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Chach. — Tract of country in Attock tahsil, Rawal Pindi District,
Punjab, consisting of a fertile valley, lying along the east bank of the
Indus, north of the Attock Hills. The river channel here contains
numerous islands, whose herbage, naturally watered by percolation,
affords pasturage for the flocks of the surrounding country. Irrigation,
except from wells, is impracticable in the valley itself; but a proposal
is under consideration for a canal drawing its supplies from Ghazi in
Hazara District. Hazro is the chief commercial and agricultural
centre of the Chach valley. The population consists of Hindus and
Muhammadans.

Chachana. — Petty State of Jhalawar in Kathiawar, Bombay Presi-
dency ; consisting of 1 village, with 1 independent tribute - payer.
Estimated revenue, ^229 ; tribute of ^31, 16s. is paid to the British
Government.

Chachra. — Sub-taluk of Umarkot taluk, Thar and Parkar District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency. — See Umarkot taluk.

Chachra. — Chief town in Umarkot taluk, Thar and Parkar District,
Sind, Bombay Presidency. Population (1872) 1649, namely, 183
Muhammadans (Rajput and Kumbar) ; and 1466 Hindus (chiefly
Brahmans, Lohanos, Mengwars, and Bhils), shopkeepers and traders.
No later population statistics are available to me. Distant 48
miles from Umarkot. The municipal revenue in 1873-74 was
^153, but the municipality was abolished in 1878 on the intro-
duction into Sind of Bombay Act vi. of 1873. Head-quarters of
mukhtiarkd?', with civil and criminal courts. Also Government school
and dharmsdla.

Chadchat. — Petty State in the Palanpur Agency, Gujarat (Guzerat)
Province, Bombay Presidency, known as Santalpur and Chadchat ; the
latter has 1 1 villages. Estimated area of the whole, 440 square miles ;
population, exclusive of Santalpur, (1881) 5330, consisting of 2803
males and 2527 females; of these, Hindus number 5097; Muham-
madans, 168; 'others,' 65. The ruling family are Jhareja" Rajputs,
related to the Rao of Cutch (Kachchh), and follow the rule of primo-
geniture. They hold the rank of thdkurs. Estimated revenue (with
Santalpur) in 1S81, ^3360, The country is flat and open. There



3 2 4 CHAGDAH—CHA1NPUR.

are three different kinds of soil — clayey, sandy, and black. Only one
crop of the common grains is produced during the year. Salt is
obtained in considerable quantities. There are no rivers, but numerous
tanks, which in ordinary seasons retain water till March, when the
inhabitants depend on their wells. Water is found from 5 to 20 feet
deep.— See also Santalpur.

Chagdah. — Town in Nadiya District, Bengal ; situated on the left
bank of the Hiigli. Station on the Eastern Bengal Railway, 38J miles
from Calcutta. Population (1881) 8989, namely, 6343 Hindus and
2646 Muhammadans; area of town site, 2500 acres. Municipal in-
come in 1881-82, ^303, equal to an average taxation of 7|d. per head
of the population within municipal limits. Chief mart of the jute
export trade, giving its name to the fibre grown throughout the Dis-
trict. The river here is considered sacred ; and on certain festivals,
Hindus flock to Chagdah to wash away their sins in its water.

Chaibasa. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Sing-
bhiim District, Bengal ; situated on rising ground overlooking the right
bank of the river Roro, and commanding a pleasant view. Lat. 22
32' 50" n., long. 85 50' 57" e. ; population (1881) 6006, namely,
5120 Hindus, 778 Muhammadans, and 108 'others;' area of town
site, 640 acres; number of houses, 1052, mostly built of mud or sun-
burnt bricks. Municipal income in 1881-82, ^274, equal to an
average taxation of 8Jd. per head of the population within municipal
limits. Besides the Deputy-Commissioner's residence and the ordinary
Government buildings, there are a few masonry houses, forming a short
street, belonging to grain and cloth merchants. Jail, police station,
post-office, Government English school, charitable dispensary. A large
fair, attended by 20,000 visitors from all parts of Singbhiim, is held
annually at Christmas time ; on the last day of the year, races, national
dances, and athletic sports take place. Chaibasa is the only place in
the District which has permanent shops, occupied by dealers in tasar
silk cocoons, cloth, and grain.

Chainpur. — Town in Shahabad District, Bengal ; situated 7 miles
west of Bhabua. Lat. 25 2 15" n., long. &3 32' 30" e. Formerly
the residence of the Chainpur Rajas, who were expelled by the Pathans
about 250 years ago ; and still held by Muhammadans. Population
(1881) 2964. The old fort of Chainpur yet stands, surrounded by a
ditch, and defended by a stone rampart flanked with bastions ; it has
a large gate in the northern, and a smaller one in the southern, curtain.
The space within is covered with buildings, partly of brick and partly
of stone, with several large wells. Mosque, in good condition, built as
a tomb over Fateh Khan, who married a daughter of the Emperor
Sher Shah. Ruined temple of Mandeswari, built by one of the earlier
Chainpur Rajas, 5 miles east of the town.



CHAINPUR— CHAK1RIA. 3 2 5

Chainpur. — Small village in Bha'galpur District, Bengal. Lat. 25
49' 28" n., long. 86° 34' 16" e. Noted only for its antiquity. The
population consists almost entirely of Brdhmans, and formerly the
decisions of its pandits were held in high esteem. It can no longer be
called a seat of pandits, of whom there are now but few, though the
Brahman population is still large.

Chaitanpur. — Hill range in Kharsawdn estate, Singbhiim District,
Bengal ; greatest elevation, 2529 feet. Crossed by the old road to
Chutia Nagpur, but not accessible for wheeled traffic.

Chaitanpur. — Village with hot spring in Patkum pargana, Manbhiim
District, Bengal. Lat. 22 52' o" n., long. 85 54' o" e.

Chaitpet {Setterupettu). — Village with fort in South Arcot District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 12° 28' n., long. 79 23' e. The fort was
held by the Marathas till 1690, when it was occupied by the Delhi
troops. In 1750, Shahnavaz Khan took refuge in it, but in the follow-
ing year the French were in possession. Again seized by the Marathas,
the French recaptured it in 1757. Three years later, it fell to the
British, after the battle of Wandiwash. In 1782, Haidar All fought
under its walls a drawn battle with the British troops ; and in the
following year, by the treaty with the Marathas, the place was given up
in exchange for Cumbum in the Balaghat. As first constructed, this
fort measured 540 yards by 430, and was defended by 14 towers.

Chak. — Town in Sakkar taluk, Shikarpur District, Sind, Bombay
Presidency. Population (1872) 1258, of whom 801 were Muhammadans
(chiefly Sitars and Mahars), and 457 Hindus (principally Brahmans
and Lohanos). No later population statistics are available to me.
Distant 12 miles north of Sakkar. Travellers' bungalow and police
station.

Chakeil. — Town in Jaipur State, Rajputana. Population (1881)
6219, namely, Hindus, 4615; Muhammadans, 1183; and 'others,'
421.

Chaki (Chakki). — Stream in Gurdaspur District, Punjab; rises in
the hills near the sanitarium of Dalhousie, and forms the eastern
border of the District for some distance, collecting the drainage of the
hill tract, and receiving tributaries from the main Chamba range.
Three miles south of Pathankot it divides into two branches, — one of
which, flowing south, empties itself into the Beas (Bias) near Mirthal,
while the other, which formerly turned westward to join the Ravi, has
been dammed back by the works of the Bari Doab Canal, whose line
now crosses its former channel. The whole body of water thus empties
itself finally into the Beas (Bias).

Chakiria. — Village and police station in Chittagong District, Bengal ;
situated on the Chittagong and Arakan road. Lat. 21 45' o" N., long.
92 9' o" e.



326 CHAKLASI—CHAKWAL.

Chaklasi. — Town in Nadiad Sub-division, Kaira District, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 22 39' n., long. 72 59' e. Population (1872) 7081.
No later statistics are available to me, but the population has now
probably fallen below 5000 inhabitants, as the town is not returned in
the Census Report of 188 1.

Chakrabari. — Village in Howrah District, Bengal. Noted for its
manufacture of dhutis and saris (cloth garments for men and women).

Chakrata. — Mountain cantonment in Dehra Dun District, North-
western Provinces. Lat. 30 43' o" n., long. 77 54' 20" e. Founded
in May 1866 ; first occupied in April 1869. Stands upon the range of
hills overlooking the valleys of the Jumna (Jamuna) and the Tons, in
the region known as Jaunsar Bawar. A small native town has gathered
round the cantonment; population (1881) 1327. Seat of a canton-
ment magistrate ; post-office ; lines for a European regiment. Reached
by a mountain cart-road from Kalsi.

ChakultOI*. — Village, with annual fair, in Manbhum District, Bengal.
Lat. 2 3 14' o" n., long. 86° 24' o" e. Fair commences on the occasion
of the chhdtd pardb or umbrella festival in September, and lasts about
a month ; resorted to by traders from Bankura, Bardwdn, Birbhum,
Lohardaga, and Hazaribagh. Brass vessels and brass or shell orna-
ments are the chief articles brought for sale.

Chakwal. — Tahsil of Jhelum (Jehlam) District, Punjab, occupying
the central portion of the District to the north of the Salt range ;
situated between 32 45' o" and $$ 13' o" n. lat, and 72 31' o" and
73° 17' o" e. long.; area, 818 square miles; population (1881)
I 54) I 44> namely, males 80,206, and females 73,938. Muhammadans
numbered 134,534; Hindus, 14,487; Sikhs, 5123. Total area under
cultivation — rabi, 2 1 2,436 acres, of which 1 7 1,692 are under rice ; kharif,
89,724 acres, of which 61,136 acres are under bdjrd. Total area of
cultivation, 290,135 acres, of which 12,025 acres are twice cropped.
Total number of estates, 247, of which 12 are zaminddri, 32 pattiddri,
and 203 bhaydchdrd. The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr
and munsif, who preside over 1 civil and 2 criminal courts. Number
of police circles (thdnds), 3 ; strength of regular police, 65 men ; village
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 131.

Chakwal. — Town and municipality in Jhelum (Jehlam) District,
Punjab, and head-quarters of Chakwal tahsil. Situated midway
between Pind Dadan Khan and Rawal Pindi, and 54 miles south-east
of Jhelum town. Lat. 32 55' 50" n., long. 72 54' o" e. Founded
by a Mhair Rajput from Jammu, whose descendants still own the
surrounding land. Situated on rising ground, and naturally drained
by several deep ravines. Population in 1881, 5717, namely, 3279
Muhammadans, 2045 Hindus, and 393 Sikhs. Number of occupied
houses, 920. A third-class municipality, with a revenue in 1882-83



CHALAKUDI—CHAL1SGA ON. 327

of ^390 ; expenditure, £^Z- Manufacture of shoes, of more than
local reputation ; also of parti-coloured cotton-cloth. Considerable-
export trade in grain and other country produce. Tahsili, police station,
circuit house, dispensary, school, and distillery.

Chalaklidi. — River in the State of Cochin, Madras Presidency;
rises in the Mukundapur district, and, after a tortuous course of 68
miles, empties itself into the backwater a few miles from Kranganen.

Chalan Bil— Lake or large marsh in Rajshdhi District, Bengal,
lying between Singra, a village on the Nattor and Bogra road, and the
north bank of the Baral river in Pabna District; situated between
24° 10' o" and 24 30' o" N. lat., and 89° 12' o" and 89 22' 30" e. long.
Length from north-west to south-east, 21 miles; greatest breadth, 10
miles; total area, about 150 square miles in the rains, and 20 square
miles during the dry season. It is a depressed basin, sunk below the
level of the surrounding country, except at the southern extremity, from
which its waters are discharged. Principal feeders, the Gur and Nanda-
kuja, both navigable streams. In the dry season, the average depth of
the area covered with water is 3 feet, but a tortuous navigable channel
runs through it, with a depth of from 6 to 1 2 feet all the year round.
The lake abounds in fish and water-fowl. The neighbouring swamps
are said to be a permanent seed-bed for the dissemination of endemic
cholera.

Chalauni.— River in Bhagalpur District, Bengal. Rises in a marsh
in pargci7ia Harawat, enters pargatid Nardigar at Thalia Garhi village,
and after a rather tortuous course falls into the Loran at Pandua. It
is not used for irrigation, and is too shallow for boat traffic. Rice is
grown in many parts of its bed.

Chalisgaon.— Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, 504 square miles ; contains 132 villages. Population
(1881) 59,031 persons, or 30,808 males and 28,223 females. Hindus
number 50,369; Muhammadans, 457 1; 'others,' 4091. The Sub-
division is situated in the extreme south of the District at the foot of
the Satmala range, which, running east and west in a wall-like line,
separate Khandesh from the Deccan uplands. Watered by the Girna
river, which flows from west to east through the northern villages, and
by its tributaries the Manyad and the Titur, which in their turn are
fed by several minor streams. Besides these, and the Jamda canal,
water is afforded by 2000 wells. The soil is mixed, much of it towards
the south, south-west, and north being hard and stony. The black
soil of the Girna valley, though better than in the surrounding parts, is
generally faulty, as it rests on a subsoil either of gravel or rock.
Cultivated area (1S78-79), 134,265 acres, of which grain crops occu-
pied 83,202 acres, or 61-97 per cent. ; oil-seeds, 17,209 acres, or 12-81
per cent. ; fibres, 30,640 acres, or 22-82 per cent. ; the remainder being



328 CHALISGA ON—CHAMBA.

under miscellaneous crops, such as sugar-cane, chillies, tobacco, etc.
The Sub-division contains 2 criminal courts and 1 police station
(thdnd) ; strength of regular police, 74 men ; village watchmen (chanki-
ddrs), 115.

Chalisguon. — Town in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency,
and head-quarters of Chalfsgaon Sub-division. Station on the Great
India Peninsula Railway, 30 miles south of Dhulia town, with which it
is connected by a fine, partly-bridged road. The town is of little
importance, except as being the head-quarters of a Sub-division,
although its trade has much increased since the opening of the railway.
Population (1872) 3941. No later population statistics are available
to me.

Chamardi.— Petty State of Gohelwar, District of Kathiawar, Gujarat
(Guzerat) Province, Bombay Presidency. It consists of one village,
with three independent tribute-payers. Estimated revenue in 1881,
,£900, from which ^76, 10s. is paid as tribute to the Gaekwar, and
j£g to Junagarh.

Chamarlakota {Sdmulkota). — Town in Godavari District, Madras
Presidency; situated in lat. 17 3' 10" n., and long. 82 12' 50" e.,
7 miles north of Coconada. Population (1881) 4961, namely, 4401
Hindus, 546 Muhammadans, and 14 Christians. It was formerly a
military station, but was abandoned in January 1869. The barracks,
first built in 1786, still remain. Chamarlakota is connected by canals
with Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry) and Coconada. Station of a
Lutheran Church Mission.

Chamba. — One of the Punjab Hill States under the Government of
the Punjab. A mountainous tract lying to the north of Kangra and
Gurdaspur Districts, between 32 10' 30" and 33 13' o" n. lat., and
between 75 49' o" and 77 3' 30" e. long.; shut in on almost every
side by lofty hill ranges. Bounded on the north-west and west
by the territories of Kashmir, on the east and north-east by British
Lahul and Ladakh, and on the south and south-east by the Districts
of Kangra and Gurdaspur. Estimated area, 3180 square miles.
Population (1881) 115,773. The Rajputs, to which caste the chief
belongs, are few in number, and only inhabit the valleys on the outer
slopes of the Himalayas. In Barmaor, and in the tracts bordering on
the British pargands of Niirpur in Kangra and Patankot in Gurdaspur,
there is a considerable Brahman population of a simple and even
primitive type engaged in agriculture, and as shepherds in the winter
months, who are strangers to the elaborate Hinduism of the plains,
and are looked up to by their neighbours not so much on religious
grounds as because of their purity of race. Associated with these is a
class of Khattris, who are believed to be degenerate Brahmans ; they
engage in agriculture and trade, and the military and civil service of



C II A MB A. 3^9

the State is principally recruited from their number. They differ from
the Khattris of the plains both in appearance and habits. Kanets are
found as cultivators in the neighbourhood of the Kangra border, but
seldom as owners of the soil. The Takkars are a distinct and appa-
rently intrusive race, of possibly Turanian origin, who are owners and
cultivators on the outer slopes of the hills, especially towards Dalhousie,
where they also take service z&jhampdn bearers, watchmen, coolies, etc.
The women of all classes, Brahmans not excepted, take an important
part in field labour, which consists chiefly in the making and main-
taining of cultivation terraces retained by masonry walls. Classified
according to religion, the State contains 108,377 Hindus, 6859 Muham-
madans, 385 Buddhists, 72 Sikhs, and 80 Christians. Number of
villages, 365 ; average density of population, 36 per square mile. Two
ranges of snowy peaks and glaciers run through the State ; one through
the centre, dividing the valleys of the Ravi and the Chenab ; the other
along the borders of Ladakh and British Lahul j to the west and south
stretch fertile valleys.

Two of the five great Punjab rivers water the State, flowing through
forests which are important sources of timber supply for the railways
and other public works in the Punjab. The forests are leased to the
British Government, and yield timber that brings in from ;£ 10,000 to
^20,000 a year. The spring crops consist of wheat and barley ; and
the autumn crops of Indian corn, rice, and inferior millets. Hops
have been successfully grown, and in course of time are expected to
form an important article of export. The other exports are drugs,
dye-stuffs, carraway seeds, walnuts, pine-nuts, honey, wool, ghi, and
pheasant skins. In the summer months an annual immigration of
turbulent Musalman Gujars from Jammu takes place, who graze their
buffaloes and milch cows chiefly on the Dain-Kund range, which lies
behind the sanitarium of Dalhousie. It is estimated that in the
summer months from five to six hundred thousand sheep and goats,
and from eight to ten thousand buffaloes and kine, find grazing on the
Chamba mountains. Iron-ore is plentiful, and the mines are regularly
worked, yielding sufficient for the wants of the people. Copper is also
found. Slate quarries exist all over the State, especially in the neigh-
bourhood of the sanitarium of Dalhousie. The soil and climate are
suitable for the cultivation of tea. Chamba is a favourite resort of
sportsmen, and the mountain ranges abound with game, comprising
the sloth and yellow bears, hill leopards, bara-singha, wild sheep,
ghural, ibex (ban-bakri), and kakar (barking deer). The musk deer
{kastura) is found in the Barmaor tract, but the custom of the country
prohibits its being killed as game. The yak or Tibetan ox (ehimwar)
is said to be found wild on the borders of Chamba and Lahul. Among
birds, the chikor (red-legged partridge), snow partridge, and five species



33° CHAMBA.

of pheasants are found, two of which yield a revenue of some ^400
a year for their skins. Eight passes connect Chamba proper with
Pangi and Chamba Lahul. The rivers are all well bridged, and there
are more than 300 miles of good roadways. A portion of the Central
Asian trade passes through Chamba. Cloth, cutlery, oil, leather, and
spices are exported to Ladakh, Yarkand, and Turkistan. The imports
are chiefly charas (a narcotic preparation of hemp), pashmina, carpets,
and brick tea, consigned to the markets of North-Western India,
especially Amritsar.

The ruling family of Chamba claims to be of Kshattriya descent.
The present Raja, Sham Singh, was born in July 1866, and the
administration of the State is carried on during his minority by a
British officer in concert with native officials. The results have been
very beneficial to the State, the revenue rising in eight years from
;£i 2,000 to ^17,300. By 1874-75 it had further increased to about
,£19,000, and by 1882 to £24,000, exclusive of £5000 representing
revenue-free grants. The Raja ranks 15th on the list of Punjab chiefs,
and is entitled to a salute of 1 1 guns. His military force consists of
1 gun, and 160 military and police. Chamba is an ancient Hindu
principality, and came into British possession in 1846. A part was
at first made over to the Maharaja of Kashmir; but, by agreement
in 1847, it came again entirely under the British Government,
and a sanad was given to the Raja, assigning the territory to him
and to his male heirs, who are entitled to inherit according to Hindu
law; and on failure of direct issue, to the heirs of the brothers
according to seniority. The late chief, Raja" Gopal Singh, having by
misconduct incurred the displeasure of the British Government, was
in 1873 required to abdicate. The internal administration is still
largely modelled on the ancient pattern of Northern Indian societies.
The revenue is collected by a resident agent, who represents the
subjects towards the State, but collects the share of customs duties
for the Raja. He is usually entitled the char, and corresponds in some
respects to the lambarddr or village head-man in certain parts of British
India. He has, under him, a lihiehdrd or village accountant, and a
batwdl or rural constable. The purely State officials in each pargand
are the kotwdl or magistrate; mehta or surveyor; amin or assessor;
and a varying number of durbidls, entrusted with miscellaneous
executive duties.

In 1854, the sanitarium of Dalhousie was made over to the British
Government, and a remission of £200 made in the tribute. In 1867,
a further remission of £500 per annum was allowed in compensation
for land taken up to form the cantonments of Bakloh and Baliin, where
British troops are now stationed. The tribute now paid is £500 per
annum.



CHAMBA— CBAMBAL. 33 1

Chamba.— Chief town in Chamba State, Punjab, and the residence
of the Raja. Lat 32 29' n. ; long. 76 10' e. Population in 1881,
5218, namely, Hindus, 4390; Muhammadans, 730; Sikhs, 43; and
'others,' 55.

Chambal (ChumbuT). — River of Central India, and one of the
principal tributaries of the Jumna (Jamna); rises in Mahva, about 8 or 9
miles south-west of the military station of Mhow (Mau), at an elevation
of 2019 feet above sea-level, amidst a cluster of summits of the Vindhya
range, having the local name oijanapdrd, on the crest of the watershed
which divides the great basins of the Ganges and the Narbada (Ner-
budda). Thence it flows down the slopes of the Vindhyan range, with
a general northward course, for 80 miles, receiving the waters of the
Chambila, a stream of almost equal length and volume, which takes its
rise in the same range. About 40 miles from its source it is crossed by
the line of the Rajputana-Malwa Railway at Chambal Station. At the
town of Tal, 25 miles lower down, the river turns to the north-west,
and, winding with a sinuous detour round the fortress of Nagatwara,
shortly receives a second great tributary, the Sipri, which also has its
origin in the Vindhyan mountains. Passing by a tortuous course
through the gorges of the Mokandarra Hills, the Chambal next enters
the depressed tract of Haraoti (Harowtee). Previously to reaching
this rugged region, it is crossed at the Gujarat Ghat, on the route from
Nimach (Neemuch) to the Mokandarra Pass, by a ford which becomes
practicable after the 1st of November, while during the rains a ferry-
boat is maintained for the convenience of traffic. Through the Mokan-
darra uplands, the Chambal glides between almost perpendicular cliffs,
expanding at its 209th mile into a picturesque lake, from whose bed it
escapes over a rocky barrier, by a series of magnificent cascades, the
chief of which has an estimated fall of 60 feet. At the city of Kotah,
50 miles below this picturesque scene, the Chambal is at all seasons a
deep and large stream, which must be crossed by ferry, even elephants
being unable to ford its shallowest part. At Paramir, 31 miles from
Kotah, the road from Agra to Mhow (Mau) passes the river by a ford,
its breadth varying from 300 yards in the rains to 30 yards in the dry
season.

After receiving the waters of the Kali-Sind, Parbati, and Banas,



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