William Wilson Hunter.

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in this part of India. The chiefs belong to the Hara sept of the great
clan of the Chauhan Rajputs, and the country occupied by them for
many centuries is called Haraoti. The first Maharao Raja with whom
the British Government had any intercourse was Umed Singh, who
gave most efficient assistance to Colonel Monson's army during his
retreat before Holkar in 1804, bringing down on himself the vengeance
of Holkar in consequence.

From that time up to 1817, the' Marathas and Pindans con-
stantly ravaged the State, exacting tribute and assuming supremacy.
The territory of Biindi was so situated as to be of great importance
during the war of 1817, in cutting off the retreat of the Pindans.
The Maharao Raja of the time, Bithir Singh, early accepted the
British alliance, and a treaty was concluded with him on the 10th
of February 1818. Although his forces were inconsiderable, he
co-operated heartily with the British Government; and he was
rewarded by a part of Patan-Keshorai, Holkar's rights over this
territory being commuted into an annual payment of ^3000, made by
the British Government to him. In 1844, Sindhia transferred his two-
thirds share of Patan-Keshorai to the British, as part of the territory
ceded in trust for the support of the Gwalior Contingent; and an
agreement was made by which it was handed over to Biindi on payment
of ^8000 a year. The Maharao Raja proving uncertain during the
Mutiny of 1857, friendly intercourse with him was broken off, and not
resumed till i860. The position of Biindi is now that of a Protected
State, acknowledging the supremacy of the British Government The
chief is absolute ruler in his own territory, pays a tribute of ^'12,000
to the British Government, and receives a salute of 17 gunt The
m^ary force of the State consists of 59 o horse, 2282 infantry, z8
field and 7 o other guns. The chief bears the title of Maharao RajX
The Census of 1881 gave a total population for Bundi of 254,701,

60,565 houses in 2 towns and 840 villages, or an average of 4-20 persons
in each house By religion, Hindus numbered 242,107; M™
madans, 9477; Jains, 3101 ; Sikhs, 9 ; and Christians 7 Accord n"
to castes and sects, Brahmans were returned at 23,025 Rajputs, 9274 ;



BUND I. 159

Baniyas, 15,406; Gujars, 30,377 ; Jats, 2881; Alms. 1310 \ Mfe
35,982; Bhils, 6554; Chamars, 19,278; Dhakurs, 7103; other Hindu
castes, 94,018.

The total revenue of Biindi State is estimated at ^101,400, of which
about ,£85,000 is derived from the land. The assignments, allotments,
and endowments diminish by about ^35>°°° the land revenue demand
of the treasury, leaving the effective income of the State at about
,£66,400, of which about ^6400 comes from customs. For .purposes
of administration the State is divided into 10 pargands, viz. Barodia,
Bansi, Nainwah, Tamaidi, Karwar, Lakheri, Ganidoli, Keshorai-Patan,
Loecha, and Sillor. These again are sub-divided into 22 taluks, each
presided over by an officer called a tdlukddr, who exercises revenue,
criminal, and civil jurisdiction within his limits. There are no police
or police stations in the State. Sanitary arrangements are not con-
sidered in any of the towns or villages. The chief crops are Jodr,
maize, barley, wheat, and other grains, pulses of various kinds, sugar-
cane, oil-seeds, cotton, rice, indigo, tobacco, opium, and betel-leaf.
The cultivated area and cultivable land cannot be given exactly, as it
varies greatly each year ; it may be approximately put down^ at
1,000,000 acres. Each village has apdtel, a chaukiddr, and zpatwdri.
' The main road through the State is from Deoli Cantonment, through
the Maidak Dara pass, towards Kotah and Jhalawar. The road from
Tonk to Deoli, through the Ganesho Ghati pass, crosses the north-
eastern corner of the State. Over the rest of the country there are
mere tracks, which serve the purpose of local traffic. [For further
information regarding Biindi State, see the Rdjputdna Gazetteer, vol. 1.
pp. 203-241 (Calcutta, 1879).]

Biindi —Chief town of the State of Biindi, in Rajputana, and the
residence of the chief. Situated in a gorge in the centre of the range
of hills passing through the State. Lat. 25 27' n., long. 75° 40' 37' *•
Population (1881) 20,744, namely, Hindus, 16,351; Muhammadans,
4377 ; ' others,' 16. Next to Udaipur (Oodeypore), the town of Bundi
is the most picturesque in Rajputana. Built upon the steep side
of the hill, the palace rising up above the city itself in pinnacled
terraces, is a striking feature of the place. The streets and houses rise
and fall with the unevenness of the ground, and some of the suburbs
have crept upwards on both the northern slopes. Below the palace is
a large range of stable yards and other offices, above which rise the
reception courts and halls of audience ; over these again are ranged the
more private chambers and receiving rooms of the Court. Higher
still rise the crenelated battlements and columned chhatrls surmounting
still more private apartments, and finally a stone causeway cads
upwards to the summit of the ridge, where the main tort and the chict S
most secluded recesses are situated.



T 6o B UNERA—B UN-MA IV.

The city is entirely enclosed within walled fortifications, through
which ingress and egress are obtained by means of four gateways, viz.
the Mahal gate on the west, the Chdogan gate on the south, the Mink
gate on the east, and the Jdt Sdgar gate on the north-east. One
tolerably regular street, nearly 50 feet in width, runs throughout the
whole length of the city from the palace to the Mfna gate. The other
streets are all narrow and very irregular. One large temple on the fort
hill, another in the southern suburb, 12 Jain temples, and about 415
smaller temples and shrines sacred to Vishnu and Mahadeo, are
scattered about the town. There are four approaches to the fort, a
private one from the palace, one from the Ghati gate near the Sukh
Mahal, one from Birkhandi, and one from Phiil-Bagh. A spur of the
fort hill is surmounted by a large and very handsome chhatri called the
Suraj\ or Sun Dome, whose cupola rests on 16 pillars, and is about
20 feet in diameter; beyond this, to the northward, lies the Phiil-Bagh,
and to the south again of this, about two miles from the city, the Naya-
Bagh, both private places of retirement for the Bundi chiefs. Immedi-
ately to the west of the city rises an abrupt cliff, very nearly as high as
that on which the fort stands, surmounted by a small mosque. To the
south of the city there are a few scattered remains of former pleasure
gardens, with here and there a monumental cenotaph. One large and
very handsome one is dedicated to one of the royal foster-brothers of
Ajit Singh's time. Skirting the northern bank of the Jat Sagar also are
several pleasure-gardens, terminating at the Ser-Bagh or Mahasatti, the
place of cremation for all the Biindi chiefs. There is a charitable
dispensary at Biindi, a mint where gold, silver, and copper pieces are
coined, an English school, several indigenous schools, and a post-office.

Bunera. — Town in Udaipur (Oodeypore) State, Rajputana. Situ-
ated about 90 miles from Udaipur town, on the high road from Nimach
to Nasirabad, distant 85 miles from the former and 59 from the latter.
The Raja of Bunera is one of the chief feudatories of Udaipur, and his
palace is one of the most imposing-looking edifices in the State. The
town contains some 250c houses; is walled, with a fort on the hill, at
an elevation of 1903 feet above sea-level.

Bunhar. — Hill river in Jhelum (Jehlam) District, Punjab. Receives
the whole drainage from the eastern portion of the Dhanni country
north of the Salt Range ; finds its way through a break in the upper or
Diljabba spur, passes on through the Gora Galli Pass between the Tilla
and Garjak Hills, and finally empties itself into the Jhelum river, about
a mile above Darapur. After a heavy fall of rain, the Bunhar becomes
a roaring torrent, impassable for many hours. Its bed below the Gora
Galli stretches upwards of a mile in breadth.

Bun-maw (B/iun-ma7i>, or Bhoo?i-maw). — Celebrated pagoda in
Talaing Thaung-gun village, Tenasserim, British Burma. Built in



BURABALANG—BURHA. 16 .

1 34 1 a.d. by an exiled Pegu prince on a bluff called Kyit-sa-maw,
about 3 miles north-east of Tavoy. It is octagonal in shape, 41 feet
high, and 117 feet in circumference at the base, and still carries a
Talaing-ti.

Burabalang (' Old Twister*).— A river of Orissa ; rises among the
hills of Morbhanj State, in lat. 21 52' 45" N., and long. 86° 30' o" e., and
after receiving two tributaries, the Gangahar and the Sunai, passes
through Balasor District and flows into the sea, in lat. 21 28' 15" n.,
and long. 87 6' o" E. The river takes its name from its snake-like
course. The tide runs up 23 miles. In the upper reaches, the banks
of the river are sandy, steep, and cultivated. In the lower part, they
are of firm mud, covered to high-water mark with black slime, and
bordered by jungle or open grassy plains. The Burabalang is navigable
by brigs, sloops, and sea-going steamers as far as Balasor town, about
16 miles up its winding course. A sandbar across the mouth renders
the entrance difficult for shipping. (See Balasor District.)

Bura Dharla (or Nilkum&r).— Tributary of the Dharla river, in
Rangpur District, Bengal. The name would seem to imply that this
was at one period a channel of the Dharla.

Bura Mantreswar— A name given to the mouth of the Hugli
river, Bengal.

Bura Tista.— The name given to several old channels of the 1 ista

river, Bengal.

Burdu.— Town in Gwalior territory, Central India. Population

(1881) 6841. _ .

Burghiir [Barg&r). - A range of hills in Coimbatore District,
Madras Presidency; average height, 2500 feet above the sea ; highest
point, 5000 feet. Lat. ii" 49 "•■ long. 77° 36' E. In length about
3 o miles, and crossed by the road from Erode to Collegal (Kalhgil).
Little is known of these hills, which are very wild and picturesque.
Game of all kinds abound.

BurgMr (Bargur).— Village in Coimbatore District, Madras Presi-
dency Situated in a depression in the hills to which it gives its name.
Connected with the railway at Erode by a decent road of about 45

miles in length. , - . . _ ,

Burha -Revenue Sub-division or tahsll in Balaghat Distnct .Central
Provinces. Area, 1695 square miles, of which 491 are cultivated,
257 cultivable, and 947 uncultivable ; number of villages 802 ; occu-
pied houses, 54,5°°; population (1881) 266,415. namely, 131,257
males and 135,158 females; average density of population, 157 ,,r
square mile. Amount of land revenue, including cesses, levied from
the landholders, £1 5,434 5 amount of rental paid by the cultivators,
^28,906, or an average of is. tod. per cultivated acre. 1 he admuu-
sTrative staff consists of a Deputy Commissioner and Assistant

VOL. III.



1 6 2 B URHA—B URHANPUR.

Commissioner, tahsilddr, munsif, and 3 honorary magistrates. These
officers preside over 4 civil and 4 criminal courts ; police stations
(thdnds) 4, with 12 outposts; strength of regular police, 120 men;
village watchmen (chaukidars), 681.

Blirha. — Town and administrative head-quarters of Balaghat District,
Central Provinces. Lat. 21 48' 30" n., long. 8o° 14' e. Situated on
a high ridge of micaceous shale, about 10 miles south of the main
range of hills, and 1 mile from the Wdinganga river. Population
(1881) 3573, chiefly agricultural; Hindus, 3377; Muhammadans, 616;
Christians, 34; aboriginal tribes, 106. On the north and west sides
the soil appears well suited for mango cultivation, and large mango
groves shelter the town.

Burhana. — Ta/i si/ and town, Muzaffarnagar District, North-Western
Provinces. — See Budhana.

Burhanpur. — Revenue Sub-division or tahsil in Nimar District,
Central Provinces, lying between 21 4' 15" and 21 37' 15" n. lat., and
between 75 59' 15" and 76 50' e. long. Area, 1138 square miles,
of which 168 are under cultivation, 363 cultivable, and 607 uncultivable ;
number of towns or villages, 130; number of houses, 18,991, of
which 16,583 are occupied, and 2408 unoccupied. Total population
(1881) 77,123, namely, 40,003 males an d 37> I2 o females; average
density, 102 persons per square mile. Amount of Government land
revenue, including cesses, levied from the land-holders, ^7295;
amount of rental paid by the cultivators, ;£i 2,268, or an average of
2S. 2§d. per cultivated acre. The Sub-division contains 3 civil and 2
criminal courts ; strength of regular police, 40.

Burhanpur.— Town in Nimar District, Central Provinces. Lat.
21 18' 33" n., long. 7 6° 16' 26" e. On the north bank of the river
Tapti, about 40 miles south by west from Khandwa, and 2 miles from
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway Station of Lalbagh. Population
(1881) 30,017, namely, males 15,442, and females 14,575. Hindus
numbered 20,991; Kabirpanthis, 62; Satnamis, 30; Muhammadans,
8735; Jains, 195; Jews, 3; aboriginal tribes, 1. Municipal income
in 1880-81, ^5360, of which ^3619 was derived from taxation, at
the rate of 2s. 4fd. per head of the population. It was founded about
1 4 co a, d. by Nasir Khan, the first independent prince of the Farukhi
dynasty of Khandesh, and called by him after the famous Shaikh Bur-
han-ud-din of Daulatabad. Though the rival Muhammadan princes of
the Deccan repeatedly sacked the place, eleven princes of the Farukhi
dynasty held Burhanpur down to the annexation of their kingdom by
the Emperor Akbar in 1600. The earlier Farukhis have left no monu-
ment except a couple of rude minarets in the citadel, called the Badshah
Kila; but the twelfth of the line, Ali Khan, considerably improved the
city, and built the handsome Jama Masjid, still in excellent preserva-



BURHANPUR.

tion. Under Akbar and his successor, Burhanpur was greatly embel-
lished. In the Ain-i-Akbari it is described as a 'large city with many
gardens, in some of which is found sandal-wood ; inhabited by people
of all nations, and abounding with handicraftsmen. In the summer
the town is covered with dust, and during the rains the streets are
full of mud and stone.' Burhanpur formed the seat of government
of the Deccan princes of the Empire till 1635, when Ausangdbad
took its place. After this event, Burhanpur became the capital of
the large subah of Khandesh, usually governed by a prince of the royal
blood.

The transfer had not occurred at the time when Sir Thomas Roe,
Ambassador in 16 14 from James 1. to the Great Mughal, paid his visit
to Prince Parviz, son of Jahangir, the governor, which he thus describes:
'The cutwall, an officer of the king so called, met me well attended,
with sixteen colours carried before him, and conducted me to the
seraglio where I was appointed to lodge. He took his leave at the
gate, which made a handsome front of stone ; but, when in, I had four
chambers allotted to me, like ovens and no bigger, round at the top,
made of bricks in the side of a wall, so that I lay in my tent, the
cutwall making his excuse that it was the best lodging in the town, as I
found it was, all the place being only mud cottages, except the prince's
house, the chan's, and some few others. I was conducted by the cut-
wall to visit the prince, in whose outward court I found about a hundred
gentlemen on horseback waiting to salute him on his coming out. He
sat high in a gallery that went round, with a canopy over him and a
carpet before him. An officer told me as I approached that I must
touch the ground with my head bare, which I refused, and went on to a
place right under him railed in, with an ascent of three steps, where I
made him reverence, and he bowed his body ; so I went within, where
were all the great men of the town, with their hands before them like
slaves. The place was covered overhead with a rich canopy, and under
foot all with carpets. It was like a great stage, and the prince sat
at the upper end of it. Having no place assigned, I stood right
before him ; he refusing to admit me to come up the steps, or to
allow me a chair. Having received my present, he offered to go into
another room, where I should be allowed to sit ; but by the way he
made himself drunk out of a case of bottles I gave him, and so the
visit ended.'

Forty-four years after Sir Thomas Roe's visit, Tavernier described
Burhanpur (or, as he wrote it, Brampour), through which he then
passed for the second time, as 'a great city, very much ruined, the
houses being for the most part thatched with straw.' He adds : ' There
is also a great castle in the midst of the city, where the governor lives.
The government of this Province is a very considerable command, only



l64 BURHANPUR.

conferred upon the son or uncle of the king. There is a great trade
in this city, and as well in Brampour as over all the Province. There
is made a prodigious quantity of calicuts, very clear and white, which
are transported into Persia, Turkey, and Muscovia, Poland, Arabia, to
Grand Cairo, and other places.' The remains of mosques and other
buildings show that, at the height of its prosperity under the Mughals,
Burhanpur extended over an area of about 5 square miles. A skilfully-
constructed system of aqueducts supplied it with abundance of pure
water. Eight sets may still be traced, two of which were channels led
off from running streams, partly under and partly above ground. The
other six consisted of a number of wells, connected by a subterranean
gallery, and so arranged as to intercept the water percolating from the
neighbouring hills. The supply thus obtained passes by a masonry
adit pipe to its destination in the city or suburbs. All these channels,
where they run underground, are furnished at short intervals with tall
hollow columns of masonry rising to the level of the water at the source
of the works, the object of which seems uncertain.

Burhanpur played an important part in the wars of the Empire, par-
ticularly in the reign of Aurangzeb. In 1685, that prince had hardly left
the city with a large army to subjugate the Deccan when the Marathas
took the opportunity to plunder the place. Thirty-four years later, after
repeated battles in the neighbourhood, the demand of the Marathas for
the chanth, or one-fourth of the revenue, was formally conceded. In
1720, Asaf Jah Nizam-ul-Miilk seized the government of the Deccan,
and resided chiefly at Burhanpur, where he died in 1748. By this time
the population of the city had greatly diminished ; and the brick wall
with bastions and nine gateways, erected in 1731, enclosed an area of
little more than \\ square mile. In 1760, after the battle of Udgi,
the Nizam ceded Burhanpur to the Peshwa, who, eighteen years later,
transferred it to Sindhia. In 1803, the city was taken by General
Wellesley ; but it was not until i860 that, in consequence of a territorial
arrangement with Sindhia, Burhanpur came permanently under British
government. In 1849, tne town was the scene of a desperate and
sanguinary affray between Muhammadans and Hindus on the occasion
of a Hindu festival. The chief buildings in Burhanpur are a brick
palace built by Akbar, called the Lai KM, or Red Fort, and the
Jama Masjid, or great mosque, built by Aurangzeb. The Ldl Kild,
though much dilapidated, still contains some fine apartments, and
other relics of imperial magnificence. It was formerly shut off from
the town by a rampart. The muslin, silk, and brocade manufactures
of Burhanpur were once very famous, and still exist. But the city has
long been declining. English fabrics have displaced the 'clear and
white calicuts ' mentioned by Tavernier ; and now the local industry is
confined to the manufacture of fine cotton and silk fabrics, interwoven



BURHAPARA. 165

with the gold-plated silver-thread drawn in the city (the purity of whi. h
is tested by Government inspection), and of such coarser cotton
,-oods as Manchester has failed to supplant But the demand for
the finer fabrics of gold and silk, and for the best qualities of cloth,
has greatly fallen off ever since the luxurious Muhammadan princes
gave place to the rude Marathas. The removal from Burhinpui of
the seat of native government greatly injured the trade of the place ;
and since the construction of the railway, Burhanput has ceased to
be an entrepot for the traffic between Malwa, the Upper Narb
(Nerbudda) valley, and the Deccan. The city has a post-office, and
a travellers' bungalow near the railway station at Lalbagh, a park
2 miles north of the town. An Assistant Commissioner and tahsUddr
reside at Burhanpur.

KirhapAra.— Pargand in Gonda District, Oudh. In shape a rough
equilateral triangle, with its apex to the north ; bounded on the east : by
Basti District in the North-Western Provinces, on the south by Babhm-
pair and on the west by Sadullapur pargand. Originally a portion of
the Kalhans rdj, for history of which see Gonda District Afterwards
conquered by the Pathdn, Ali Khan, who established Utraula, and
whose descendants still hold a fths share of this pargand. 1 he remain-
ing Iths share, which was also held by a Muhammadan of the same
family, was confiscated for disloyalty during the Mutiny, and bestowed
as a reward for good service upon Bhaya Haratan Singh, who is now
the principal tdlukddr. The centre of the pargana is a well-cultivated
plain, thickly inhabited, but with no distinctive natural features beyond
numerous clumps of fine mahud trees, which give a pleasant park-hke
appearance to the landscape. To the north-west and south, the cu -
vated plain is bounded by a belt of forest, abounding in game, but
yielding every year to the axe and the plough. Total .^77*^
miles, or 49,688 acres, of which 30,330 acres are cult.vat ed E .elud-
ing forest, the revenue-yielding tract comprises an area of 30,303 « cres >
of which r8,8 7 7 acres are cultivated. Autumn crops-nce and kodo,
nn crops-wheat, gram, alsi, peas, poppy. Gov = t land
revenue demand, under the 30 years' settlement, is gradn ag-
gressive from ^1756 in i8 7 3"74 to ^2695 at the end of the torn.
Av ge incidence per acre of assessed land (excluding forest gmnts)-
in 1873-74, is. ioA per cultivated acre, or is. lid. per acre of total
rean 1903-04, 2 s.ioW. per cultivated acre, or is. od per acr of
oal'area. 9 Population (rSSi), Hindus 24,5°S, ami ^^St
6631 ; total, 31,196, viz. 15,954 males and 15,242 female* N n here ,
villages 128 The most numerous caste among the Hindus IS to
Briifman the Rajputs being few. The aboriginal 1 W at one mv
the rulers of an extensive kingdom, who have entireh disapp • ml
In other parts, are still found here. They follow a nomadic system o.



1 66 B URHEE—B URIGANGA.

forest cultivation, wandering from jungle to jungle. Their abandoned
clearings are quickly taken possession of by more careful cultivators,
such as Kiirmis and Ahirs. The villages are connected by rough cart
tracks, and the rivers crossed at intervals by fords. Principal export —
rice ; imports — salt and cotton, both raw and manufactured.

Burhee. — Village in Hazaribagh District, Bengal. — See Barhi.

Buri Dining". — River of Assam, which rises among the unexplored
mountains to the extreme east of the Province, and flows generally with
a westerly course into the Brahmaputra. For some distance it forms
the southern frontier of Lakhimpur District, then it crosses that District,
and finally forms the boundary between the Districts of Lakhimpur and
Sibsagar for a few miles above its confluence with the Great River. It
is comparatively useless for purposes of navigation. In the rainy season
its channel becomes so overgrown with grass, etc., as to be with diffi-
culty penetrated by steamers ; while during the rest of the year it
dwindles to a very shallow stream, with dangerous rapids. The chief
places on its banks are Jaipur and Khowang, both in Lakhimpur
District. In the hills above Jaipur there is much mineral wealth of
coal, iron, and petroleum, which would attract European enterprise if
only the Buri Dihing were less difficult of navigation.

Buri Gandak. — River of Bengal ; rises in the Sumeswar range of
hills close to the Harha Pass, and flows from north-west to south-east
through the Districts of Champaran, Muzaffarpur, and Darbhangah,
pouring its waters into the Ganges in Monghyr District. At its source
it is called the Harha ; in tappds Bahas and Madhwal, in Champaran,
it becomes the Sikhrena ; in pargands Simraon and Mihsi, the Buri
Gandak or Muzaffarpur river; and, as it approaches Muzaffarpur
District, the Chhota Gandak. Except in the upper reach (called the
Harha) it is navigable throughout the rains ; but in the dry season



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