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tions in the latter year. Cotton goods first became an important article
of import in 1824. Metals were imported in 1881-82 to the value
of £^734,19^ showing a decline on the imports of 1880-81, chiefly in
the case of copper and zinc. Malt liquor was imported in i88i-8^> to
the extent of 540,818 gallons, valued at £131,902. Imports of spirits
declined from £257,851 in 1880-81 to £246,445 in 1882. The
importation of all kinds of wines and liqueurs has fallen of late years.
The total import of liquors of all kinds in 1877-78 was £672,049, of
which 23-2 per cent, was malt liquor, 44-9 per cent, spirits, and 31 -\
per cent, wines and liqueurs. In 1881-82 the amount had decreased
to £549,12 2, of which malt liquors contributed 24 per cent., spirits 44-8
per cent., and wines 31 per cent. A great increase has taken place
in recent years m the importation of machinery into India, mainly due
to the extension of manufacturing industry. The value of imported
railway material rose from £187,497 in 1880-81, to £303,790 in
1881-82, the advance being entirely under the head of materials for
construction, mainly for the Central Bengal Railway, the Assam Rail-
way, and the Tirhut State Railway. That mineral oils are rapidly
taking the place of vegetable oils for lighting purposes, is evident from
the fact that, while 1,242,708 gallons, valued at£io 2 , 4 68, were imported
in 1877-78, no less than 5,776,610 gallons, valued at -£275,1 «, were
imported in 1881-82. American petroleum has almost entirely driven
the produce of other countries out of the market. Drugs showed an
increase^ owing to a rise in arrivals of quinine; total value of dm,
imports in 1881-82, £181,652. Silk imports showed a considerable
falling off owing to overstocking in previous years, the imports in
1881-82 being only 56,082 lbs., as against 168,417 lbs. in 1880-81.
The import of coral also declined, owing, it is said, to overstocking of the
market by the Sicilian coral fishermen, whose poverty prevented them
from holding back for a rise in prices. Umbrellas form an important
article of import, the number received being ^345,848 in 1881-82.
Str^lTT Hon §-^ng amounted to 161,728 lbs., from the

Strait Settlements to 422,894 lbs., and from other places 6613 lbs.,

isTp^o 1 ' 235 ,2gamSt 343 ' 459 lbS ' ^ l88 °- 81 ' and 542,433 lbs. in

.S?r7 he ^ f^ madG a consi derable advance,- from
5,367,855 cwts. in 1S80-81 to 6,896,610 cwts. in 1881-82,-increased



CALCUTTA. 265

quantities having been taken by all the countries with which the trade is
carried on, except Austria. The export to the Unrted Kingdom, which
expanded by nearly one million cwts., is believed however to have
overstocked the market. A large local demand slightly kept down the
export of gunny-bags, the value of which in consequence fell from
A 065,526 in 1880-81 to ,£.,063,666. The principal falling off
occurred in the exports to the United States and England, while some
increase took place in the exports to China, the Straits Settlements and
\ust-alia Although the value of rice exported in 1881-82 was lower
than in 1880-81, the decline was solely due to a falling in price arising
from an abundant harvest ; the amount actually shipped having been
6 ,50092 cwts. in 1881-82, against 5,948,208 cwts. in the preceding
vear The quantity and value of wheat exported rose from 3,955.269
Lis!, valued at ^.,512,695. in 1880-81, to 6,666,896 cwts., valued at
r 2 520 129 in 1881-82. Except Malta, all countries importing wheat
£,m India took a larger quantity than the previous year, the causes
assigned being a deficient harvest and speculation in the United States
The exports of tea during 1881-82 increased by over two millions of
pounds, or 4* per cent, over the exports in 1881-82, while there was an
advance of ^ 5 3°,°oo, or 17-8 per cent., in the total value, inconse-
quence of a rise in prices. The total exports amounted to .£3.528.863
in 1881-82. The finer grades of tea are reported to have been
produced in a greater proportion than usual, and it is ev.de nt_ tha the
taste for Indian tea of a good quality is becoming firmly established
in England. Lower qualities of tea also sold at improved prices 1 ea
exports to Australia increased from 776,852 lbs. in 1880-81 to 871,913
lbs in 1881-82, or by i*\ per cent. ; 195,686 lbs. were exported to the
United States. Exports of indigo showed an increase over the two
previous years. With the exception of rape-seed, of which 974,57°
cwts. were shipped in 1881-82, against 824,509 cwts. in iMo^L a »
exports of oil-seeds showed a decline during the year, the falling off
being most marked in the case of linseed, of which the shipment
amounted to 2,864,116 cwts., against 4,065,341 cwts. m 1880-81. The
large yield of the American cotton crop resulted in a falling off of the
exports of raw cotton from Bengal from 875,697 cwts. in 1880-81 to
702,336 cwts. in 1881-82. With the exception of Austria and Italy, the
demand of all countries importing Bengal cotton has declined. A con-
siderable decrease in the number of undressed hides and skins exported
took place during the year, owing probably to a diminished supply rather
than to a falling off in the demand. Dressed skins and hides iho* ed
an increase, but the total exports were about 500,000 below those of
1880-81. Exports of lac of all kinds rose from 86,647 cwts., valued at
.£575,549, in 1880-81, to 116,205 cwts., valued at £716,101, in 1881-82
Shell lac formed nearly three-fourths of the total exports, and button-lac



266 CALCUTTA.

the greater part of the remainder. Exports of raw silk fell both in value
and quantity, but shipments of silk piece-goods remained comparatively
stationary. Bengal silk is not in a position to compete with the silks
produced in Europe, China, or Japan. A slight increase, from 9460
cwts. to 16,133 cwts, m the export of sugar, when taken with the fact
that imports from the Mauritius, the Straits Settlements, and Java fell
from 42,904 cwts. to 4079 cwts., shows fairly conclusively that the
Indian demand is now supplied almost entirely by local production and
there is no reason to doubt that an expansion of the industry would be
met by an increased demand for Indian sugar abroad. A considerable
falling off took place in the exports of tobacco, which declined from
7,853,118 lbs., valued at ,£42,980, in 1880-81, to 4,782,384 lbs., valued
at -£33,497-

Treasure—The imports of gold in 1881-82 amounted to ,£999 , 4q
and of silver to ^922,789, against ,£890,024 of gold and .£944,674
of silver in 1880-81; while silver amounting to ,£214/566 was
exported in 1881-82, against .£220,101 in 1880-81

Coasting Trade—The value of the Calcutta coasting trade in 1881-82
was as follows: : Imports-Indian produce, ,£2,322,008; foreign mer"-
chand.se, .£186,064 : total, ,£2,508,072. Exports-Indian produce,
•£3.360,137; foreign merchandise, .£1,228,100: total, .£4,588,237
Grand total of coasting imports and exports in 1881-82, -£7 096 ,on or
^34,o 4 7less than in 1880-81. The falling off in the imports was confined
to trade with Bombay, about .£40,000 ; British Burma, over .£160 ooo ■
and ports outside British India, nearly .£30,000. The imports from
Madras and from the Bengal out-ports rose during 1881-82 to about
430,000 and .£35,000 respectively over 1880-81. Decreased importa-
tions of piece-goods, railway sleepers, cutch, and gambier, account for
the falling off in the imports from Bombay and Burma. The increase
in the trade with Madras and the Bengal out-ports was due to larger
arrivals of timber and hides. The chief remaining fluctuations in the
import trade were an increase of ,£87,500 in raw cotton from Bombay
and teak timber from Maulmain, and a decline of ,£93,000 in castor-
mi seed from Coconada and Masulipatam, and of .£40,000 in raw
cotton from Madras. The low price of rice caused a decline in the
value of the imports of that staple from the Orissa ports. Cotton twist
and yarn of Indian manufacture imported into Calcutta, rose from

iSwn T l88 r 81 t0 ^ 282 ' 655 in l88l ~ 82 ; and Indian Piece-
goods fell from ^.11,04, to .£126.603. The piece-goods imported
dec nT consisted almost entirely of yarn of 32's and under, and the
dechne was due more to the absence of demand than to the competition
E™ of T ma ™ factur f with In <iian goods of these coarse textures.

Bombav Sinll /; U u 6 C ° aStWiSe Sh ° Wed an increase in the c ™ of
Bombay, Sind, and British Burma, and of ports not situated in British



CALCUTTA. 26 7

India, but declined in the case of Madras and the Bengal out-ports, the
net suit being an increase of about ^300,000. In foreign commodi-
"ies the most noticeable feature in the export coasting trade was the

hCon" in the exports of cotton piece-goods and twist to Madras and
Bu ma which is accounted for in the former case by the successful
compedtion of European manufactures, and in the latter by the sub-
stitution of country-dyed for foreign twist

The Customs duties on cotton p,ece-goods, as weU as on most
other imports, were finally abolished in 1882, only the duties on wines
and spirits, arms and ammunition, and a few other art.cles being
'retained on the tariff. For practical purposes, Calcutta is now a free

*%u Landward Trade of Calcutta is conducted partly by railway,

and partly by water. There is no railway station within the limits of
the municipality, but three separate lines have their termini in its
mmediate neighbourhood. The East Indian Railway whose ernnnu
is across the river at Howrah, brings down the produce of the North
V tern Provinces and Behar, and connects Calcutta with the general
ai way system of the Peninsula. The Eastern Benga Railway and the
South -Eastern Railway have their terminus at Sialdah, an eastern
suburb of Calcutta. The Eastern Bengal Railway is an important line
unnin. across the Delta to the junct.on of the Ganges and Brahma-
Za ft Goalanda, now continued towards Darjihng by the Nor hern
Bengal State line. The South-Eastern Railway is a short railway,
conne ting he metropolis with Port Canning, in the Sundarbans
28 miles) It has a branch to Diamond Harbour, on the Hugh,
^8 mile by rail, and about 41 "files by water from Calcutta. The
three chief line of water traffic are-(i) the Calcutta canals a
hTn of channels and rivers passing round and through *e Sun-
darbans, open at all seasons of the ye^ and Jrfg*. »
line of communication with the Ganges anu i c _ i

2) the Nadiya rivers, three in number, which branch off in a sou h en,
ourse from the Ganges, above its junction w.th the ^^
and ultimately become the Hugh- these Nadiya «»
difficulty navigable during the dry season; (3 the :J d napur
and Hijili canals, leading south towards Onssa **"?£££ ^
which thus finds its way from the interior mto Calcutta, exc us. e ot
opium and railway materials, was valued at ^46,4*4,3^9 m 18 .-8..
Over ,1 millions sterling were brought by country boats nearlj,
millions by river steamers, aij millions by the East Ind.an Jtaahway
6 nfillions y sterlin g by the Eastern Bengal R^xlw^y r,e^rly ^9^ooc, by
the South-Eastern Railway, and over 3 f millions sterling by road. ll,e
xpor radefrom Calcutta into the interior of the country was ^va lued
in ,881-82 at ^27,841,540. Of goods thus sent inland, 4 | millions



26 S CALIAN— CALICUT.

sterling went by country boats, ij million by river steamers, nearly 16
millions by the East Indian Railway, 4 J millions by the Eastern Bengal
Railway, ^15,000 by the South-Eastern Railway, and ij million °by
road. Total value of inland import and export trade of Calcutta in
1881-82, 74^ millions sterling.

The gross value of the landward, seaward, and coasting trade of
Calcutta, imports and exports, amounted to 140 millions sterling in
1881-82. In this aggregate many transactions are included twice:
but, on the other hand, large supplies are daily drawn from the sur-
rounding Districts which cannot be registered, and which therefore do
not enter into the above total.

Calian {Chdliyam).— Site of an old town in Malabar District, Madras
Presidency, which arose out of a factory built by the first Portuguese
settlers. The railway station of Beypur is at or near the spot where
the factory stood.

Caliail. — Town, Thana District, Bombay Presidency.— See Kalyan
Calicut {Kolikbdu).— Taluk in Malabar District, Madras Presidency.
Area, 339 square miles, containing 1 town and 38 villages. Houses,
34,7s 1 - Population (1881) 205,962, namely, 103,669 males and
102,293 females. Land revenue (1882-83) .£13,057. The Sub-
division contains 3 civil and 4 criminal courts. Chief town, Calicut.

Calicut {Kolikbdu; Koli-kukkuga, ' Cock-crowing ;' Kolikotta, 'Cock-
fort').— Town and port in the Calicut laluk, Malabar District, Madras
Presidency ; situated on the sea-coast 6 miles north of Beypur, in the
midst of extensive palm-groves. Lat. n° 15' n., long. 75 49' e.
Houses, 8540. Population (estimated at 20,000 in 1827) had risen by
1881 to 57,085, namely, 33,875 Hindus, 20,257 Muhammadans—
all Moplas (Mappillas), 2909 Christians, and 43 'others.' Of the adult
male population, about 32 per cent, are Tiyars or toddy-drawers, 20 per
cent, boat-builders and boatmen, and 14 per cent. Lubbay traders. The
municipal income for 1880-81 was ^"4675, and the allotment for sanitary
purposes, ^637 ; the incidence of municipal taxation, including tolls,
being about is. 3|d. per head. Value of exports in 1880-81, including
those of the sub-port of Beypur, ^664,220 ; imports, ^343,126. As
the head-quarters of the rich and populous District of Malabar, Calicut
contains the chief revenue, magisterial, and judicial establishments of
the District, with Government and marine offices, a customs house, jail,
lunatic asylum, dispensary, hospitals, post and telegraph offices,
travellers' bungalow, and bank. The Anglican, Lutheran, and Roman
Catholic Churches have missions here, with schools ; in addition to
which there is the municipal school, and several others, assisted by
grants.

Owing to frequent Mopla outrages, a detachment of European
infantry was stationed at Calicut in 1849. It was removed to the



CALICUT. 269

outpost at Malapuram in 185 1, but again brought back on the
assassination of the Collector (Mr. Conolly) in 1855. The barracks stand
to the north of the town, where also is the old Portuguese quarter with a
Roman Catholic church built by the Zamorin and presented to Portugal
in 1525, and a convent. The southern portion contains the timber
depot (Kalldyi) and the Muhammadan quarter, above which lie the sea-
customs and salt offices, the lighthouse and mercantile houses, facing
the sea. Round the Mananchira tank, a fine reservoir of fresh water,
are grouped the chief public offices and many important buildings.
The suburbs consist of detached villages joining Calicut to Beypur,
and surrounded with groves of palm, mango, and jack (Artocarpus)
trees. The climate is fairly healthy, and, the soil being sandy, the
deficiency of artificial drainage is not injuriously felt. The birth-rate
in 1880-81 was 36-6, and the death-rate 26*2 per 1000. The average
annual rainfall is 120 inches.

The foundation of Calicut is traditionally ascribed to Cheraman
Perumal, the lord of Malabar, whose conversion to Islam and departure
for Mecca figures so prominently in the legends of the country. On
Cheraman's subsequent retirement to Mecca, Calicut was granted by him
to Mana Vikrama, the ' Samuri ' or Zamorin. Tradition derives the
name from the device employed for deciding the limits of the settle-
ment—so much as the crowing of a cock in the Tali Temple could be
heard over. The present town dates from the 13th century, and has
given its name to the cloth known to the Portuguese as calicute, to the
English as calico. The Zamorins rose to great power, extending their
dominions, with the aid of the Moors or Moplas, both south and
east ; and the capital is described by the earliest Portuguese visitors as
containing many magnificent buildings. The Moplas, so conspicuous
in local history, are the descendants of Arab traders— 13 in number,
according to their own traditions— who settled in the 9th century at
Chaliam on the Beypur river.

Calicut is celebrated as having been the first port in India visited
by Europeans, the Portuguese adventurer Covilham having landed here
about i486. In 1498, Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut, but at the
instigation of the Mopla traders he was inhospitably received by the
Zamorin. In 1501, Pedralvarez Cabral established a factory, which
was immediately afterwards destroyed by the Moplas, and the whole
colony of 50 persons massacred. Cabral bombarded the town; and
in the following year Da Gama returned to complete the punishment,
destroying all the shipping in the roadstead, and laying all the houses
in ruins within range of his guns. In 15 10, Albuquerque again attacked
Calicut, burnt the Zamorin's palace, and wrecked the town ; but the
natives, rallying in overwhelming force, drove him back to Cochin with
great loss. Three years later, the Zamorin made peace with the Portu-



270 CALIMERE POINT— CAMALAPUR.

guese, who at once erected a factory, the origin of the present establish-
ment. The French settlement dates from 1722, since which year it
has been three times in British possession. In 181 9 it was finally
restored to the French, who still hold a few houses and the land
adjoining. The Danish Government established a factory in 1752. It
was partially destroyed in 1784, and soon after incorporated in the
British settlement. An unsuccessful attempt was made in 1792 tore-
establish the claims of Denmark. The first British settlement dates
from 1616; but it was not until the treaty of Seringapatam, in 1792,
that the Company acquired any sovereign rights. Between those dates
Calicut was often conspicuous in history. In 1695, Captain Kidd
ravaged the port; and in 1766, when Haidar Ali invaded Malabar, the
Zamorin shut himself up in his palace and set fire to it, dying with
his family in the flames. In 1773, and again in 1788, the town was
pillaged by the Mysore armies. In 1790, the British troops occupied
the town, holding it till the peace two years later. Since then it
has been steadily advancing in trade and population ; and, with the
exception of fanatical Mopla outbreaks, the public peace has been
undisturbed.

Calimere Point (the Calligicum of Ptolemy). — A low promontory
in Tanjore District, forming the most southerly point of the Coro-
mandel Coast, Madras Presidency. Lat. ro° 18' n., long. 79 52' e.
The point ought not to be approached within 5 J or 6 fathoms. A
pagoda, called Calimere Pagoda, in lat. io° 22' n., long. 79 51' e.,
stands about a mile from the shore, and 5 J miles to the north-north-
west of the southern extremity of the point. From this pagoda, the
direction of the coast is about north \ west to Negapatam ; distance, 37
miles ;— all the land in this space is low and planted with cocoa-nut trees.

Calinga. — Ancient Division of India in Madras Presidency. — See
Kalixga.

Calingapatam. — Town and port in Ganjam District, Madras Presi-
dency. — See Kalingapatam.

Callayi. — Seaport town, Madras Presidency.— See K allay i.

Calventura {Hnet-taung, or ' Bird's feather '). — A group of rocks off
the coast of Arakan, in British Burma, forming two divisions bearing
from each other north-west and south-east, and distant 5 or 6 miles.
The north-west group (lat. 16 55' n., long. 94 15' 30" e.) consists of
seven irregular black rocks, one of which resembles an old church with
a mutilated spire. The south-east division consists of two high rocky
islands covered with vegetation, and connected by a reef with 5 to 7
fathoms of water upon it. About half-way between the islands there
is a single rock, dry at low tide.

Camalapur.— Town in Bellary District, Madras Presidency.— See
Kamalapur.



CAM BAY. 271

Cambay (Khambhdt). — Feudatory State within the Political Agency
of Kaira, Bombay Presidency ; lying at the head of the gulf of the
same name in the western part of the Province of Gujarat, between
22 9' and 22 41' n. lat, and between 72 20' and 73 5' e. long.
Bounded on the north by the British District of Kaira; east by the
lands of Borsad in Kaira, and Pitlad belonging to Baroda j south by
the Gulf of Cambay ; and west by the Sabarmati river, separating it
from Ahmadabad District. Area, 350 square miles, containing 2 towns
and 83 villages; population (1881) 86,074, namely, 70,708 Hindus,
12,417 Muhammadans, and 2949 ' others.' The boundaries of the
State are very irregular ; some villages belonging to the Gaekwar of
Baroda and to the British Government are entirely surrounded by
Cambay territory, while Cambay villages are found in Kaira District.
The country is flat and open, interspersed here and there, generally in
the vicinity of the villages, with groves of fine trees, such as the mango,
tamarind, banian or bar, uim, and pipal. From the position of the
State between two large tidal rivers, the soil is so soaked with salt that
water becomes brackish at a little distance below the surface, and in
many places new wells have to be sunk every five years. Besides
being brackish, Cambay well water is unwholesome, often causing
painful boils when incautiously used.

Towards the north and west the soil is generally black, and well suited
for the cultivation of wheat and cotton. To the east it is fit only for
the growth of inferior sorts of grain, abundant crops of which are grown in
favourable years. The cultivators are principally dependent on the mon-
soon rains for the means of irrigation, there being but few wells. The
supply of drinking water is chiefly drawn from ponds or reservoirs, in which
water is found throughout the greater part of the year. Near the city of
Cambay skirting the shore of the gulf, and along the banks of the Mahi
and Sabarmati rivers, stretch vast tracts of salt marsh land submerged at
high spring-tides. Nodular limestone or kankar mixed with sand and
clay is found in large quantities from 10 to 15 feet below the surface
of the soil. Although not of the best quality, the lime obtained from
this stone is used by the people of the country for building and other
purposes. There are no forests. Agricultural products consist of the
ordinary varieties of millet and pulse, rice, wheat, cotton, indigo,
tobacco, and a little opium. The cultivation of indigo has of late
years greatly fallen off. The chief wild animals are the nilgai (Portax
pictus), wild hog, and large herds of antelopes that feed on the short
herbage on salt marsh lands near the sea-coast. During the cold
weather every pond swarms with duck, teal, and snipe.

The population consists of the various Hindu castes found throughout
Guzerat, including the wild tribes of Koli's and Wagris ; Muhammadans,
Jains, and Parsis. The languages used are Gujarithi and Hindustani.



272 CAMBAY.

The chief articles of manufacture are indigo, salt, cloth, carpets
embroidery, and carved cornelians, which are imported from Ratanpur
and other places in the Rajpfpla State. The chocolate-coloured stone
is brought from Kathiawar; agates come from Kapadwanj and Sukal
tirth on the Narbada (Nerbudda) river, and from Rajkot in Kathiawar
The total imports 1877-78, consisting chiefly of molasses, timber'
clarified butter, gram, cornelians, metal, piece-goods, silk, cocoa-nuts'
and sugar were valued at ,£131,730; and the exports of tobacco'
wrought cornelians, and sundries, at ,£90,017. In 1878, the shipping
of the port of Cambay amounted in all to 566 vessels of a total burthen
of 10,000 tons. Ships of more than 50 tons never visit Cambay
There are no made roads within the limits of the Cambay territory
The mode of transit into the interior is by native carts, camels, or
pack-bullocks. For communication by water, except durina the mon
soon months, boats of under 6 tons at ordinary tides, and under co
tons at spring tides, ply between Cambay and Bombay, Surat, Broach
Gogo, and other ports. The head of the gulf forms neither a safe
nor commodious harbour, in consequence of the constant shifting of
its bed from the force of the tides and the currents of the rivers Mahi
and Sabarmati.

The name Cambay or Khambhat is said to be derived from khdmbha
or stambhatirth, the pool of Mahadeva under the form of the pillar god
Cambay ,s mentioned by Masudi ( 9 i 3 ); but the prosperity of the city
is traditionally referred to the grant of its present site to a body of
Brahmans m 997 . During the nth and i 2 th centuries, Cambay
appears as one of the chief ports of the Anhelwara kingdom; and It



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 32 of 56)