tavoy,
xiii. 232.

Ponampet, village in Coorg, xi. 197.

Ponani, village and taluk in Madras, xi.

197, 198.

Ponani, river in Madras, xi. 198.
Pondamalai. See Punamallu.
Pondicherry, French Settlement, xi. 198,
199 ; Roman Catholic Mission, article
R



253



INDEX.



'India,' vi. 259; ineffectual siege of,
by Boscawen's fleet and a land force
under Lawrence (1748), 379 ; siege of,
and capitulation to Coote (1760),
380.
Ponies, article 'India,' vi. 521. Local
notices— Ahmadnagar, i. 100 ; Bhutan,
ii. 414 ; Dharwar, iv. 262 ; Kolaba,
viii. 261 ; Manipur, ix. 331 ; Spiti,
xiii. 73 ; Thar and Parkar, xiii. 264.
Ponnani. See Ponani.
Pon-na-reip, village in Lower Burma, xi.

199.
Ponne. See Poini.
Ponneri, town and taluk in Madras, xi.

199, 200.
Poodoocottah. See Pudukottai.
Pooloo. See Pulu.

Poona, District in Bombay, xi. 200-210 ;
physical aspects, 200 ; history, 200-204 '■>
population, 204, 205 ; agriculture, 205-
208 ; natural calamities, 208 ; com-
munications, 208 ; trade, 208, 209 ;
administration, 209 ; medical aspects,
210.
Poona, city in Bombay, xi. 210-214.
Poona, Treaty of (1817), article 'India,'

vi. 402.
Poonamallee. See Punamallu.
Poon-na-riep. See Pon-na-reip.
Pooree. See Puri.

Poo-zwon-doung. See Pu-zun-daung.
Popham, Sir Home, made treaty with

the chief at Aden (1802), i. 16.
Popham, Captain, storm of Gwalior fort
during the first Maratha war, article
' India,' vi. 391. Local notices — Took
Bijaigarh (1781), ii. 423 ; stormed
Lahar (1780), viii. 400.
Poppy, Cultivation of. See Opium.
Popular Vishnuism, vi. 217.
Population of India, article ' India,' vi.
chap. ii. pp. 43-52. General survey of
the people, 43 ; the feudatory chiefs
and their powers, 43 ; the twelve
British Provinces, 44; Census of 1872
and of 1 88 1, 44, 45 ; population tables
of British, Feudatory, and Foreign
India, 44, 45 ; density of the popula-
tion, 46 ; absence of large towns, 46 ;
over-crowded districts, 46, 47 ; under-
peopled tracts, 47 ; immobility of the
Indian peasant, 47 ; nomadic system of
tillage, 47, 48 ; relation of labour to
land in the last century, and at the pre-
sent day, 48, 49 ; serfdom, 49 ; un-
equal division of the people, 49, 50 ;
increase of population since 1872, 50;
ethnical history of India, 51 ; fourfold
division of the people, into Aryans,
non- Aryans, mixed Hindus, and Mu-
hammadans, 51, 52; population tables
for 1SS1, 51 (lootnote), and Appendices



I.-X., 689-703. See also the Popula-
tion section in the articles on each Dis-
trict, Native State, and town ; and
especially Aboriginal tribes, Christian
population, and each great caste or
tribe, such as Brahmans, Chamars,
Pathans, and Rajputs.
Porakad, town in Travancore, xi. 214.
Porayar. See Tranquebar.
Porbandar, State in Kathiawar, xi. 214-

216.
Porbandar, town and port in Kathiawar,

xi. 216.
Porcelain clay. See Kaolin.
Porcupines, found on Mount Abu, i. 6 ;
in North Arcot, i. 312 ; South Arcot,
i. 320 ; Benares, ii. 255 ; Cuddapah,
iv. 48 ; Etawah, iv. 370 ; Gwalior, v.
229 ; Jalpaiguri, vii. 109 ; Kadur, vii.
283 ; North Kanara, vii. 370 ; Kangra,
vii. 413 ; Karniil, viii. 35 ; Kashmir,
viii. 68 ; Kathiawar, viii. 96 ; Lark-
hana, viii. 463 ; Madras Presidency,
ix. 90 ; Moradabad, ix. 505 ; Nalla-
malai Hills, x. 185 ; Nilgiri Hills, x.
308 ; Punjab, xi. 259 ; Sandur, xii.
206 ; the Sundarbans, xiii. 109 ; Wun,
xiii. 539-
Porcupine quills, Articles made from, at

Vizagapatam, xiii. 494-498.
Porpoises. See Dolphins.
Port Blair. See Andaman Islands.
Port Canning, unsuccessful harbour near

Calcutta, xi. 216-221.
Porto Novo, town, harbour, and battle-
field in Madras, xi. 221, 222.
Ports, Achra, i. 12 ; Aden, i. 15-24 ;
Adrampet, i. 27 ; Agashi, i. 58 ;
Akyab, i. 158-160; Alibagh, i. 166;
Alleppi, i. 200; Alliir cum Kotta-
patnam, i. 201 ; Ports Blair, Campbell,
and Cornwallis in the Andaman Islands,
i. 281, 282 ; Anjanwel, i. 290 ; Ankola,
i. 293 ; Antora, i. 293, 294 ; Balasor,
ii. 11 ; Bandamurlanka, ii. 56 ;
Bandra, ii. 57, 58 ; Bankot, ii. 77, 78 ;
Barkiir, ii. 156, 157; Barwa, ii. 178;
Bassein, ii. 201, 202 ; Bauliari, ii. 216 ;
Bavanapadu, ii. 217 ; Belapur, ii.
230 ; Belikeri, ii. 240 ; Beypur, ii.
335 ; Bhagwa, ii. 354 ; Bhandup, ii.
368 ; Bhaunagar, ii. 381, 382 ; Bili-
mora, ii. 457, 458 ; Bimlipatam, ii.
460, 461 ; Bombay, iii. 73-84 ; Boria,
iii. 89; Broach, iii. 112- 115; Bulsar,
iii. 149 ; Calcutta, iii. 255, 256, 261,
262 ; Calicut, iii. 26S-270 ; Cambay,
iii. 273, 274; Cannanore, iii. 275,
276; Chandbali, iii. 358; Chendia,
iii. 380 ; Chhanuya, iii. 394, 395 ; Chitta-
gong, iii. 444-446; Churaman, iii.
460, 461 ; Cocanada, iii. 472 ; Cochin,
iv. 11-13; Coringa, iv. 42, 43; Cud-



INDEX.



259



dalore, iv. 45, 46 ; Dabhol, iv. 76, 77 ;
Dahanu, iv. 95 ; Daman, iv. 102 ;
Dativre, iv. 157 ; Degam, iv. 166,
167 ; Dehej, iv. 167 ; Deogarh, iv.
233 ; Dhamra, iv. 241, 242 ; Dholera,
iv. 271 ; Diamond Harbour, iv. 284 ;
Dwarka, iv. 327 ; False Point, iv. 390,
391 ; Gangawali, iv. 466 ; Ganjam,
v. 9 ; Ghorbandar, v. 74, 75 ; Nova
Goa, v. 108, 109 ; Gogo, v. 137, 138 ;
Gopalpur, v. 161, 162 ; Hangarkatta,
v. 310 ; Harnai, v. 340 ; Honawar,
v. 439, 440 ; Isakapalli, vii. 24 ;
Ittamukkala, vii. 28 ; Iviker, vii.
29 ; Jafarabad, vii. 39 ; Jaigarh,
vii. 45", 46 ; Jaitapur, vii. 71 ; Jakhan,
vii. 74 ; Jodbia, vii. 234 ; Kalai, vii.
322; Kalingapatam, vii. 330; Kal-
yan, vii. 346, 347 ; Kandapur, vii.
398, 399; Karachi, vii. 452-460;
Karikal, viii. II ; Karwar, viii. 54-56 ;



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