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the conquest of that kingdom by the Musalmans in I297 * it is said to
have been one of the richest towns in India

According to Lieutenant Robertson's Historical Narrative of Cambay,
the Pams of Gujarat sa.led from Persia about the end of the 7 th o
beginning of the 8th century. A great number of their ships foundered

ofSumT m Th I % a , feW a ™ Ved at Sej3m ' ab0Ut 7° mite south
of Surat. They obtained permission to land after some difficulty, and
on certain conditions ; the chief of which were-that they should speak
the Guzerathi language and abstain from beef. The Parsi's remained
vemuaLT 8 '" ^^V' Sejam ' P UrSuin § a coasti "S trade j but

r u mll y ^r P K a r r ', he nd§hb0Uring DistrictS ' and becames °
numerous at Cambay that they outnumbered the original inhabitants

and took possession of the town. After a short period, however, they

were dnven out with great slaughter by the Hindus/who held the

territory until conquered by the Muhammadans in r 297

kingdom C* r tUr> "' ^ tHe , gr0Wing Wealth and P° wer of the Gujarat

the i6th'cen rv'f re§ai r d ' tS ^T* Pr ° Sperity > atld at the "^g of
the 16th century formed one of the chief centres of commerce in India

CAMBA Y TO WN. 2 7 3

During the time of the Muhammadan Kings of Gujardt, Cambay was
in a most flourishing condition. Large vessels unloaded their cargoes
at Gogo, whence they were sent in small craft to Cambay. The
passage between the two ports was so quick as to become proverbial.
The founder of the present family of Cambay rulers was Momin Khan,
the last but one of the Muhammadan governors of Guzerat. While
he held the office of Governor, his son-in-law, Nizam Khdn, had charge
of Cambay. On Momin Khan's death in 1742, his son Muftukhdr
Khan basely compassed the death of Nizam Khdn, and assumed the
government of Cambay. The Maratha leaders had already partitioned
Gujarat; but Muftukhar Khan successfully resisted the claims of the
Peshwa to tribute, until, by the treaty of Bassein, Cambay was ceded to
the British Government. The principal item of this disputed tribute
consisted of a nominal half-share in the sea and land customs, deduct-
ing cost of collection. The British Government found much difficulty
in inducing the Nawab to revise the complicated and onerous tariff
of sea customs, which was highly injurious to trade; but, in 1856, an
arrangement was made by which the methods of collection are assimi-
lated to those obtaining in civilised countries.

The ruler is a Muhammadan of the Shia sect. His position is
that of a feudatory of the British Government. He has received a
sanad, guaranteeing any succession to his State that may be legitimate
according to Muhammadan law. He has first-class jurisdiction, having
power to°try for capital offences any persons except European British sub-
jects, and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. Tribute is paid to the British
Government of ^2595 in cash, exclusive of collections on account of
customs and excise. The military force consists of 200 cavalry and
900 foot, for the most part undisciplined. The police of the State
number 337. The annual gross revenue in 1880-81, inclusive of transit
duties on all goods, Indian and foreign, was estimated at ^42,6 13.
Public instruction is conducted by 2 public and 28 private indigenous
schools, with 291 pupils in the former, and 753 in the latter.

Being within the influence of the sea-breezes, the climate of Cambay
is generally milder and more equable than that of the interior of
Gujarat. The most prevalent diseases are fever and dysentery. The
average yearly rainfall is returned at 29*30 inches.

Cambay (Khambhdt).— Chief town in the Native State of Cambay,
Province of Gujarat, Bombay Presidency ; situated at the head of the
Gulf of Cambay, on the north of the estuary of the river Mahi. Lat
22 18' 30" n., long. 7 2 40' e. Distant 52 miles south of Ahmadabad,
and 202 mile's west of Mhau (Mhow). Population (1881) 36,007,
namely, 25,314 Hindus, 8038 Muhammadans, 2525 Jains, 8 Christians,
119 Pa'rsis and 3 'others.' The city was originally surrounded by a
brick wall perforated for musketry, flanked with irregular towers without



fosse or esplanade ; but the works are now out of repair, and few of the
guns mounted are serviceable. Only portions of the wall remain, en-
closing a circumference of not more than 3 miles. The palace of the
Nawab is in good repair, but built in an inferior style of architecture.
The Jama Masjid was erected in 1325 a.d., in the time of Muhammad
Shah; the pillars in the interior were taken from desecrated Jain
temples, and, though arranged without much attention to architectural
effect, give the mosque a picturesque appearance. Many ruins still
attest the former wealth of Cambay. It is mentioned, under the name
of Cambaet, as a place of great trade by Marco Polo (arc. 1293), and
by his countryman and contemporary, Marino Sanudo, as one of the
two great trading ports of India (Cambeth).

The commercial decline of this once flourishing mart is due in
great measure to the silting up of the gulf, and to the 'bore' or
rushing tide in the north of the gulf, and at the entrances of the
Mahi and Sabarmati (Savarnamati) rivers. High spring -tides rise
and fall as much as 33 feet, and the current runs at a velocity of from
6 to 7 knots an hour. In ordinary springs the rise and fall is 25 feet,
and the current 4 J to 6 knots. Great damage is thus frequently
caused to shipping, the more as the average depth of the channel
is only from 4 to 6 fathoms ; and the hazard is greatly increased by
the constantly-shifting shoals, caused by the frequent inundation of the
rivers. Cambay is celebrated for the manufacture of agate, cornelian,
and onyx ornaments. The cornelians come chiefly from mines in the
vicinity of Ratanpur, in the Native State of Rajpipla, Rewa Kantha.
The preparation of the stones was thus described in 1821 by Mr. J.
Willoughby, Assistant to the Resident at Baroda : ' The Bhils, who are
the miners, commence their operations about September and leave off
in April, when they commence burning the cornelians. The operation
of burning is performed by digging a hole one yard square, in which are
placed earthen pots filled with the cornelians, which to facilitate the
process have for some time previous been exposed to the sun. The
bottoms of the pots are taken out, and a layer of about 6 or 7 inches
of cow or goat dung, strewed above and below them, is set on fire,
which, when consumed, has rendered the stones ready for the Cambay
merchants.' The three principal colours of the cornelians are red,
white, and yellow, the first of which is considered the most valuable.

Cambay Gulf (or Gulf of Cambay). — The strip of sea which
separates the Peninsula of Kathiawar from the northern Bombay coast.
The gulf was in ancient times a great resort of commerce, much
frequented by Arab mariners. Surat lies at the eastern point of its
mouth ; the Portuguese settlement of Diu at the western mouth, and
Cambay Town at its northern extremity. The gulf receives the two
great rivers, the Tapti and Narbada (Nerbudda), on its eastern side ;


the Mahi and Sabarmati (Savarnamati) on the north, and several small
ivers from Kathiawar on the west. Owing to the causes mentioned under
Cambay Town, the gulf is silting up, and is now resorted to on y by
sS 1ft The once famous harbours (Surat and Broach, which see
separately) around its coast have ceased to be used by foreign commerce.
Camel's Hump (Wavoolnmllay of Indian ^to).-Mountain peak
in the Calicut taluk, Malabar District, Madras Presidency Height
7 6 77 feet above the sea. Situated 26 miles north-east of Calicut, in lat.

"oamSenpur^S^llcamonment in Attoc k «^1 Find,
DiS P Punjab. Lat. 3 3° 47' n., long. 7 ,' rf E. Occupied by a
relent of European cavalry. Known to the natives by the name of
Kamalpur, derived from the tomb of Kamal Shah, a Sayy.d, which
Ss in the village, and is an object of religious veneration among
he people of the neighbourhood. Population (1881) 1467, namely
HMus, 775 ; Sikhs, 22 ; Jains, 3 ; Muhammadans, 455 5 and 'others,

2I Canara, North.-D.strict of Bombay f^ den ^-^5 A ™
Canara, South.-District of Madras Presidency.-^ Kanaka.
Candahar.— Town in Afghanistan.— See Kandahar.
Cannanore (Kannur or Kannanur, ' Kannan's Town ').-Town and
port in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Tat. n 51 » > *■>
L° 75" 24' 44" e.; population (1881) 26,386, namely, 10,656
Hntdu n,6i 7 Muhammadans, and 4087 Christians ; municipal
S ome in iSsJ-Si, ^2658, of which ^627 was allotted .* «
purposes ; incidence of taxation, about ioJd. per head. The birth-rate
fn 1880 81 was 26, the death-rate 187 per .000 of municipal popu-
ation Being the head-quarters of the Chirrakal taluk Cannanore
Z ins the "usual public offices, magisterial and judioa^ ,*£
pensary, schools, etc.; and it has also a custom house and mar me
establishment. The value of the sea-going trade during 1880-81 «as
—imports, -£202,051; exports, ,£102,050.

B T the chief' importance of Cannanore arises from its posiuon
as a military cantonment. It is the head-quarters of ^ ^alaba
and Kanara force, being the station of a general «J division
his staff, and is garrisoned by 1 European and 1 Nat ve re iment
of infantry. The cantonment is spacious, and intersected oy g
Ids with two parade grounds, ordnance dep t brig.de ^and ^ m
missariat offices, etc. It lies to the north-east of the fort, a WanguUr
building covering a rocky point which juts out mr Oc £. Across the
bay lies the Mopla (Mappilla) quarter of Cannanore w here the descen
dants of the old Arab sea-kings of Cannanore reside, the town being

special fame. Within its limits stands the fishing village of 1 ha., u »th


Roman Catholic chapel, once a Portuguese factory. The cantonment
was made a municipality in 1867, and in 1872 the town proper was
brought under the Towns Improvement Act. Anglican, German, and
Roman Catholic missions are established here, with schools attached.
The average annual rainfall is 97 inches.

Cannanore was, according to the legend of the partition of his
dominions by Cheraman Perumal, included in the kingdom of the
Chirrakal Rajas, to whom the Mopla (Mappilla) sea-kings (Ali
Rajas) owned suzerainty, more or less nominal, down to the time of
Haidar Ali's invasion of Malabar. In 1498, Vasco da Gama touched
here, and, being well received, a colony was planted. Seven years
later Vasco da Gama erected a factory. In 1656, the Dutch effected a
settlement, for the protection of which they built the present fort, which
they occupied till 1766, when it fell into the hands of the Mysore troops.
In 1784, Cannanore was captured by the British, and the reigning
Princess became tributary to the East India Company. Seven years
later, it was again taken ; and since that date has remained in British
hands as the chief military station on the Malabar coast, under the
Madras Presidency.

Canning, Port.— River port on the Matla river, Bengal. — See Port

Caragola. — Town and river ghat in Purniah District, Bengal. — See

Cardamom Hills.— Range of hills in Travancore State, Madras
Presidency, lying between 9 27' and io° 4' n. lat., and between 76 52'
and 77 17' e. long. Average height, from 2000 to 4000 feet above the
sea. The hills are divided roughly into the * Margari Alum' and
' Kunni Alum ' groups, both very sparsely populated, and unhealthy.
The Kunni Alum, though at a lower average elevation, lies within the
influence of the sea-breeze, and enjoys, therefore, a rather better climate
than the Margari Alum. The cardamoms collected on these hills
amount annually to about 60 tons, valued at ^30,000 ; they thrive best
at an elevation of 3000 feet. With the exception of a few small coffee
estates on the southern slopes, the hills possess no other economic

Carnatic. — Geographical Division of Madras Presidency. — See Kar-


Cashmere. — Native State on the north-east frontier of the Punjab. —
See Kashmir.

Cassergode (Kdsaragodu).— Taluk in South Kanara District,
Madras Presidency. Area, 1032 square miles, containing 243 villages.
Houses, 45,287. Population (1881) 243,881, namely, 120,857 males
and 123,024 females. Land revenue, ^24,367 ; 1 civil and 2 criminal


Cassergode {Kdsaragodu ; 'Kangercote' of the Tohfat-al-Majdhildin).
—Town in South Kanara District, Madras Presidency ; situated on the
Chandragiri river, in lat. 12 29' 50" N, and long. 75° 2' 10" e. ; popu-
lation (1872) 6416; number of houses, 1178. No later population
statistics are available to me, as the town has now less than five
thousand inhabitants. The southernmost post of the ancient luluva
kingdom, with an ancient fort of the Ikkeri kings.

Cauvery {Kdveri; the Xa/fypos of the Greek geographer Ptolemy).—
A great river of Southern India, famous alike for its traditional sanctity,
its picturesque scenery, and its utility for irrigation. Rising on the
Brahmagiri, a hill in Coorg, high up amid the Western Ghats, in 12
25' n. lat. and 75° 34 * long., it flows with a generally south-east
direction across the plateau of Mysore, and finally pours itself into the
.Bay of Bengal, through two principal mouths in the Madras District of
Tanjore; total length, about 475 miles; estimated area of drainage
basin, 28,000 square miles. It is known to devout Hindus as Dakshin
Ganga, or the Ganges of the South, and the whole of its course is holy
ground. According to the legend preserved in the Agneya and Sk&nda
Purdnas, there was once born upon earth a girl named Vishnumaya or
Lopamudra, the daughter of Brahma; but her divine father permitted
her to be regarded as the child of a mortal, called Kavera-mum. In
order to obtain beatitude for her adoptive father, she resolved to
become a river whose waters should purify from all sin. Hence it is
that even the holy Ganga resorts underground, once in the year, to the
source of the Cauvery, to purge herself from the pollution contracted
from the crowd of sinners who have bathed in her waters. At lala
Kaveri, where the river rises, and at Bhagamandala, where it receives its
first tributary, stand ancient temples annually frequented by crowds ot
pilgrims in the month of Tulamasa (October-November).

The course of the Cauvery in Coorg is tortuous. Its bed is rocky ;
its banks are high and covered with luxuriant vegetation. In the dry
season it is fordable almost anywhere, but during the rains it swells into
a torrent 20 or 30 feet deep. In this portion of its course it is joined
by many tributaries-the Kakabe, Kadamir, Kumma-hole, Muttare-
mutta, Chikka-hole, and Suvarnavati or Haringi. Near the frontier at
the station of Fraserpet, it is spanned by a magnificent stone bridge,
516 feet in length. On entering Mysore, the Cauvery passes through a
narrow gorge, but presently widens to an average breadth of from 300
to 400 yards. Its bed continues rocky, so as to forbid all navigation ;
but its banks are here bordered with a rich strip of wet cultivation. In
its course through Mysore, the channel is interrupted by no less than
twelve anicuts or dams for the purpose of irrigation. From the most
important of these, known as the Madadkatte, an artificial channel is
led off 72 miles in length, which irrigates an area of about 10,000 acres,


with a revenue of .£7000, and ultimately brings a water-supply into the
town of Mysore. In this portion of its course it forms the two islands
of Seringapatam and Sivasamudram, which vie in sanctity with the
island of Srirangam lower down in Trichinopoli District.

Enclosing the island of Sivasamudram are the celebrated falls of the
Cauvery, unrivalled for romantic beauty. The river here branches
into two channels, each of which makes a descent of about 200 feet in
a succession of rapids and broken cascades. The scene has been
rendered accessible to visitors by the private munificence of a native of
Mysore, who has constructed two stone bridges of rude but solid
workmanship to connect the island with either bank. More than one
tragic story of former days has gathered round this picturesque spot.
The Mysore tributaries of the Cauvery are the Hemavati, Lakshman-
tirtha, Lokapavani, Shimsha, Arkavati, and Suvarnavati, or Honnu-hole.
After entering the territory of Madras, it forms the boundary between
the two Districts of Coimbatore and Salem for a considerable distance,
until it strikes into Trichinopoli District. Sweeping past the historic
rock of Trichinopoli, it breaks at the island of Srirangam into two
channels, which enclose between them the delta of Tanjore, the garden
of Southern India. The more northerly of these channels is called the
Coleroon (Kohdam) ; that which continues the course of the river
towards the east preserves the name of the Cauvery. On the seaward
face of the delta are the open roadsteads of Tranquebar, Negapatam,
and French Karikal. ' 81

The only navigation on any portion of the Cauvery is carried
on in boats of basket-work. In Madras the chief tributaries are the
JHiavani, Novel, and Amravati. At Erode the river is crossed by the
mam line of the Madras Railway, by means of an iron-girder bridge,
1536 feet long with 72 spans, on piers sunk into the solid rock. The
total cost of this structure was ,£40,000.

Although the water of the Cauvery is utilized for agriculture in Mysore
and also m Coimbatore District, it is in the delta that its real value for
irrigation becomes conspicuous. At Srirangam, just above the point of
bifurcation, the flood discharge is estimated at 472,000 feet per second,
ine problem of utilizing' this storehouse of agricultural wealth was first
grappled with by a prehistoric Hindu king, who constructed a massive
dam of unhewn stone, 1080 feet long and from 40 to 60 feet broad,
across the stream of the Cauvery proper. This dam, which is supposed
to date back to the 4 th century a.d., is still in excellent repair, and has
supplied a typical model to our own engineers. When the British first
came into possession of Tanjore District, in 1801, it was found that the
TlZtr\ u e Water - su PP 1 y ™ then passing unused down the

£0 r ™ , ! ii mainly " drainage Channd ; wMe the Cauvery
proper was gradually silting up, and the irrigating channels that take


Cawnpur (correctly, Kdnhfur). — District in tne r.
Gov^hip of the North-Western Provinces lying between .y 6

the south-west by the Jumna (Jamuna), and on the east by *atenp
The administrative head-quarters are at Cawnpur Cm

Pkvtiml Aspects.— The District of Cawnpur forms part of the uoao,
orSHSain between the Ganges and the Jumna; and it does

only varied by the courses of the minor streams whose "*«"^£

£'=S£s£WZ , ^fi , |S22.

which collect and carry away the surface drainage The fea cuts

small angle to the north, joining the Ganges shordy ^T™^,,

the Hmits'of Cawnpur ; next come the Pandu and the Rmd winch

the midland portion of the District from end "> e * tf

south, the Sengur falls into the Jumna, and encloses bet

andth e main strearn ^^.^^nTofU depth,

—sca^sr - - ful aspect of the

^Ga^eX^ are navigable throughout Cawnpur District


during the rains, for boats of large burthen, but the frequent shallows in
the dry season close navigation to all but small boats. The smaller
rivers are dry or nearly so, except in the rains, or when surplus canal
water is discharged into them. In the rains they are crossed by rude
boats, or by rafts made of a dozen inverted large earthen pots bearing
a platform of hurdle work. Until 1875, the Ganges at Cawnpur was
crossed by a pontoon bridge, which on the completion of the Oudhand
Rohilkhand railway bridge was removed to Kalpi. The Jumna is
crossed by a bridge of boats, which gives place to a ferry during the
monsoon. There are from forty to fifty ferries in the District but
except those over the Ganges, they are only maintained durin- the
rainy months. °

The clay of the upland plain is naturally dry and thirsty, but it
has been converted into a prosperous agricultural region b v the
waters of the Ganges Canal. No fewer than four branches of that
great engineering work enter the District of Cawnpur at different points •
while minor distributaries run from these in every direction over the
surrounding fields. The plain is now one of the most flourishing
portions of the Doab, and only an occasional strip of tsar, whitened
by the efflorescence known as reh, breaks the general prospect of
cutavated fields No lake of any size exists in the District, bu
here are several jktls or swamps, and a few small patches of water

s LXt v °; erflow of the canai - a p ecuiiar feat - e **"*»*

rth. aero I! "! nage lme kn ° Wn »** Sonau ' which itches
deenen, in n /a T° "^ **** Eho g ni P"> where its channel
J P l'° f a regU ' ar , -bourse. As its windings follow those of

Inri/nThH Tl ^ * ' S distant about tw ° miles > " ««J be an
Z that £ r"' , Ut n ° tradki0n 6XistS t0 SU PP°» '"-'h-ry.
£ t wtr ' ° Wer leVdS are ° CCU P ied ^ shallo »' P™*. P^ticu-
he nltu a 7'" Z ^"^ ^"^ ** the Gan S es Canal intersect
nook [ U n amage ' thUS pr ° dudn S a tem P OT *ry dam ; but the

S£ cuTS C " Under , theSe drcumst — are soon drained dry by
not „™ 1 ^T ^ ^ Gr ° VeS ° f tamarind ^ ■**

irs" 8 ^ ^ viiiage tempies ° r the m ° re ambf "°-

mosques. There is no forest land, but here and there tracts of waste

fastla w *" JUngl£ (Butea frondosa )> whi ^ howe"?

hSist rict inT/ I 6 ' " ? 6 eXt6nSI0n ° f CuWvation - Th * *W o
hot and t 2 U " TT^' ^^ "** antd ° pe ' deer > foxes > "M
watrS re ' ^ g f' Peaf0W '' and sa »d-grouse abound, while
waterfowl are common in the low-lying marshy flats.

British rui7 not ff Ct f o{ ^^ - an administrative creation of

century Unde * £ u ^ '** than the latter ha,f of th e last
dltributed h« """^adan system its various pargonds were
distributed between the &** of Allahabad and Agra, and its early


history, so far as known, is identical with that of the surrounding
Districts. The Doab was conquered by Shahb-ud-din Ghori in 1194
a.d. ; and it remained a fief of the various dynasties at Delhi until the
establishment of the Mughal power in the 16th century. Babar sub-
dued the country in 1529; and it became at a somewhat later date
the chief scene of the protracted struggle between his son Humayiin
and the Pathan Governor of Bengal, Sher Shah. One or two mosques
and other public buildings in the smaller towns still bear witness to the
rule of Aurangzeb ; but comparatively few traces of the family of Babar
now remain scattered through the District, as it contained hardly any
towns of importance during the palmy epoch of the Mughals. On the
decline of the Delhi Empire, the country about Cawnpur, with the
remainder of the Doab, was overrun by the Marathas in 1736. It con-
tinued in their hands till 1747, when it was recovered by Safdar Jang, the
Nawab Wazir of Oudh.

The city of Cawnpur was not founded till after our victories of
Buxar and Kora in 1764-65, when the Nawab Wazir Shuja-ud-dauki
agreed to pay a tribute of 50 lakhs of rupees, and to permit the estab-
lishment of two cantonments for British troops within his dominions,
one at Cawnpur and the other at Fatehgarh. The troops were at first
stationed at Bilgram, but were removed to Cawnpur in 1778. A city
soon sprang up around the military lines, adorned with many handsome
mosques and other buildings, but bearing its recent origin somewhat
obtrusively upon its face. By the treaty of 1801, the Nawab Wazir
ceded to the British the whole lower Doab, together with other territory,
in commutation of the stipulated tribute, which experience had shown
to be in a perpetual condition of arrears. A District of Cawnpur was
immediately organized, with much more extensive boundaries than
those which at present limit it, and embracing certain pargcuids now
transferred, by the necessity for more active and energetic administra-
tion, to Etawah, Farukhabad, and Fatehpur. Our early officials found
the country suffering heavily from the fiscal exactions of its native
rulers ; and the first step needful for the re-establishment of agricultural
prosperity was a reduction of the land revenue. A series of reduced
settlements were effected at various dates in the early part of the present
century, and the District began rapidly to revive under the firm and
peaceful rule of its new masters.

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 33 of 56)