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Indus, while from its southern slopes runs a feeder of the Sind river, a
tributary of the Jhelum (Jehlam) river; elevation above sea-level,

"Btoawadi (^^W^-Township in Taung-ngu District Ten-
asserim Division, British Burma; situated on the , ldk bank of the
Sittaung river, and extending north from Shwe-gyin Distnc t to he
Thit-nan-tha. The country is level and cultivated along *MM»
bank; but in the interior to the east it is ^^T^^^
with forests of teak and other valuable timber Ihe ch lakes are
Inwon and Zindon, both in the south-west of the township PopJ
tion (1881) 13,182. Gross revenue (18S1) ^2092, of which £s
was land revenue, and ^893 capitation tax.



T 5 o B UND—B UNDELKHAND.

Bund.— Town in Dadri ta/isil, Jind State, Punjab. Population (1881)
3884, namely, Hindus, 3569; and Muhammadans, 315; number of
occupied houses, 674.

Bundala.— Town in Amritsar tahsil, Amritsar District, Punjab. Lat.
31 32' n., long. 75° 1' 30" E. ; population (1881) 5101, namely,
2192 Sikhs, 1408 Muhammadans, and 1501 Hindus; number of
occupied houses, 509. Distant from Amritsar city, 9 miles south-east.
Of little commercial importance ; chiefly noticeable for its large Sikh
population.

Bundare. — Village in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency.
This is one of the chief Kandh villages, and was formerly a stronghold
of the practice of human sacrifice known as Meriah or Junna. The
ceremony, as performed at Bundare up to 1849, consisted in the
sacrifice of three human beings, — two to the sun, in the east and west
of the village, and one in the centre. A short wooden post having
been fixed in the ground, the victim was fastened to it by his long hair,
and held out by his legs and arms over a grave dug at the foot of the
post. While in this position, the priest hacked the back of the victim's
neck with the sacrificial knife, repeating as he did so the following
invocation : — ' O mighty Maniksoro, this is your festal day ! The
sacrifice we now offer, you must eat ; and we pray that our battle-axes
may be converted into swords, our bows and arrows into gunpowder
and bullets ; and if we have any quarrels with other tribes, give us the
victory. Preserve us from the tyranny of kings and their officers.'
Then addressing the victim : ' That we may enjoy prosperity, we offer
you as a sacrifice to our god Maniksoro, who will immediately eat you ;
so be not grieved at our slaying you. Your parents were aware, when
we purchased you from them for 60 rupees, that we did so with intent
to sacrifice you ; there is therefore no sin on our heads, but on your
parents. After you are dead we shall perform your obsequies.' The
victim was then decapitated, the body thrown into the grave, and the
head left suspended from the post till devoured by birds. The knife
remained fixed to the post till all three sacrifices were performed, when
it was removed with much ceremony.

Bundelkhand. — Tract of country in Upper India, which may be
defined as lying between the river Jumna (Jamuna) on the north, the
Chambal on the north and west, the Jabalpur (Jubbulpore) and Sagar
(Saugor) Divisions of the Central Provinces on the south, and Rewa or
Baghelkhand and the Mirzapur Hills on the south and east. Its limits
stretch from 23 52' to 26 26' n. lat., and from 77 53' to 8i° 39' e. long.
It comprises the British Districts of Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi, Lalitpur,
and Banda ; the treaty States of Orchha (or Tehri), Datia, and Samthar ;
and the following States held under sanads and grants from the British
Government :— Ajaigarh, Alipura ; the Hashtbhaya Jdgirs of Dhurwai,



B UNDELKHAND. ' r '

Blina Tori-Fatehpur, and Pahari Binka; Baraunda, Baoni, Beri, 1
Biawar.Charkhdri; the Kdlinjar Chaubis, viz. Paldeo, Pahra /lara,,,,,
Bhdisaunda, and Kamta-Rajaula; Chhattarpur, Garrauli, Gaunhar lav
Jjj Khaniddhana, Lughasi, Naigawan, Ribdi, Panna, Belhan, and
Sarila,— all of which see separately.

/feiferf AA^ - The Plains of Bundelkhand are diversified by a
series of mountains and hills, classed by Franklin » his Mmmr on the
Geology of Bundelkhand, in three ranges-the Bindachal, the Panna and
the Bandair. The first of these, which nowhere exceeds 2 ooo feet above
a-level, commences near Sihonda on the river Smdh proceeds south-
west to Narwar, thence south-east and afterwards north-west to Aja.garh
and Kahnjar, and farther east to Bardarh near the railway between
abalpur ( Juobulpore) and Allahabad. The plateau which ,es behind
his range average's xo or M miles in width. The base ■ « Hower p£
of the hills are of primary formation, chiefly granite and syen te
commonly overlaid by sandstone, but in many cases by tra and fo -
.nations of volcanic origin. The second range, styled th ^ ann ™ e '
rises to the south of the plateau just described. 1 he summit is a table
n ."lightly undulatingfwith a breadth of about xo miles, and Jiavmg
an average elevation above the sea, between .the s Katra Pass and
1 ohdr«don of 1050 feet, and between Lohargdon and the foot ot the
^stTpatbarik of about I2 oo fee, Where deep ravines a low
examination of the formation, the primary rocks are found I to ,*
covered by an enormously thick bed * ""^^J^E
some places overlaid by rocks of volcanic origin. South-west oi this
ksT range and separated from it by the valley or elongated basin of
Sh%loni"tbe "bird or Bandair range, the plateau ^f which has an
average elevation of about 1700 feet above the sea, and on some of the
undufations as much as 2 ooo. The Bandair range tsenera 1
sandstone mixed with ferruginous gravel. The extensweD The
Lohargdon intervening between these ranges is of hrnestone. ine

towards the Jumna; among which are the Smdh w, th M* t nbu a^
Pahu j ,theBetwd,theDhasan,theBirma,t eker ,, he ^^.^
and the Tons. All these flow in a general J***"*^ ^ tho

only one of them useful **>^ *££%££ tf 60 miles.

rainy season only, is navigable as far as Banda a ^distanc
Notwithstanding the numerous streams which tr averse Ae CO
the great depth of the channels in the plains, and the thirsty



, 52 BUNDELKHAND.

the soil among the hills, render irrigation highly important ; and to
supply means for it, a great number of jhils, or small lakes, have been
constructed by embanking the lower extremities of valleys.

The mineral resources of Bundelkhand appear very great. Diamonds
are found in Panna, but the yield is small and precarious. In the
central tracts there is excellent iron, but at present its production is
limited by the supply of charcoal, and even now the jungles in the
iron Districts are cleared off faster than they can be renewed. When
science has taught how the metal can be extracted with sufficient
economy of fuel, Bundelkhand iron and steel will doubtless find a
market far beyond the present limits of Gwalior, Hathras, Lucknow,
and Cawnpur. A small copper mine has been recently worked in
Lalitpur.

Population. — The British Districts of Bundelkhand are within the
jurisdiction of the Lieutenant-Governor of the North-Western Provinces.
The political superintendence of the Native States is vested in the
Bundelkhand Agency, subordinate to the Central India Agency, report-
ing to the Government of India. Of the 31 Native States within the
Agency, only three, namely, Orchha or Tehri, Datia, and Samthar,
have formal treaties with the British Government. The other chiefs
hold their territories under sanads, and are bound by ikrarndmds, or
deeds of fealty and obedience. The table on the opposite page exhibits
in brief the area and population of each District and State, but fuller
details will be found in the separate articles.

Agriculture. — Except where hill or jungle predominate, as in several
of the Native States, the Province is almost solely agricultural. Much
of the soil in the Native States is very poor, being chiefly on the
hill ranges mentioned above ; but the soil of the plains consists
mostly of the ' black cotton soil,' which, notwithstanding its dried
appearance in hot weather, has the peculiar property of retaining
moisture to a marked degree, and yields in favourable seasons luxuriant
crops of cotton and cereals. The principal crops are — al (Morinda
citrifolia), which yields the dye used in colouring the reddish-brown
cloths known as kharud ; jodr (Sorghum vulgare), bdjrd (Penicillaria
spicata) ; til (Sesamum orientale) ; and the millets and pulses known as
kangni, kutki, sdmdn, ar/iar, moth, mash, masi'iri, khesari, etc. The
singhdra, or water-caltrop, is largely grown in Hamfrpur ; and through-
out Bundelkhand, the mahud tree (Bassia latifolia) is cultivated for its
flowers and fruit as well as for its timber.

In Orchha, and throughout the greater part of the whole country,
the prevailing plan of land settlement is the native system— under which
the State, while recognising in every village a head-man with certain
advantages, yet keeps the property of the soil in its own hands, acts as

[Sentence continued on p. 154.



BL'NDELKIIAM\






Area, Population, etc. of each District and Stati in

BUNDELKHAND, IN l88l.



British Districts.



-




N umber


Number


Total
aopulation.






Average


District or State.


square


of towns
and


of. 1
occupied


Males.


Females. density
per square






villages.


houses. |








mile.


Hanu'rpur, . .


2,288


755


83.544


507.337


259,778


247.559


221 - 6


lalaun, . .


1,469


857


66,734


418,142


216,141;


201,997


284'5


Jhansi, . . .
Lalitpur, . .

Ban da, . . .


i.5 6 7


62 c;


54,404


333.227


172,884


160,343


2I2'6


1,947


670


34,181


249,088


129,799


119,289


I27-9

221*6


3,061


1 166


123,393


698,608


354.377


344.231


Total, . . .


10,332


4073 i


362,256


2,206,402


1,132,983


1,073,419


2i3'5








Native States.








*Orchha (Tehri),
Datia, . . .


2,015
837


677
454


56-139
29,396


3".5*4

182,598


162,611
96,298


148,903
86,300


161*7
218*3


Samthar, . .


174

+


88

t


7- I 3 I

t


38.633
1.598


20,403
808


18,230
790


t

t
t


Bijna, . . .

Tori-Fatehpur,


f


t


t


2,084


1,096


988


t


t


t


10,631


5.299


5.332


Ajaigarh, . .
Alipura, . .
Patiari-Banka,


802

69
4


3 2 3
26

1


14,076

2,312

216


8i,454

14.891

1,049


42,409

7.929

520


39,045
6,962

529


101 5
214-4
226 "O


Baraunda, . .


238
117


66

5 2


3-3 2 °
2,970


17.283
17.055


8,821
8,688


8,462
8,367


7 2 '5
146


Beri, ....


28


5


738


4.98s


2,599


2,386


179-0
358-5
106-3
181 6


Bihat, . . .


13

973
787


8


632


4.704


2,294


2,410


Bijawar, . .
Charkhari, . .


298

287


21,877
24.259


113.285
143. OI 5


60,356
74.448


52,929
68,567


Paldeo, . . .








8,824


4.521


4,303


\


Pahra, . . .
Taraon, . . .


\ 15°


62


4.132K


4,016

3.163


2,009
1,635


2,007
1,528


> i44 - 3


Bhaisaunda, .


\

1,169+

2 5




\


4.073


2,079

858

86,148

2,584


1-994

685

78,221

2.392


)


Kamta-Rajaula
Chhattarpur, .


3*5+

16


27, 603 %

9 X 3


i.543

164,369

4.976


i43'4
199-0


Gaurihar, . .

Jaso

Jigni, . . .
Khaniadhana,
Ribai, . . .
Lughasi, . .
Panna, . . .
Belhari, . . .
Sarila, . . .


73
75
21

§

7

47
2,568

II
35


14

57
6

4

12

868

II
10


1.903
1.775

§

483
93 6
45.4H
II
864

247,559


10,691
8,050
3.427
13.494
3.365
6,i59
227,306

3-33 1

5.014


5.577
4,022

1,675
7,089

1,75'
3» I 94

118,3.19
1,829
2,500


5. "4

4,028

1.752
6,405
1,614

2,965

108,957

1,502

2,5 J 4


14/
1075
1657

§

442-7

1305

88-5

II
1411


Total States,


1 10,227


3 6 49


1,416,580


| 74o,399


676,181


138-5


Grand Total,


20,559


7722


609,815


3,622,982


1,873.382


1,749,600


176*3



* Area, towns, and number of houses include those for Tori-Fatehpur, Dhurwai, and

Bijna. .

f Area, towns, and houses included in the figures for Orchha.
t Figures include the area, villages, and houses for Belhari.
§ Figures included in the Census with those for Gwahor.
II Area, villages, and houses included in the figures for Orchha.



j 5 4 B UNDELKHAND.

Sentence continued from p. 152.]

banker and seed-lender for the cultivators, and generally fixes its
demand for revenue in proportion to produce or area cultivated. The
railway from Jabalpur to Allahabad now creates a demand for various
local products for about 100 miles from the line, and through its means,
connections with the Bombay trade are springing up ; when the
connecting country roads are completed, much improvement may be
expected. The climate in the plains is frequently sultry, and the heat
is great. The prevailing wind from October to May is south-west, that
is, up the Gangetic valley ; during the other months the wind frequently
comes down the valley.

At Novvgong a British garrison is stationed, consisting of 1 battery of
artillery, 2 companies of British infantry, 3 troops of Native cavalry,
and the head-quarters and wing of a Native infantry regiment. The
Bundelkhand Rajkiimar College is established near Nowgong for the
education of the sons of chiefs ; in 1881, seventeen youths of noble
family were being educated there.

Historw — According to local tradition, the Gonds were the earliest
colonists of Bundelkhand. To them succeeded the Chandel Rajputs,
under whose supremacy the great irrigation works of Hamirpur District,
the forts of Kalinjar and Ajaigarh, and the noble temples of Kha-
jurahu and Mahoba, were constructed. The whole Province contains
ruins, large tanks, and magnificent temples, built chiefly of hewn granite
and carved sandstone, which are supposed to date back to this epoch.
Ferishta relates that in the year 102 1 a.d., the Chandel Raja marched
at the head of 36,000 horse, 45,000 foot, and 640 elephants, to oppose
Mahmiid of Ghazni, whom, however, he was obliged to conciliate with
rich presents. In the year 1183, Parmal Deo, the twentieth ruler in
succession from Chandra Varma, the founder of the dynasty, was de-
feated by Prithwi Raja, ruler of Ajmere and Delhi. After the overthrow
of Parmal Deo, the country was exposed to anarchy and to Muham-
madan invasions until the close of the 14th century, when the Bundelas,
a sub-division of the Garhwa tribe of Rajputs, established themselves
on the right bank of the Jumna. They appear to have settled first at
Mau, and then, after taking Kalinjar and Kalpi, to have made Mahoni
their capital. About 1531, Raja Rudra Pratap founded the city of
Orchha, and greatly consolidated and extended the kingdom. The
Bundelas became the most powerful among the tribes west of the
Jumna ; and from this time the name of Bundelkhand may with justice
be given to the whole tract of country. Shortly afterwards, the power of
the Muhammadans began to grow threatening ; and Bir Singh Deo, the
great-grandson of the founder of Orchha, was compelled to acknow-
ledge himself a vassal of the Mughal Empire. Champat Rai, however,
another chief of the Bundela tribe, held out in the rugged countries



B UNDELKHAND. 1 5 5

bordering on the Betwa, and harassed the Muhammadans by his rapid

predatory forays.

The son of Champat Rai, Chattar Sal, continued his fathers
career with greater eventual success; and, being elected principal
leader and chief of the Bundelas, commenced operations by the
reduction of the forts in the hills towards Panna. He wasted the
country held by his enemies in every direction, and avoiding a general
action, managed by ambuscades, aided by his intimate knowledge of
the country, to cut off or elude the imperial troops. He captured
Kalinjar, and, making that his stronghold, acquired authority over
territory yielding nearly a million sterling per annum. In 1734, how-
ever, he was so hard pressed by Ahmad Khan Bangash, the Pathan
chief of Farukhabad, that he was forced to seek aid from the Marathas.
The Peshwa, Baji Rao, promptly embraced this opportunity of estab-
lishing his ascendancy in Bundelkhand ; he surprised and defeated
Ahmad Khan, and rescued the Bundela Raja from his perilous position.
He was rewarded bv a fort and District in the neighbourhood of
Jhansi, and by a grant of the third part of Eastern Bundelkhand.
The Peshwa made over his portion, subject to a moderate tribute, to a
Brahman called Kdsi Pandit, whose descendants held it until it lapsed
to the East India Company. About the same time, Jhansi was wrested
bv the Peshwa from the Raja of Orchha, and entrusted to a subdhjdr,
whose descendants retained it till a recent date. The two remaining
shares of the possessions of Chattar Sal continued to be held in small
portions by his numerous descendants, or by the nominal adherents and
rebellious servants of the declining branches of the family.

The anarchy and petty wars thus ensuing made an opening for Ah
Bahadur (a grandson of Baji Rao by a Muhammadan concubine), who
had quarrelled with Madhuji Sindhia, whose troops he had formerly led.
After a long and severe contest, he succeeded in establishing his authority
over the greater part of the Province. The chief resistance he met
with was at Kalinjar, at the siege of which place he died in 1802
after having concluded an arrangement with the Court of Poona (1 una),
by which the sovereign and paramount right of the Peshwa over all his
conquests in Bundelkhand was declared and acknowledged ka.a
Himmat Bahadur, the spiritual head and military commander ot a
large body of devotees, who had great influence in the District, pro-
fessed at first his intention of supporting the right of Shamsher Bahadur,
the son of Ali Bahadur, who happened to be absent m Poona at
the time of his father's death. .

About this time the declared hostility of the subordinate chiefs of the
Maratha Empire to the arrangements of the treaty of Bassem-by which,
among other advantages, the British Government acquired territory u
Bundelkhand yielding ,£361,600 a year-occasioned a formal declaration



156 BUNDELKHAND.

on the part of the British Government of their intention of maintaining the
provisions of that treaty ; and this declaration was immediately followed
by offensive operations on the part of Sindhia and the Raja of Berar, and
equally hostilj, though more secret, measures of aggression on the part
of Holkar. Part of the Maratha plan of operations was a predatory
incursion into British territory from Bundelkhand, to be headed by
Shamsher Bahadur. Raja Himmat Bahadur, foreseeing in the success
of this scheme a diminution of his own authority in Bundelkhand, deter-
mined to abandon the Maratha interest, and to seek his own personal
aggrandizement by assisting in the transfer of the Province to the
British. An agreement was consequently made, by which the Raja
was granted a tract of territory yielding 20 lakhs of rupees (say
^£200,000) for the maintenance of a body of troops in the service of
the British Government, as well as a jdgir in consideration of his
co-operation in the establishment of British authority in Bundelkhand.
The British Government were thus enabled easily to bring a force into
Bundelkhand for the decision of the contest, while Himmat Bahadur
received territory more than double the area of his original possessions.
These lands were resumed on his death, and Jagirs and pensions assigned
to his family. Shamsher Bahadur was quickly defeated by a force
under Col. Powell, assisted by the troops of Himmat Bahadur • and he
was content to accept a provision of 4 Idkhs of rupees (say ^40,000) a
year from the British Government, with permission to reside at Banda.
On his death in 1823, he was succeeded by his brother Zulfika> Ali.

To him succeeded All Bahadur, who joined in the rebellion of
1857, and was therefore deprived of the pension of 4 lakhs a year
and placed under surveillance at Indore. He died in 1873 and
pensions amounting to ^120 were assigned to the family. Of the
territory ceded by the Peshwa, the British Government retained in its
own possession lands on the banks of the Jumna, yielding about 14
lakhs of rupees (^140,000), exclusive of the territory granted to
Himmat Bahadur. On the extinction of the Peshwa s independence
m 181 8, all his sovereign rights in Bundelkhand finally passed to the
British. Of the Bundelkhand States, Jalaun, Jhansi, Jaitpur, and Khaddi
have lapsed to the Government; and Chirgaon (one of the Hasht-
^Jdgirs), Purwa, one of the Kalinjar Chaubis (or shares held in the
fj7 1^ ^ representatives of the Chaubi family), Bijeraghogarh,
and Tiroha have been confiscated. The States of Shahgarh and I Banpur
-ere also confiscated on account of the rebellion of the chiefs in 1857.
conZZTl ,r? ^^ M ***** P art of the Chanderi district
dn^d h /, . GWali ° r DarMr in l8 3'« Th ^ claim was not
rmnlemem, T ?"**' has been ™*de over to Sindhia under

ToTfeZT C0 ~f/ lth the trea ^ of l86 °- [For further informa-
tion regarding Bundelkhand, see the Gazetteer of the North- Western



BUNDL 157

Trainees, vol. i., by E. T. Atkinson, Esq., C.S . B.A. (Allahabdd, i ;
Also the Settlement Reports for Jhdnsi, J&laun, Ldfitpur, and Hamirpur

'Districts]

Biindi (Boondee).— Native State of Rajputana, under the political

superintendence of the Haraoti and Tonk Agency, subordinate to the
A^ent to the Governor-General of India for the States of Rajputana.
The State lies between 24 59' 50" and 25 59' 30" x. latitude, and -
18' and 76 21' 35" e. longitude, and is bounded on the north by the
States of Jaipur and Tonk, on the east and south by Kotah, and on
the west by Udaipur (Oodeypore). Area, 2300 square miles. Length
70 miles, and breadth about 43 miles. Population in 1881, 254,701, or
no-8 per square mile. Revenue, ,£60,000.

The territory of Biindi may be roughly described as an irregular
rhombus, traversed throughout its whole length from south-west to
north-east by a double range of hills, constituting the central Biindi
ran.e, dividing the country into two almost equal portions. On the
south,' the river Chambal forms, for very nearly the whole distance, the
natural boundary between Biindi and Kotah. For many miles the
precipitous scarp on the southern face of this central range forms an
almost impassable barrier between the plain country on either side.
In the centre of the range, commanding the pass through which runs
the only high road from north to south, lies the chief town of the
State, Biindi. The highest elevation of the range is 1793 feet, while
the height of the capital is 1426 feet above the sea, and above the low-
land below it is about 600 feet. Besides the Biindi pass, the only
other gaps through this range are one between Jainwas and Biindi,
through which the direct road from Tonk passes; and another between
Ramgarh and Khatgarh, where the Mej river has cut a channel for
itself from the northern to the southern side. The northern plain lies
exclusively upon a bed of slate, shale, and clay slate ; while the southern
is rich in alluvial soil. These peculiarities of surface give a totally
opposite character to the river-beds of the two basins.

Beyond the northern boundary of Biindi proper, are several outlying
portions of territory belonging to the State. The largest is that ot
which Garh is the chief town. Large tracts of the State are woodland,
consisting chiefly of sdl, from which a gum exudes which is bartered,
weight for weight, against flour, by the Bhfls and others. A fine
tree growing near streams is the mulkarai, which attains a great height,
perfectly straight throughout, with a diameter of from 12 to 15 inch,.,
prettily grained, and well adapted for neat furniture.

Almost the only drainage channel of Biindi is the Mej river,
which rises in the Meywar territory at an elevation of about 1700
feet above sea-level. It enters the State near the village o Na^r, and
after a course of 92 miles within it, falls into the Chambal. 1 he Mej



158 BUNDI.

ii



rrigates both the northern and southern basins ; its chief tributary in
the former is the Bajawas, or Bajaen ; in the latter, the Kural. The
length of the Bajaen is about 35 miles. The Kural, lying for its
whole length in the rich alluvial soil of south-eastern Biindi, has
numerous villages along its banks. There are no natural lakes in
Biindi; the two largest sheets of water, artificially enclosed, are at
Dugari and Hindoli. The history of the Biindi State is the history, so
far as it can be extracted from chronicles and genealogies, of the family
of the ruling chief, and of the fortunes of his clan in settling themselves



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 19 of 56)