William Wilson Hunter.

The imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) online

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oil-seeds on the lighter soils ; while gram and wheat are grown on the
clay. Manufacture of tasar cloth. The income of the jdgii'ddr is
^1225. Four schools, with an average attendance of 113 boys,
receive a grant-in-aid.

Chandlir. — Town in Ellichpur District, Berar; 16 miles east of
Ellichpur town. Population (1881) 4816. A weekly market is held
here, yielding considerable revenue, which is devoted to the improve-
ment of the town and of the market itself. Chandlir is connected with
the Great Indian Peninsula Railway at Amraoti station, and draws a
considerable traffic (especially sugar) from the Districts of the Central
Provinces above the Ghats on the north. Dispensary, post-office,
school, and police station.

Chandlir. — Tdluk of Amraoti District, Berar. Area, 855 square
miles; contains 2 towns and 296 villages. Population (1881) 171,611,
namely, 88,813 males and 82,798 females, or 20071 persons per
square mile. The population deriving their livelihood entirely from
the soil numbered 130,437, or 76 per cent, of the total population ;
average area of cultivated and cultivable land, 3-96 acres per head
of the agricultural population. Of the area of 855 square miles,
792 square miles are assessed for Government revenue, of which
666 square miles were under cultivation in 1881 ; in square miles
are returned as cultivable, and only 15 square miles as uncultivable
and waste. Total amount of Government assessment in 1881, includ-
ing local rates and cesses paid on land, ;£"4°>547> or an average of
2s. i-|d. per cultivated acre. The total revenue of the tdluk amounted
to ^48,846. It contains 1 civil and 2 criminal courts, with 5 police
stations {thdnds)\ strength of regular police, 84 men ; village watchmen
(chaukiddrs), 267.

Chandlir. — Town in Amraoti District, Berar, and head-quarters of
the Chandlir Sub-division. Lat. 20 49' n., long. 78 1' e. The
station of the same name on the Great Indian Peninsula Railway (430



366 CHANDURIA— CHANG BHAKAR.

miles from Bombay) is about a mile distant. Travellers' bungalow near
the station.

Chandliria. — Trading village and municipality in Khulna District,
Bengal; situated on the east bank of the Ichhamati. Lat. 22 54'
45" n. ; long. 88° 56' 45" E. Population (1881) 3534. Municipal
income in 1881-82, ^"248; average rate of taxation, is. 4Jd. per head
of population.

Chandwar. — Sub -division and town in Nasik District, Bombay
Presidency. — See Chandor.

Chang Bhakar. — Native State of Chutia Nagpur, Bengal, lying
between lat. 23 29' and 23 55' 30" n., and long. 8i° 37' and 82 23'
30" e. ; area, 906 square miles. Population (1881) 13,466. It forms
the extreme western point of the Chutia Nagpur Division, projecting
into the Baghelkhand State of Rewa, which bounds it on the north-
west and south ; on the east, it marches with the State of Korea, of
which, until 1848, it was a feudal dependency. Like Korea, it contains
large areas of coal-bearing rocks, and good coal has been found by the
Geological Survey. The general aspect of Chang Bhakar is that of a
dense and tangled mass of hills, ravines, and plateaux, covered with sal
jungle, and dotted at intervals with small villages. The most prominent
of the hill ranges takes a serpentine sweep from north-east to south-
west, and rises in occasional peaks to upwards of 3000 feet above sea-
level. The scenery in the interior of the country is for the most part
monotonous. Hill after hill repeats the same general outline, and is
clothed with the same sombre masses of sal foliage. Portions of both
northern and southern frontiers rise into bold cliffs, and seem to present
an almost inaccessible barrier to a hostile advance. Notwithstanding
these strong natural defences, the State suffered so seriously in former
days from Maratha and Pindari inroads, that the chief granted eight of
his frontier villages to influential Rajputs of Rewa to secure their
co-operation against the marauders. The only rivers in the State are
two unnavigable hill streams, the Banas and the Neur, both of which
take their rise in the range separating Chang Bhakar from Korea.
The sal forests are largely resorted to during the hot weather as
grazing grounds ; and a tax imposed on all cattle entering the country
for this purpose forms the principal source of the Raja's income.
Tigers, bears, and leopards abound ; and wild elephants, till recently,
committed such serious ravages among the crops as to cause the
abandonment of several villages. The Bhaya, or Chief, of Chang
Bhakar is a Rajput by caste, belonging to a collateral branch of the
Korea Rajas. His residence is in the village of Janakpur, a mere
collection of wretched huts. The Chiefs dwelling is a double-storied
range of mud buildings enclosing a courtyard. His annual revenue is
returned at .£300; tribute, ,£38. The population in 1881, classified



CHANGREZHING— CHANNA GIRL 3 6 7

according to religion, comprised 13,421 Hindus and 45 Muhammadans.
The Dravidian Gonds form the most influential race in the State,
but neither they nor the other aboriginal tribes are returned separately
in the Census Report, State by State, and are apparently included as
Hindus by religion. Among the Kolarian tribes are a curious race,
called Muasis or Kurus, who are identified by Colonel Dalton with
the Kurs of Betiil, Hoshangabad, and Nimar in the Central Pro-
vinces. Their deities are derived from Hindu mythology, and in
social customs they partly conform to Hinduism and partly to
Gond practices. In 1870-71, the remains of extensive rock excava-
tions, supposed to be temples with monasteries attached, were
discovered near the village of Harchoka in the north of the State.
It is inferred that these remains, together with the fine old mango
groves found here and there in the heart of the jungles, were the
work of a more civilised race than the present inhabitants of Chang
Bhakar. The Kols and Gonds neither build temples nor plant groves ;
and the existence of such remains would seem to point to either
a previous Aryan occupation, or to the ascendancy of one of the
highly-civilised Central Indian Gond kingdoms, which were swept away
by the Marathas towards the end of the eighteenth century. The
aboriginal races are generally poor, and their crops barely suffice for
their actual requirements. Their ordinary clothing consists of little more
than a waist-cloth ; but on festivals the Kolarians appear in clean white
clothing, while the Gonds affect colours. The Hindus are generally
well dressed, and the better classes of all castes wear quilted garments
of dark-coloured cotton, with caps to match. Two hill passes lead into
the State, which is intersected by two jungle roads.

Changrezhing. — Village in Bashahr State, Punjab, near the north-
eastern frontier, dividing that principality from Chinese territory, 3
miles east of the Li, or river of Spiti. Lat. 32° 3' n., long. 78' 40' e.
Inhabited in summer only by peasants from the neighbouring hamlet of
Change Forms, according to Thornton, the farthest eastern limit of
European exploration in this direction, the Chinese population of the
adjacent country vigilantly interfering with all further progress.

Changsil.— Range of mountains in Bashahr State, Punjab, lying
between 30 56' and 31° 20' n. lat., and between 77° 54' and 78 12' e.
long. Proceeds in a south-westerly direction from the Himalayan
range, and forms the southern boundary of Kunawar. Traversed by
numerous passes, having elevations of between 13,000 and 14,000 feet
above the sea.

Channagiri. — Taluk in Shimoga District, Mysore State. Area, 467
square miles; population (1881) 66,082, namely, males 32,548, and
females 33,534. Hindus numbered 61,360 j Muhammadans, 4405 ; and
Christians, 317. The south and west of the tdluk arc crossed by lines of



36S CHANNAGIRI—CHANRA YPATNA.

hills, the streams from which unite to form the great Sulekere tank,
40 miles in circumference, and thence flow northwards as a single
stream, the Haridra, into the Tungabhadra. The remainder of the
taluk consists of open country, with extensive grazing grounds. The
northern tract is exceptionally fertile, and contains much garden and
sugar-cane cultivation. Total revenue (1883-84) ^12,390, of which
^9247 was derived from the land-tax. The taluk contains 1 criminal
court, with 6 police stations (t/idnds) ; strength of regular police, 56 men ;
village watchmen (chaukiddrs).

Channagiri. — Village in Shimoga District, Mysore State, and head-
quarters of Channagiri taluk; 25 miles by road north-east of Shimoga.
Lat. 14 1' n., long. 75 59' e. ; population (1881) 3141, including several
Lingayat traders; municipal revenue (1881-82) .£101.

Channapata (or Chennapatnam, ' Handsome city'). — Together with
Sukravarpet, a town in Bangalore District, Mysore State, 37 miles by
road south-west from Bangalore. Lat. 12 38' n., long. 77 13' e.
Population (1881) of Channapata, 1240; of Sukravarpet, the industrial
quarter, 5840, of whom 2710 are Hindus, 31 15 Muhammadans, and
15 Christians. Municipal revenue, ,£50; rate of taxation, 2d. per
head. The fort was built about 1580 by Jaga deva Rayal, who founded
a family that ruled until 1630, when they were overthrown by the
Wodeyar of Mysore. It now contains a palace erected by a relative of
the late Maharaja, but has been much depopulated by fever. Sukra-
varpet, lying to the north-east, is celebrated for the manufacture of
lacquered ware and toys, fine steel wire for strings of musical instru-
ments, and glass bracelets. It contains a large number of Muhammadans
belonging to the Labbay and Daira classes, who trade with the western
coast. North of the pet are two large Musalman tombs — one erected
to the memory of the religious preceptor of Tipii, the other for a
commandant of Bangalore, who was distinguished for his humanity to
Tipii's British prisoners. Until 1873, head-quarters of a taluk of the
same name.

Chanraypatna. — Taluk or Sub-division in Hassan District, Mysore
State. Area, 454 square miles ; population (1881) 62,209, namely, males
29,288, and females 32,921. Hindus numbered 61,047; Muham-
madans, 958 ; and Christians, 204. The tdluk drains southwards to
the Hemavati river, and contains many large tanks. The country
is generally open and well cultivated, the principal hills being the
isolated Jain settlement of Sravan Belgola. The soil, except in the
north-east where it is shallow and stony, is generally fertile, and
produces the usual 'wet' and 'dry' crops. Land revenue (1881),
exclusive of water-rates, ;£i 1,326.

Chanraypatna. — Village in Hassan District, Mysore State, and
head-quarters of Chanraypatna tahsil ; 24 miles by road east of



CHANSAMA- CI1APRA. 369

Hassan. Lat. 12° 54' 12" N., long. 76 25' 55" e. ; population
(1881) 2608. Originally called Kolatiir, the name was changed in
1600 by a local chief, who erected a temple to Chenna Raya Swami
or Vishnu, after whom his own son had been named. The fort was
built subsequently, and Haidar All added the wet moat and traverse
gateways. Small articles of silk are made by the Musalmans.

Chansama. — Town in the territory of the Gaekwar of Baroda,
Gujarat (Guzerat) Province, Bombay Presidency. Lat 23 43' o" \.,
and long. 72 14' 55" E. ; population (1881) 7452, namely, 3963 males
and 3489 females. Contains a police station, dJiarmsdia, vernacular
school, post-office, and the largest Jain temple in the Gaekwar's territory.
This temple is dedicated to Parasnath ; it was built by subscription half
a century ago, and cost about ^£70,000. Its numerous brick steeples
form a prominent landmark, and from a distance give it the look of a
French castle. The stonework is profusely carved, and the interior,
with a flooring of marble, contains marble figures of the 24 Jain deified
saints.

Chailtapilli (Santapillv, Sentapillt). — Village in Vizagapatam District,
Madras Presidency ; situated 5 miles north-east of Konada point and
hamlet, in lat. 18 2' 30" n., and long. 83 42' o" e. ; population (1881)
530. On the summit of a small hill stands the ' Santapilly ' lighthouse,
erected in 1847 to warn shipping, especially vessels making the port of
Bimlipatam, off the rocks. The lighthouse is distant about 6J miles,
bearing south-east half-east. The light is visible 14 miles to seaward.

Chanwarpatha. — Decayed village in Narsinghpur District, Central
Provinces, and up to 1876 the head-quarters of a revenue sub-division
or talisil Population (1881) 1227. Ruins of a fine Maratha fort,
which commanded the important fords and ferry across the Narbada at
Birman.

Chapa. — Estate or zaminddri in Seorinarayan tahsil, Bilaspur Dis-
trict, Central Provinces. Area, 120 square miles; number of villages,
65 ; occupied houses, 6377 ; population (1881) 23,819, namely, 11,716
males and 12,103 females; average density of population, 198*5 per
square mile.

Chapa. — Village in Seorinarayan tahsil, Bilaspur, Central Provinces.
Population (1881) 3306, namely, Hindus, 3065; Kabirpanthfs, 141 ;
Satnami, 1 ; Muhammadans, 38 ; tribes professing aboriginal faiths, 61.

Chapra. — Head-quarters Sub-division of Saran District, Bengal.
Area 998 square miles, with 1643 towns or villages, and 139,941 occu-
pied houses. Population (1881) 985,834, namely, males 455,654, and
females 530,180. Hindus numbered 894,682 ; Muhammadans, 91,004 :
and Christians, 148. Average density of population, 988 per square
mile; villages per square mile, 1-65; houses per square mile, 166;
persons per village, 600; persons per occupied house, 7*04. The Sub-

vol. in. 2 A



37 o CHAPRA—CHARAMAL

division comprises the 5 police circles (thdnds) of Chapra, Dighwara,
Parsa, Manjhi, and Mashrak. In 1882 it contained 16 magisterial and
civil courts, a regular police force of 369 men, and 2017 chaukiddrs or
village watchmen.

Chapra. — Chief town and administrative head-quarters of Saran
District, Bengal ; situated on the left bank of the Gogra, about a mile
above its confluence with the Ganges, in lat. 25 46' 42" n., and long.
84 46' 49" e. A long straggling town, 4 miles in length, with a breadth
nowhere exceeding half a mile. The site is very low, and in years of
high flood only protected from inundations by the embanked tramway
road on the west, and by a new embanked road on the north. Popula-
tion (1881), Hindus, 39,651; Muhammadans, 11,912; Christians, 107
total, 51,670, namely, 25,116 males and 26,554 females. The town con-
tains the usual Government courts and offices, jail, police station, hand-
some sardi or rest-house, Government English school, and charitable
dispensary. It has also a station of the German Lutheran Mission.
Chapra has suffered much commercially from the recession of the
Ganges, which formerly flowed close under the town ; while its main
channel is now a mile distant in the cold weather. It is still, however,
a place of importance, and contains many wealthy native banking
houses. Goods of all kinds are obtainable in the bdzdr, pottery and
brass utensils forming a specialty. At the end of the last century, the
French, Dutch, and Portuguese had factories at Chapra. The District
of Saran was then famed for its saltpetre, and the Chapra mark was
especially esteemed ; but this trade has been on the decline for many
years past. Roads radiate from Chapra to Sonpur, MuzarTarpur,
Motihari, Sewan, and Guthni. Municipal revenue (1881-82) ^2354;
expenditure, ^2370; average incidence of taxation, is. per head of
population within municipal limits.

Chaprauli. — Large village in Meerut (Mirath) District, North-
western Provinces. Lat. 28 50' 15" n., long. 77 36' 30" e.; population
(1881) 6115, namely, 4780 Hindus, 937 Musalmans, and 398 Jains.
Stands on a raised site, 40 miles from Meerut city. Large community
of Saraugi Baniyas, possessing a handsome temple. Said to have been
colonized by Jats in the 8th century. About 150 years ago, the original
inhabitants received among them the Jats of Mirpur, who had been
almost ruined by the incursions of the Sikhs ; and since that time the
town has largely increased. Agricultural centre, without trade or
manufactures. Bdzdr, sardi, police station, post-office.

Charamai. — Lake in Bashahr State, Punjab ; near the summit of
the Barenda Pass, at an elevation of 13,839 feet above sea-level. Lat.
31 23' n., long. 78 11' e. From its bed the river Pabur takes its
rise, and immediately precipitates itself over a ledge of rock, in a fall
of 100 feet. Massive beds of snow surround the lake, while others



CHARAPUNJ1—CHARKHARL 37 r

form a natural bridge over the Pabur, or hem it in with frozen cliffs
of ice.

Charapunji. — Town in the Khasi Hills, Assam. — See Cherra
Poonjee.

Charda. — Pargana in Bahraich District, Oudh ; bounded on the
north by Nepal State, the Rapti river marking the boundary line ; on
the east by Bhinga pargana ; and on the south and west by Nanpara.
The history of this parga?ui is virtually that of Nanpara. Occupied
successively by hill chieftains, the Ikauna family, and the Sayyids, it was
finally bestowed upon a relative of the Nanpara Raja, and held by him
and his descendants till 1857, when the estate was confiscated for the
rebellion of its holder, and conferred upon loyal grantees. It is inter-
sected by the Bhakla river, which divides it into two distinct tracts.
The country between the Bhakla and the Rapti lies low, and has a rich
alluvial soil. The tract west of the Bhakla forms a portion of the
tableland described under Bahraich pargana. Area, 206 square miles,
of which 142 are under cultivation, and 51 cultivable waste. Govern-
ment land revenue, .£13,253 ; average incidence, 2s. njd. per acre of
cultivated area, 2s. 4fd. per acre of assessable area, and 2s. 2|d. per
acre of total area. Population (1881) 76,018, namely, 39,315 males and
36.703 females; number of villages, 177. Two Government roads
intersect the pargana. Several market villages, three Government
schools, police station, post-office.

Chardwar. — Fiscal Division or mahdl in Darrang District, Assam.
Area, 1120 square miles. In the north is the Chardwar forest reserve,
lying between the Belsiri and Mansiri rivers, with a total area of 80
square miles. This reserve includes an experimental plantation of
caoutchouc trees (Ficus elastica), covering an area of 803 acres. The
proportion of failure among the seedlings and cuttings has been about
18 per cent.

Charkha. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Gujarat (Guzerat)
Province, Bombay Presidency ; consisting of one village, with 4 inde-
pendent tribute-payers. Estimated revenue (1881) £1200. Tribute
of £50, 6s. is paid to the Gaekwar, and £3, 16s. to Junagarh.

Charkhari. — Native State in Bundelkhand, under the Central India
Agency and the Government of India; lying between 25 21' and 25
36' n. lat., and between 79' 40' and 79 58' e. long. Area, 787J square
miles; population (1881) i43> OI 5> namely, i35> 6 35 Hindus, 6273
Muhammadans, 100 Jains, 945 aborigines, and 62 ' others;' number
of villages, 287 ; number of houses, 24,259 ; average density of popula-
tion, 181 per square mile. The present Maharaja (1SS3), Dhiraj Jai
Singh Deo, was born about 1853. Like all the Bundela chiefs, he is
descended from Raja Chattar Sal. His ancestor, Biji Bahadur, was the
first who submitted to the authority of the British ; a sanad confirming



3 7 2 CHARKHARI— CHARSADDA.

him in his principality was granted to him in 1804, and confirmed in
181 1. His successor remained faithful to the British Government
during the Mutiny, protecting European officers and native officials.
In reward for his services, he was granted the privilege of adoption, a
jdgir oi £2000 a year in perpetuity, a dress of honour, and a salute of
11 guns. The revenue of the State is 5 lakhs of rupees per annum
(say ^50,000).

Charkhari. — Chief town of Charkhari State in Bundelkhand,
Central India ; situated on the route from Gwalior to Banda, 41 miles
from the latter place. Lat. 25 24' n. ; long. 79 47' e. Occupies
a picturesque site at the base of a high rocky hill surmounted by a fort,
to which access can be obtained only through a flight of steps cut in
the rock, on such a scale as to be practicable for elephants. Two
neighbouring elevations command the fortress for all purposes of
modern warfare. Below the town lies a large lake; good roads,
embowered among trees, lead from it in all directions ; and a tank,
commenced as a relief work, irrigates the surrounding fields.

Charmadi (or Kodekal; called also the Bund or Coffee Ghat).— Pass
in the Uppanagadi taluk, South Kanara District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 1 3 4 30" n. ; long. 75 27' o" e. Opened in 1864, and now one
of the main lines for wheeled traffic, and specially for coffee transport
between Mangalore and Mysore.

Charmunsha. — Town in the head-quarters Sub-division of Noakhali
District, Bengal. Population (1881) 7363, namely, 3638 males and
3725 females.

Charra— Village in Manbhiim District, Bengal. Lat. 23 23' o" nJ
long. 86° 27' 30" e. Situated near Purulia town, and containing two
very old Jain temples, called deuls or devdlayas, built of roughly-
cut stone, without cement, and clamped together with iron bands.
There were originally seven of these temples, but five have fallen into
ruins, and the fragments have been used for building houses in the
village. Of the remaining two, the most perfect is tower-shaped,
terminating in a dome of horizontal courses of stone about 30 feet high,
with a circular finial like a huge cog-wheel, and the remains of flag-
roofed colonnades on both sides. The slabs forming the roof are great
blocks of granite from 5 to 9 feet in length, 2 to 2 \ in breadth, and
1 foot thick. There is no carving about the temples, nor any object of
worship in the shrines ; but on the stones scattered about, traces of the
nude Tirthankaras, or Jain deified saints, are visible. The construction
of some large ancient tanks in the vicinity is also attributed to the
Srawak Jains.

Charsadda. — Town in Peshawar District, Punjab, and head-quarters
of the Hashtnagar tahsil, situated on the left bank of the Swat river, 16
miles north-east of Peshawar, in lat. 34° 9' n. ; long. 71 46' 30" e.



CHARTHA WAL—CHATA. 373

Population (1SS1) S363, namely, 7S92 Muhammadans and 471 Hindus ;
number of occupied houses, 1438. The town is not fortified, and
is connected by road with Peshawar, Mardan, and the Naushahra
railway station on the Northern Punjab State Railway. It is a la
and prosperous agricultural village rather than a town, but contains
several enterprising Hindu traders. Charsadda is almost contiguous to
the considerable village of Prang ; and these two places are identi-
fied by General Cunningham with the ancient Pushkalavati, capital of
the surrounding region at the time of Alexander's invasion, and trans-
literated as Peukelas or Peukelaotis by the Greek historians. Its
chieftain (Astes), according to Arrian, was killed in defence of one ot
his strongholds after a prolonged siege by Hephaistion. Ptolemy fixes
its site upon the eastern bank of the Suastene or Swat. In the 7th
century a.d., Hwen Thsang visited the city, which he describes as being
100 //" (i6§ miles) north-east of Peshawar. A stupa or tower, erected
over the spot where Buddha made an alms-offering of his eyes, formed
the great attraction for the Buddhist pilgrim and his co-religionists.
The city, however, had even then been abandoned as a political capital,
in favour of Parashawara or Peshawar. It probably extended over a
large area. The entire neighbourhood is, according to General Court,
covered with vast ruins.

Charthawal. — Town in Muzaffarnagar District, North - Western
Provinces. Lat. 29 32' 30" n. ; long. 77 38' 10" e. Population (1881)
5300, namely, 3302 Hindus, 1958 Muhammadans, and 40 Jains.
Police station, post-office. Distant from Muzaffarnagar 7 miles west,
from the Hindan river 3 miles east, and from the Kali Nadi 6 miles
west. Once the residence of an dmil, but now a small agricultural
town. A small municipal revenue in the form of a house-tax is raised
for police and conservancy purposes.

Chata {Chhdtd). — Tahsil of Muttra (Mathura) District, North-
western Provinces, lying in the centre of the trans-Jumna portion, and
traversed by the Agra Canal. It forms part of the Braj-Mandal of
ancient Hindu topography, one of the earliest settlements colonized
by the Aryan immigrants into India. Although the tahsil is situated
between the Bhartpur hills on the extreme west and the range of sand-
hills and ravines that slope down to the valley of the Jumna on the



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 44 of 56)