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India being found to the present day in and around the town.
Hardatta, the Dor Raja of Baran, bought off the first Muhammadan
invader, Mahmiid of Ghazni, by large presents and apostasy to Islam.
Chandra Sen, the last Hindu ruler, died while gallantly defending his
fort against Muhammad Ghori. Khwaja Lai Barani, an officer in the
Musalman army who fell in the assault, gives his name to a burial-
ground across the river, but not a vestige now remains of any monument
to his memory. Sculptured columns of early Hindu character, and
other architectural fragments, are not infrequently found when any
excavations are made ; but there are no buildings of any antiquity in
situ. The oldest is the tomb of Bahlol Khan, a high officer under the
Emperor Akbar, which is close to the Christian cemetery ; but, like the
Jama Masjid or great mosque in the centre of the old town, it is quite
plain and unadorned. At the commencement of British rule, Buland-
shahr had sunk into utter ruin j there was no bazar of any kind, but
only a small cluster of houses on the top of the hill, where the village
proprietors lived, and a few Chamars and Lodhas huts at the base. On
the administrative head-quarters of the District being fixed here, there
was a large influx of officials and people connected with the Courts, and
Bulandshahr soon became a fairly thriving and well-to-do little town.
The dispensary (built in 1867), and the Anglo-vernacular school with
its boarding-house attached, are at the west end of the lower or new
town, which there joins immediately on to the Civil Station, containing
the Court-houses of the Magistrate-Collector, munsifs Court, a public
building called the Lowe Memorial in memory of a late Collector, jail,
post-office, mission school of the Church of England, canal offices, etc.
The tahsili buildings, including the talisili school, are on the top of the



, 4 2 B UL CHERR Y—B ULDANA.

hill, the approach to the latter being by a fine broad staircase from the
bazar below. Most of the local gentry have substantial houses in the
town which they occupy as occasional residences. A handsome bathing
ghat on the river bank was completed in 1880 at a cost of ^1600,
raised by public subscription. In connection with the ghat is a market-
place, in which the lower storey of the double row of shops serves as a
massive embankment against a river flood, and its cost amounted to
little less than ^"10,000. A town hall has also been erected at a cost
of ^2200, defrayed by one of the District gentry. Probably no town
in India has undergone so complete a transformation in a few years.
In 1878, it was a village of mud-walls and thatched roofs; it is now
(1883) a town of brick and carved stone houses.

Bulcherry. — Island on the sea-face of the Sundarbans, Bengal. — See
Balchari.

Buldana. — District of Berar, in the West Berar Division, lying
between 19 51' and 21 1' 30" n. lat, and 75 58' 45" and 76 52'
45" e. long. Extreme length from north to south, about 80 miles ;
average width, 32 miles. Bounded on the north by the river Piirna,
on the south by the Nizam's Dominions, on the east by Akola and
Basim Districts (Berar), on the west by the Nizam's Dominions and
Khandesh District of the Bombay Presidency. Area, 2804 square
miles, of which 2166 square miles were returned in 1880-81 as cul-
tivated, 198 square miles as cultivable, and 440 square miles as
uncultivable waste. Population in 1881, 439,763, or 156-8 per square
mile of area. Number of villages on the Government rent-roll, 1010.
Land revenue, 1880-81, ^94,798; total revenue (gross) ,£115,194.
For fiscal purposes the District is sub-divided into 3 taluks, viz.
Chikhli, Malkapur, and Mehkar.

Physical Aspects. — The southern part of the District forms part of
Berar Balaghat, or Berar-above-the-Ghats. Here the general contour
of the country may be described as a succession of small plateaux
decreasing in elevation to the extreme south. Towards the eastern side
of the District, the country assumes more the character of undulating
high lands, favoured with soil of a high quality. The geological forma-
tion is trap ; a succession of plateaux descends from the highest ridges
on the north to the south, where a series of small ghats march with the
Nizam's territory. The small fertile valleys between the plateaux are
watered by streams during the greater portion of the year, while wells
of particularly good and pure water are numerous. These valleys are
favourite village sites. The north portion of the District occupies the
rich valley of the Ptirna.

The soil of the undulating highlands in the east of the District is
remarkably fine, and the wheat grown here will bear comparison with
any produced in India. The principal river is the Pexgaxga, which



BULDAXA. 143

rises about 4 miles above Deulghat (Dewalghat), in the north west
corner of the District, and flows south-east, passing Mehkar town, into
Basim District. The Nalganga, the VlSWAGANGA, and the Ghan
rivers, all rising in or close to the Balaghat, and flowing north into the
PURNA river, are either entirely dry in the hot weather, or leave only
chains of pools. The Kata Purna enters the District from the west,
and after a course of about 30 miles, passes into the Nizam's territory.
None of these rivers are navigable. One of the most remarkable
physical features of the District is the lake of Lonar, on the most
southerly plateau. The circumference of this lake is 5 miles, and it
appears to be the crater of an extinct volcano. The salts which it
yields are used for washing and drying chintzes, for which purpose
they are exported to considerable distances. A temple on its bank is
held in great veneration, and is by far the finest specimen of Hindu
architecture in Berar.

The area of reserved forest in the District in 1881-82 was 110-2
square miles, and of unreserved forest, 320 square miles. Though in
the ravines of the North Ghats, teak saplings exist in great numbers, no
large teak trees are found. Anjan trees (Hardwickia binata) arc-
to be found in most of the ravines, and large numbers of babul coppices
are scattered about. Many other varieties of fruit and forest trees,
some of the latter yielding lac, gums and dyes, flourish throughout
the District. Bears, tigers, leopards, hyaenas, sdmbhar, nilgai, and wild
hog are met with in the hills, and antelope and spotted deer in the
valley of the Purna, which is often visited by wild hog and nilgai ;
black and grey partridge, quail, and water-fowl are among the smaller
game to be obtained, and pea-fowl are found in the hills and on the
river banks.

History.— -The ancient Hemar Panthi templestobe seen at Deulghat on
the Penganga, at Mehkar in the south-east of the District, at Sindhker in
the south-west, at Pimpalgaon in the east, and the temple on the Lonar
Lake, all attest a state of society of which they are the only ascertained
records. It is popularly believed that the rulers were Jains when the
valley of the Purna fell under Muhammadan domination. In 1294,
Ala-ud-din, who became Emperor of Delhi in the following year, invaded
the Deccan, and established his authority over Ellichpur and its depend
encies. He and his successors gradually extended their kingdom south-
wards; local revolts disturbed, but did not weaken it ; and since 131 8,
Berar has been virtually under Muhammadan rule. About 1457.
Ala-ud-din, son of Ahmad Shah Bahmani, attacked and routed the alhed
forces of the King of Khandesh, and the Gujarat Prince at Rohankhcr,
in the north-west of Buldana District ; and the site is still shown where,
according to tradition, a great battle was fought. After the Bahman,
dynasty came the Imad Shahfs, who ruled from Ellichpur. I he



I|4 BULDANA.

Ahmadnagar dynasty followed; and in 1596, Chand Bibi, Queen
Regent of Ahmadnagar for her son, formally ceded Berar to the
Emperor Akbar, who himself visited the Deccan in 1599. His
sons, Prince Murad and Prince Danyal, were successively appointed
viceroys. Mehkar in Buldana District became one of the Sarkdrs
(administrative divisions) of the Subahat or Imperial Province of Berar.
After the death of Akbar (1605), Malik Ambar, the Abyssinian repre-
sentative of the Nizam Shahi party at Daulatabad. recovered great part
of Berar, which he held till his death in 1628 ; but Shah Jahan, assisted
by the Deshmukh of Sindkher, Lakji Jadiin Rao, re-established the
imperial authority. The origin of the powerful Rajput family of Jadiin,
Deshmukhs of Sindkher, is uncertain, though they are locally reputed to
have come from Karwali in north Hindustan on the Jumna. In 1630,
Lakji Jadiin Rao, a commander of 10,000 horse in Malik Ambar's time,
deserted to Shah Jahan, and turned the fate of the war against his
former master. Thereafter the Jadrins maintained their allegiance to
the Mughal emperors, and obtained honours and titles from them. A
daughter of this Lakji Jadiin was the mother of Sivaji, the founder of
the Maratha power. During the reign of Aurangzeb, about 167 1, the
Marathas, under Pratap Rao, Sivaji's general, first exacted chanth, or
one-fourth of the revenue. In 17 17, they obtained the formal grant of
chauth and sardesh mukhi from the Emperor Farukhsiyyar. In 1 724, Chin
Khilich Khan, Viceroy of the Deccan under the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk,
gained a decisive victory over the Imperial forces under Muhariz Khan,
at Shakar Khedla (thenceforward called Fatehkhedla, or ' the field of
victory '), south of the Penganga in Buldana District. But he could not
shake off the Marathas, who continued to collect revenue for themselves.
In 1760, Mehkar was formally ceded to the Peshwa; in 1769, the
Nizam was forced to acknowledge himself Vicegerent for the Poona
State, and his authority was weakened by the disastrous defeat at
Kardla in 1795. Daulat Rao Sindhia, and the Bhonsla of Nagpur,
were encamped at Malkapur, when they allowed the British Envoy,
Colonel Collins, to depart in August 1803. Then followed the First
Maratha war, — Assaye, Argaum (Argaon), and other victories scarcely
less important — which before the close of the year crushed the supremacy
of the Marathas. By the partition treaty of 1804, the Nizam received
nearly the whole of Berar. General Wellesley, January 1804, mentions
Sindhker as a nest of thieves, and represents the condition of the
country as deplorable. In 181 3, two Maratha plundering chiefs
occupied Fatehkhedla for three months. After the Pindari war of
1 81 7-18, the treaty of 1822 conferred on the Nizam the country west
of the Wardha, and all claims by the Marathas were extinguished ; but
general confusion long continued, and petty battles between zaminddrs,
rival tdlukddrs, Rajputs, and Muhammadans, took place at Malkapur,



BULDANA. 145

which was sacked by the Hindus in 1849. A force of Arabs in
the service of Baji Rao, then head of the Jadiin family above
mentioned, fought a severe battle with the Haidarabad troops in 1851,
for which act of rebellion, though disowned by Baji Rao, his hereditary
estates were confiscated, and he himself died a state prisoner in 185C.
For several years, the Nizam's Government had failed to provide funds
for the payment of the force maintained by the British, in accordance
with the treaty of 1800. The settlement of these arrears and of other
points in dispute was effected by the treaty of 1853, modified in
1860-61, whereby the territory now known as Berar was assigned to
the British.

Population.— -The Census of 1867 showed a population of 365.779
persons on an area of 2794 square miles, being 131 per square mile.
According to the Administration Report of 1876-77, the population
was 404,042, on an area of 2807 square miles; the Census of 1881
returned a total population of 439.763 on an area of 28o 4 square
miles, or 156*8 persons per square mile, thus divided :— Adult males,
141,704; adult females, 132,033; male children under 12 years,
83.539 ; female children under 12 years, 82,487 : total males, 225,243 ;
total females, 214,520. According to religion, Hindus number
405,685; Muhammadans, 3°,°55 \ Buddhists and Jains, 3698;
Christians, 150; Sikhs, 150; and Parsis, 25. Among Hindus, the
number of Brahmans in 1881 was 10,734; of Kunbis, 177,429; of
Malis, 28,897; of Rajputs, 12,018; of Mahars, 47,629; of Bani;.
10,259; and of other Hindu castes, n 7,953- The non-Hindu or
aboriginal castes or tribes numbered 4464. Among Muhammadans,
Savads numbered 1802; Mughals, 4 3§ 5 Pathans, 6095; Shaikhs,
20^526; others, 1194. The agricultural population was returned at
278,174; the non-agricultural at 161,589.

The principal towns in the District are— Deulgaon Raja (popula-
tion 7025), Malkapur (8152), Nandura (6743), Chikhli (4396)*
Dhonegaon (4259), Buldana (2975), Deulghat (3867), Mehkak
(4373), Fatehkhedla (3250).

Agriculture.— The District is rich in agricultural produce ; in a season-
able year, a many-coloured sheet of cultivation, almost without a break,
covers the valley of the Piirna. In the Balaghat also the crops are very
fine. Situated as the District is, in the neighbourhood of the great cotton
mart of Khamgaon-only a mile and a half beyond its north-eastern
border-and nearer to Bombay than the other Berar Districts, with 3
stations of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway in its northern tdluk
markets for its agricultural produce on favourable terms are easily
found. The rdyat commences preparation of his fields in January ; for
the surface ploughing must be finished before the intense heat has caked
the soil. Sowings for the kharif crop are begun with the first_ rain in

VOL. TIL



146



BULDANA.



June, and the harvest is gathered in November; the rabi crops, sown
after 'the rains, ripen early in March. At this time, the want of labour
is much felt, for an unseasonably heavy fall of rain may almost entirely
destroy the crops, if not quickly harvested. Rotation of crops is
practised; the principle being, that either wheat or gram, or some oil-
seed, should intervene between each crop of cotton ox j oar. When the
soil is clearly exhausted, it is allowed to lie fallow for a year or two,
being manured if manure be obtainable. Deep ploughing is not
practised, except to eradicate weeds ; for the impression exists, that to
thoroughly loosen the soil to any depth is injurious. Sugar-cane is
planted in January, and matures in twelve months. For the poppy,
land is prepared in September, and sown in October. Guavas and
plantains are carefully cultivated, and yams, sweet potatoes, water-
melons, and ordinary vegetables flourish in irrigated gardens. Grants-
in-aid, to the amount of ^376, were made to 22 villages in 1881-82,
towards water storage. Applications for such grants are now more
frequent than was formerly the case, but most of the cultivation is still
unirrigated. The irrigated area in 1880-81 was returned at 13,920
acres, grazing land at 79,819 acres. The cattle of the District are small,
but handsome and active. Full-sized horses are scarce. The agricul-
tural stock of the District in 1880-81 comprised 248,911 cows and
bullocks; 60,984 buffaloes ; 2028 horses; 4905 ponies; 2602 donkeys;
75,792 sheep and goats; 532 pigs; 14,424 carts; and 22,539 ploughs.
The system of land tenure is rdyatwdri. Under native rule, occupancy
and payment of revenue were the only titles to land. With the intro-
duction of the Bombay system of survey and settlement, the cultivating
revenue-payer has become a proprietor, styled khutadar, holding from
Government as superior landlord, at a fixed assessment for 30 years —
not liable to enhancement on expiry of term, unless on good ground
shown. The khutadar can sell or mortgage his rights, and also sublet ;
and he can, if he likes, relinquish his holding at the close of any agri-
cultural year on giving due notice of his intention. The land is often
worked by various forms of co-operation, one of which provides a sub-
tenant with plough-cattle.

In 1880-81, 1,386,192 acres were assessed and under cultivation —
the chief crops being jodr, 399,644; cotton, 267,269; wheat, 183,380;
bdjrd, 116,184; gram, 62,414; linseed, 28,161; sugar-cane, 2871; ///,
13,416; tur, 10,354; rice, 9244; pulses, 1498; hemp, 1054; kurdi,
44,9 8 7; tobacco, 2274; lac, 9374; other products, 54,759. The rent
rates per acre are— for land fit for cotton, is. 5jd. ; wheat, is. io|d. ;
oil-seeds, is. 7d. ; jodr, is. 6|d. ; tobacco, 2s. 3d. ; opium, 5s. ; rice,
2s. 4d. ; gram, 2s. 3d. The average produce of land per acre in lbs.
are, of cotton (cleaned), 70 lbs.; of wheat, 606; of oil-seeds, no; of
jodr, 254; of tobacco, 230; of rice, 220; of gram, 376. The prices



BULDANA. 147

(1880-81) were— for clean cotton, 5 lbs. per rupee (2s.); for wheat,
40 lbs. per rupee; for gram, 42 lbs. per rupee; for oil-seeds, 38 lbs.
per rupee; for tobacco, 8 lbs. per rupee; for rice, 22 lbs. per rupee;
for Jodr, 82 lbs. per rupee. Plough -bullocks cost £^ 6s. each;
buffaloes, £4: sheep, 4s. 6d. to 5s. each. The rate of wages for
skilled labour is is. 3d. a day; for unskilled labour, 4d.

Natural Calamities. — Famines have not unfrequently visited the
tract of which Buldana District forms part. In 1803, a great famine
occurred, from which Mehkar suffered very severely. Drought and
blight affect the crops, and unseasonable rain when the spring crops
are standing is sometimes very injurious.

Manufactures and Trade.— Coarse cotton cloth is commonly woven.
Before the introduction of Manchester piece-goods and the high price
of cotton, Mehkar was famous for its dhotis, or body cloths. In
1880-81, the number of workers in silk was returned at 82 ; in cotton,
2779; in wool, 427; in wood, 845; in iron, 646; and 133 in brass
and copper; miscellaneous, 913. Steel of fair quality is forged at
Deulghat. Weekly markets, some of them very large, are held in
several towns and villages. The chief imports are— piece-goods, hard-
ware, metals, spices, salt ; exports— cotton, wheat, oil-seeds, and cattle.
The 'District is rich in wheat, and its chief market for this staple is
Nandura, a station of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway. The
principal fairs and bdzdrs are held at Deulgaon Raja, Mehkar,
Fatehkhedla, Chikhli, Dongaon, Selgaon, Mhusla, Janephal, Lonar,
Deulghat, Nandura, and Malkapur.

Roads and Railways.— There are in Buldana 259 miles of made
roads, first, second, and third class. The G. I. P. Railway passes
through the north portion of the District, from west to east, for 29
miles, & having stations at Malkapur, Biswa Bridge, and Nandura. There
are serais or rest-houses for native travellers at these stations, and rest-
houses for Europeans at Malkapur and Nandura.

Administration.— The District is administered by a Deputy Com-
missioner, with whom are associated Assistants, European and native.
An Assistant Commissioner holds his court at Malkapur. There are
3 revenue sub -divisions. The police are under the control of a
European District Superintendent; the sanctioned strength of the
force in 1880-81 was 75 officers and 374 men, or 1 policeman to every
6 square miles of area. There is one receiving jail ; total daily average
of inmates in 1881, 55-61. Cost per head yearly, £S, 7 s. 6d. on average
strength. The proportion of Muhammadan convicts to Muhammadans
in the District is more than double that of any other class-a tact which
may be attributable to their forming a larger proportionate number of
the town population. The number of schools aided and inspected by
Government, and of Government schools (including 3 girls' schools),



148 BULSAR.

in the same year was 122, having 5546 scholars. The Central Book
Depot of the Province supplies works in Marathi, English, Sanskrit,
Persian, and Urdu. The vernacular tongues are Marathi and Urdu.
No newspaper is printed in the District; and no municipality under
Act iv. of 1873 nas y et Deen constituted.

Meteorological and Medical Aspects. — In the north portion of the
District, strong and very hot westerly winds prevail from the middle of
February till rain falls early in June, and, excepting just about daybreak,
they continue throughout the twenty-four hours. In the rainy season,
and from October to February, the mornings and nights are pleasantly
cool, but the heat in the day is still great. In the Balaghat or south
portion of the District, the hot weather is not excessive; the temperature
of the rainy season is pleasant ; and the cold weather of about three
months is most enjoyable, but the great dryness of the air at that time
is trying to some constitutions. Highest shade temperature at Buldana
in May (1880), 106 F. ; lowest in December, 54 . The rainfall in
1880 was 29-17 inches, of which 25-14 inches fell from June to
September. The principal diseases are fevers, bowel complaints,
worms, and affections of the skin and eyes. The number of deaths
registered in 1880 from ail causes was 8855, of which number 22 were
killed by snake-bite and wild animals. Ratio of reported deaths per
1000 of population, 20-1. The number of births registered in 1880
^' a s 15,455; ratio per 1000 of population, 35-1. In 1880-81, 7 dis-
pensaries and 1 civil hospital afforded medical relief to 24,279 patients ;
and the number of persons vaccinated by the vaccine department, and
at the dispensaries, was 13,356. [For further information regarding
Buldana, see the Berdr Gazetteer, edited by Sir A. C. Lyall (Bombav,
1870). Also the Census Reports of 1881; and the Administration
Reports for the Haidardbdd Assigned Districts from 1880 to 1883 ]

Bulsar.-Sub-division of Surat District, Bombay Presidency. Area,
208 square miles, One town and 94 villages; occupied houses, 16,214.
Population (1881) 80,707, namely, Hindus, 57,087; Muhammadans,
3784; others 19.836. Land revenue (1874-75), ^24,346. There
are no alienated villages in this Sub-division. The whole surface is
irregular, seamed with river beds, and rising into rocky uplands,
bituated on the sea-coast, the climate is considered healthy at all times
ol the year, but the eastern parts are feverish at certain seasons.
liTHAL, a village on the coast, is much resorted to as a sanitarium
by visitors from Bombay. The Sub-division is abundantly watered
by rivers and streams. Of the salt marsh lands, extending over about

Is 2 se 5 ,L a nT eS ; J ?' 66 1 - aCreS are Under recl amation. The rates of
a se sm ent lntroduced m ^^ ^^ ^ ^ ^

itteT" C ° nt T " CiYil and 2 Criminal Courts ' stren g" h ^ 'egnlar
police, 37 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 523.



B ULSAR—B UMA WADI. 1 49

Bulsar (Balsdr, Walsdd, VaIsiic{).—Voxt and town in Surat District,
Bombay Presidency; situated in lat 20 36' 30" n., long. 72° 58' 40" E.,
about 40 miles south of Surat and 115 north of Bombay, on the estuary
of the navigable though small river Auranga ; station on the railway
between Surat and Bombay. Population (1881) 13,229, of whom
8927 are Hindus, 2454 Musalmans, 870 Parsis, 219 Jains, and 48
Christians. Of the Musalmans, the greater number are Tais, or con-
verted Hindus ; they are engaged chiefly in cloth-weaving, and are as a
rule well-to-do. Municipal income in 1880-81, ^1220, or 2s. ijd. per
head of the total population ; municipal expenditure in the same year,
£1 154. Bulsar is well placed for trade both by sea and by land. The
total value of its coast trade, exclusive of Government stores, in
1880-81 was ^83,810, of which ^61,859 represented the value of
exports, and ,£22,196 that of imports. Chief imports-piece-goods
tobacco, wheat, fish, and sugar; exports-timber, grain, molasses, oil,
firewood, and tiles. Export of timber is the staple of Bulsar trade.
The wood brought from the Dang forests is exported by sea to Dholera,
Bhaunagar, and the other ports of Kathiawar. There are manufactures
of cloth for wearing apparel and for sails, silks for women's robes, and
bricks, tiles, and pottery. Besides the ordinary sub-divisional revenue
and police offices, the town has a subordinate judge's court, post-office,
and dispensary.

Bulti (BdlHsidn or Iskardo).-The name given to the tract of country
forming the northern part of Kashmir (Cashmere), and lying between
lat. 34 ° and 36° n., and between long. 75° and 7 9° * Formerly an
independent State, but it was some years ago subjugated by the
Maharaja of Kashmir, who annexed it to his own dominions.

Bul-Tul (or Kantal; also called Shur-ji-ld).-K pass over the range
of mountains bounding the Kashmir valley on the north-east. Lat.
2A° 14 N long. 7S° 33' e. Forms the water-summit between Kashmir
Cashmere) and little Tibet, the Drds river (by which name : the pass
is also sometimes known) flowing from its northern declivity to the



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