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Benares, vii. 153.

Zamaniah, town and tahsil in N.-W.
Provinces, xiii. 560.

Za-mi, river in Burma, xiii. 561.

Zaviinddri grant of the Twenty-four
Parganas, article 'India,' vi. 383.

Zaminddrs, or revenue land collectors
under the Mughals, converted into a
proprietary body by the Permanent
Settlement of Bengal, article 'India,'
vi. 439 ; 452.

Zamkha. See Zumkha.

Zamorins, Hindu dynasty of Calicut, their
struggles with the Portuguese, iii. 269 ;
the last burnt himself on the approach
of Haidar Ali (1766), iii. 270; made
the Raja of Cochin tributary, iv. 11, 12.

Za-tha-bvin. village in Burma, xiii. 561.

Zeman Shah, granted government of
Dera Ismail Khan to Muhammad
Khan, iv. 221 ; Lahore to Ranjit Singh
(1799)) viii. 406; and Sind to the
Talpur Mirs (1783), xii. 513.

Ze-ya-wa-di, township in Burma, xiii. 561.

Ziegenbalg, German missionary who
established Lutheran mission at Tran-
quebar (1706), xiii. 185, 341.



Zinc, found in Jodhpur, vii. 326 ; Raj-
putana, xi. 401 ; Udaipur, xiii. 401.

Zira, town and tahsil in Punjab, xiii. 561.

Zoffany, Portrait of Sir E. Impey by, in
High Court, Calcutta, iii. 251 ; Last
Supper by, in St. John's Church,
Calcutta, iii. 252.

Zoology and Botany of India, article
' India,' vi. chap. xxiv. pp. 652-664.
The Gujarat or maneless lion, 652 ;
tiger, 652 ; leopard, cheetah, 653,
654 ; wolf, fox, jackal, dog, 654 ;
bear, 655 ; elephant and elephant-
catching, 655, 656 ; rhinoceros, 656 ;
wild hog, 656, 657 ; wild sheep and
goats, 657; antelopes and deer, 657,
658 ; bison and buffalo, 658 ; birds of

prey and game birds, 659 ; reptiles,
660, 661 ; insects, 662 ; Indian flora,
662-664. For local notices, see Animals
above enumerated.

Zorawar Singh, general of Ghulab Singh's
Dogra troops, conquered Ladakh and
Balti (1834-35), and was then anni-
hilated in Rudokh, viii. 399.

Zulfikar Khan, Aurungzeb's general, took
Gingi (1698) after eight years' siege, i.
3 X 3> v - 83, 84; made Viceroy of the
Deccan and murdered (1713), v. 257 ;
sacked Saint Thome (1698), ix. 104;
seized the Dutch factory at Masulipatam
(1689), ix. 354.

Zumkha, petty State in Bombay, xiii.



£&orfcs tiy ti)e same Euttjor.

SHorfes fcg tije same "Hutfjor.


Fifth Edition, i6s.

1 One of the most important as well as most interesting works which the records
of Indian literature can show. . . . Yellow-stained volumes from each District
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of wide research and exceptional opportunities of personal study, in a bright,
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' Mr. Hunter, in a word, has applied the philosophic method of writing history
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literature. The facts are set forth with the scrupulous exactness of an honest and
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Second Edition, Two Vols., 24s.

f The picture presented to us of the late Lord Mayo is a fair and noble one,
and worthy of the much lamented original.' — Edinburgh Revieiv.

' This masterly work has two great recommendations : it is the vividly and
faithfully told narrative of the life of a man ; and it contains a lucid and
comprehensive history of recent administration in India.' — The World.

1 It is long since we have come across a more admirable specimen of
biographical literature. . . . Nothing could exceed the completeness with which
the biographer has told the story of a noble life and a great career.' — The Hour.

'The story told in Dr. Hunter's book is full of the deepest interest. ... A
permanent and very valuable addition to the standard literature of India.' —
Calcutta Quarterly Revieiv.

' It is simply impossible that the story of this truly great and noble man's career
could have been told more simply or more impressively. . . . The second volume
constitutes a masterly and a complete account of the progress of legislation,
administration, and reform in India during the last five years. ' —Home News.

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Departments which compose it, be found.' — Calcutta Englishman.


O R I S S A:



Two Vols., Map and Steel Engravings, 32s.

' The mature and laborious work of a man who has devoted the whole power
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and next to the study of all that relates to or can illustrate it. As long as
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passionately in their work, and feel so keenly its connection with nearly every
subject which can occupy serious thought — the English rule will not only last,
but will prosper, and make its subjects prosper too.' — Pall Mall Gazette.

'A model of what official research and scholarly zeal ought to do. Mr.
Plunter's forcible and excellent literary style is a gift of the utmost importance,
and makes his work as fascinating as it is full and laborious. A book of striking
grasp, interest, and completeness.' — Fortnightly Review.

1 It is difficult to know whether the book is most praiseworthy for its literary
style, its wide grasp of facts, or its humane zeal.' — Westminster Review.

' More complete, more full of deep research, and more interesting than his first
[work], excellent as that was. The present volumes lead us closely among the
millions who form the Indian subjects of the Queen ; teach us what they are in
social, religious, and industrial aspects ; make us acquainted with their ancient
and modern history ; and show us what waves of vicissitude have passed over
them in faith and in administration, from the earliest period to which inves-
tigation can extend.' — Colonel Meadows Taylor in * Ocean Highzcays.^

1 A great subject worthily handled. He writes with great knowledge, great
sympathy with the Indian people, a keen and quick appreciation of all that is
striking and romantic in their history and character, and with a flowing and
picturesque style, which carries the reader lightly over ground which, in less
skilful hands, might seem tedious beyond endurance.' — Saturday Review.


Second Edition, 7s. 6d.

' One of the boldest efforts yet made by statistical science. ... In this work
he has laid down the basis of a system, by which he may fairly claim that
scarcity in Bengal has been reduced to an affair of calm administrative calcula-
tion.' — Daily News.

1 A work which deserves to be widely known and carefully considered by every
one who wishes to understand the policy of the Government of India in relation
to the famine. ' — Pall Mall Gazette.


Second Edition, 8s.
* A masterly Essay. ' — Daily News.





Quarto, Two Guineas.

' We trust that this book will be the starting-point in a new era for our Indian
Empire, and that the course recommended in it will immediately engage the
attention of our Indian statesmen.' — Athenceum.

1 Mr. Hunter has prefixed to the body of his work a Dissertation which it is
within our competence to appreciate, and which we unhesitatingly pronounce to
contain one of the most important generalizations from a series of apparently
isolated facts ever contributed to Indian history. ... It is between these [non-
Aryan] masses and the British Government that Mr. Hunter hopes by his book to
establish a lasting link ; and whatever the result of his linguistic labours, in this
one labour of mercy he has, we believe, succeeded. Non-Aryans will not again
be shot down on the faith of statements from Hindu settlers, who first seize
their lands, and then bind them down, under the Indian law of debt, into a
serfdom little removed from slavery. ' — Spectator.

1 The political value of Mr. Hunter's new book is this, that he has put before
the public, official and non-official, such a view of the character and capacities
of the non-Aryan tribes, and of our gross mismanagement of them in the past,
that no one, whether the Government or the Christian Church, will dare to
withhold from them the civilisation which will convert at least twelve millions
of frank, truthful, industrious races into the most loyal of our subjects.' — Friend
of India.

' The primitive non-Aryan population of India has seldom been the subject
of European research. The ignorance of their habits and views inevitably brings
forth mistakes in dealing with them, and the author traces their chronic hostility
to the British power in a large measure to this source. He discloses the means
for putting an end to this unhappy state of things, and for utilizing the tribes as
soldiers and reclaimers of the soil. . . . Besides this very practical aim, Mr.
Hunter's Dictionary will bring the important ethnological questions which he
has propounded in his Dissertation nearer to a definite solution.' — Literarisches

' It is a singular good fortune for the aboriginal tribes of India to have drifted
into the favour of so brilliant a writer and so accomplished a scholar. Their
connection with Mr. Hunter was one of those accidents in history which are the
mother of great events. ' — Hindu Patriot.



Of Her Majesty's India Civil Service, sometime Acting Foreign Secretary to the
Government 0/ India.

Edited, with a Life and Notes, by W. W. HUNTER, B.A., LL.D.

One Vol., 14s.

' The editorship of Mr. W. W. Hunter is a guarantee that the work is all
that literary accomplishments can make it.' — Saturday Review.



In Twenty Vols., Half Morocco, 5s. each, with MArs ;



Two Vols., Half Morocco, 7s. 6d. each, with Maps.

' Un ensemble d'efforts digne d'une grande nation, et comme aucune autre
n'en a fait jusqu'ici de semblable pour son empire colonial.' — Revue Critique.

1 The Englishman who dips, as we have done, into this deep spring, will be
filled wiih a new and nobler pride for the Empire which his nation has made
and maintained as their own in the East. Not warlike fame, nor imposing
majesty, wealth, or the national power which guarantees the sovereignty of
India, make upon him the strongest impression ; it is much more the feeling
of the earnest and responsible duty which fate has imposed upon his country
to free India from anarchy and misrule, — to make it the England of Asia, and
the centre of a new civilisation for that continent from which issued the first
stream of enlightenment to enrich the world.' — Berlin Magazin fiir die Literahir
des Atislandes.

' We have here for the first time a trustworthy, intelligent, and interesting
account of each District of the principal Province of India — a marvel of industry
and organization of which any man might be proud.' — Calcutta Quarterly

' A mine of varied and valuable material is here offered to the student of human
history.' — North American Review.

' Twenty volumes of material, collected under the most favourable auspices, are
built up under his hands into a vast but accessible storehouse of invaluable facts.
Invaluable to the statesman, the administrator, and the historian, they are no less
interesting to the general reader. Mr. Hunter undoubtedly has the faculty of
making the dry bones of statistics live. But they also contain matter which may
be regarded as the foundation of the yet unwritten history of Bengal. They are
a guide for administrative action now. They also seem to be the point of a new
departure for the future.' — Nineteenth Century.



' The Imperial Gazetteer will be the fruit and condensation of a series of Statis-
tical Surveys of each of the Administrative or Political Divisions of India, specially
and minutely compiled within moderate limits of time.' — Despatch from the
Secretary of State to the Government of Jndia, dated 22nd February 1877.

' A great work has been unostentatiously carried on for the last twelve years in
India, the importance of which it is impossible to exaggerate, and the results of
which are now, in a carefully digested form, presented to the public. This is
nothing less than a complete Statistical Survey of the entire British Empire
in Hindustan, which Dr. Hunter has condensed into the practical form of an
Imperial Gazetteer of India. . . . The article India, in Volume IV., is the
touchstone of the work, and proves clearly enough the sterling metal of which
it is wrought. It represents the essence of the 100 volumes which contain the
results of the Statistical Survey conducted by Dr. Hunter throughout each of
the 240 Districts of India. It is, moreover, the only attempt that has ever been
made to show how the Indian people have been built up, and the evidence from
the original materials has been for the first time sifted and examined by the light


of the local researches in which the author was for so long engaged. ... In
treating of ancient India, the author has made no use of Mill's work, but has
written the history afresh from original translations of the Sanskrit literature of
the period. The story of mediaeval India could scarcely be told without the
aid of Elphinstone's well-known work, but Dr. Hunter has gone back in every
case to the original sources, from Elphinstone to Ferishta, and from him to the
Arab geographers and Persian historians contained in Sir Henry Elliot's nine
volumes on the same subject. In the accounts both of ancient and mediaeval
India, use has been made of the latest discoveries of the Archaeological Survey,
which is still being carried on. The great feature of this remarkable article,
and that in which its chief usefulness consists, is, perhaps, the constructive
account of the Indian people, and the synthesis of Hinduism from the actually
existing facts, as revealed by Dr. Hunter's survey and by the first Indian census.'

— The Times (first notice, May 26, 1881).

' The publication of the Imperial Gazetteer of India marks the completion of
the largest national enterprise in statistics which has ever been undertaken. This
gigantic work has been carried out under the uninterrupted direction of Dr.
Hunter, its original designer, from the initial stage of local inquiry in each of the
240 Districts of India to the final arrangement of the results in an alphabetical
form. . . . The great value of this work is not only that it gives for the first time
a complete account of India, and places in a clear light before our eyes the
political, social, and physical condition of millions of our fellow-subjects, of
whom before we had no accurate conception ; but that it also breaks the long
spell of disappointment and failure, which has hitherto hung over the efforts of
the Indian Government towards an elucidation of the country it governs.
Hitherto no one has believed in Indian statistics. Every official statement made
on any Indian subject has been contradicted point-blank. . . . The volumes
supply, for the first time, materials by means of which British statesmen at home,
and the British public at large, can criticise the actions of our Proconsuls in the
East. Both Englishmen and native Indians will be thankful for a work, the
accuracy, fulness of detail, completeness of information, and masterly arrange-
ment of which constitute it a real and invaluable help to all who do honest work
in India, and to all who honestly judge of Indian work at home. ... It is one
of the grandest works of administrative statistics which have ever been issued by
any nation, and should earn for its author and designer the gratitude of every
one who has the welfare and good government of our Indian Empire at heart.'

— The Times (second notice).

' The Statistical Survey of India marks an epoch in the approximation of Indian
rule to our English ideas of good government, and forms the necessary comple-
ment to the transfer of India from a Commercial Company to the direct admini-
stration of the Crown. That transfer placed the authority over the Indian
Government in the hands of the Imperial Parliament, but it supplied no data by
which the people of England, through their constitutional representatives, could
safely wield their newly acquired authority. . . . Of the obstructions and difficulties
which such a work was sure to encounter, Dr. Hunter says not a word. . . .
This masterful silence as to difficulties thrust on one side, obstacles beaten down,
unjust jealousies and just susceptibilities conciliated, and individual wills con-
trolled, is the finest characteristic of the body of Englishmen who administer
India ; and is a distinctive trait of our countrymen, wherever they are called upon
to rule in the colonies and outlying dependencies which form the mighty
aggregate of the wide-scattered British Empire. . . . No nation has ever
attempted so comprehensive, so detailed, and so stupendous a statistical enterprise,
and the whole has been planned and executed with a smoothness and a certainty
which are truly marvellous.' — The Athenaeum.

' England has brought India for the first time under one empire ; and Mr.
Hunter, also for the first time, has exhibited before us on a panoramic scale the
vastness of our responsibility, and has afforded us the means of performing our
trust under the guidance of full knowledge.' — The Pall Mall Gazette.

1 The Imperial Gazetteer is the crowning work which brings the results of the
great Statistical Survey within reach of the general public. It represents twelve
years of incessant labour, demanding many high qualities for its efficient execu-
tion, and natural gifts such as are rarely combined in one man. Learning,
experience, and scholarly research were no less essential than habits of accurate


thought, administrative talent, and orderly, methodical arrangement. Above all,
imagination was needed— that quality without which work cannot be endued
with life and movement, but remains dead, a mere receptacle oflifeless facts. It
is to the rare combination of literary skill and the imaginative faculty, with the
qualifications of an able and energetic administrator, that we owe the completion
of this great and difficult task. It is no ordinary service that Dr. Hunter has
done to India and to England ; and, for his hard and admirably performed
achievement, he has earned the gratitude of his countrymen.' — Clements R.
Markham in the ' Academy.''

' A model of combined lucidity, conciseness, and comprehensiveness. . . .
Emphatically a great work — great in its magnitude, and still greater in the
beneficial results it is calculated to produce.' — The Economist.

' The Imperial Gazetteer of India, which, without exaggeration, may be called
a magnificent work, alike in its conception and execution, will go far to supply
the present and future guardians of our great dependency with the accurate and
systematized knowledge of the countries and peoples under their rule, without
which the highest political ability and the very best intentions are condemned to
work in the dark. If Dr. Hunter had no other claim— and he has many— to the
gratitude of all interested in the welfare of the inhabitants of India, and the
efficiency of the machine of government on which much of their happiness and
prosperity depends, this splendid memorial of his ability, industry, and persever-
ance would have been sufficient to give him a place among those who have worthily
performed great and useful tasks.' — The Statist.

1 Hitherto the cardinal defect in our administration of India, keenly felt and
bitterly deplored by all earnest men in the country, has been lack of adequate
continuous trustworthy information. It is clearly not too much to say of Dr.
Hunter's magnum opus, that it has changed all that ; the system and method of
Indian administration take a new departure from the date of its publication. . . .
No one undertaking that we have yet accomplished in India, or for India, has
promised such far-reaching benefits. Dr. Hunter, handing over to a successor the
easy task of keeping his work serviceable and in good repair, will doubtless
receive, from the Government which he has served so well, promotion commen-
surate with the importance of his labours ; but he will have the far higher
satisfaction of feeling that in the Imperial Gazetteer he has left a monument of
his ability and industry more lasting than brass.' — Aliens Indian Mail.

' Between 1769 and 1855, the East India Company set on foot many attempts
towards the production of a comprehensive description of its possessions. The
only result was a storehouse of important materials in a fragmentary state. With
the transference of the government to the Crown in 1858, the need of information
became more and more urgently felt. The half-personal, half-traditional know-
ledge possessed by the Company's officers disclosed many deficiencies from its
isolated character ; while they also held far too lightly the English responsibility
of governing in a constitutional manner the subjugated States. Lord Mayo, as
Viceroy, appointed Dr. Hunter to the head of the Indian Statistical Department,
and entrusted to him the descriptive survey of this great country inhabited by 240
millions of men. . . . In nine volumes he presents an exposition of the Indian
Empire. The Imperial Gazetteer of India is an example of clearness and com-
prehensiveness with the concise treatment of all the essential features of a country.
Although alphabetically arranged, the Gazetteer is no bare survey of the matters
dealt with. It sets forth the fruits of the author's personal and long-protracted
researches, and forms a monument of Dr. Hunter's knowledge of the topography,
agriculture, administration, and health-aspects of the whole Empire of India.' —
Kolnische Zeitung.


' The fruit and condensation of Mr. Hunter's labours.'




Seventh Edition. Fifty-Sixth Thousand.

This Edition incorporates the suggestions received by the author from Directors
of Public Instruction and other Educational authorities in India ; its statistics are
brought down to the last Census ; and its narrative, to the year 1884. The work
has received the emphatic approval of the organ of the English School Boards,
and is largely employed for educational purposes in Europe and America.

' Within the compass of some 250 pages we know of no history of the people
of India so concise, so interesting, and so useful for educational purposes as this.'
— The School Board Chronicle (London).

' " A Brief History of the Indian People," by W. W. Hunter, presents a sort of
bird's-eye view both of India and of its people from the earliest dawn of historical
records. Although designed as a popular handbook, the little volume is a work

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 14) → online text (page 64 of 65)