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east, the surface is exceptionally level and uniform. Not a single
natural river or stream passes through it, but the Agra Canal, which
intersects it from north to south, together with wells, affords facilities for
irrigation. The soil is, generally speaking, a light but strong loam,
which contains a sufficient admixture of sand to render it friable and
easily worked, while there is enough clay to give it body. Area (18S1)
25 1 \ square miles, of which 187 square miles were under cultivation,
49 square miles cultivable, and \^\ square miles uncultivable. Popu-



374 CHATA— CHATRA.

lation 84,598, residing in 106 villages. Hindus numbered 76,987 ;
Muhammadans, 7605 ; and Jains, 6. Up to a very recent period
almost the whole of the tahsil was pasture and woodland ; and in con-
sequence of the demand for cultivators to open up the soil, the unusual
feature is reported that tenants with occupancy rights pay an average
rental about 10 per cent, more than that paid by tenants-at-will. The
land revenue in 1881-82 amounted to ,£20,262; total Government
revenue, including rates and cesses, ,£23,055 ; rental paid by culti-
vators, £36,856. The tahsil contained in 1883, 1 criminal court and
3 police stations (thands) ; strength of regular police, 36 men ; village
watchmen (c/iaukiddrs), 182.

Chata. — Town in Muttra District, North -Western Provinces, and
head-quarters of Chata tahsil. Lat. 27 43' n. ; long. 77 32' 50" E.
Distant 9 miles west of the Jumna, and on the northern border of the
pargand, 21 miles north-west from Muttra town. Area, 94 acres;
population (1881) 6014, namely, 4958 Hindus and 1056 Muham-
madans. A small municipal revenue in the shape of a house-tax is
levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856 for police and con-
servancy purposes. The principal feature of the town is its large fort-
like sardi, covering an area of over 6 acres, with battlemented walls
and bastions, and two lofty entrance gateways of decorated stone-work,
dating from the time of Sher Shah or Akbar. During the Mutiny
of 1857, it was occupied by the rebels, who, however, had to blow
one of the towers down before they could effect an entrance. The
town contains a second-class police station, imperial post-office, school,
and encamping ground for troops. Weekly market held every Friday.

Chatari. — Village in Khurja tahsil, Bulandshahr District, North-
western Provinces, situated on the Aligarh road, 21 miles east of
Khurja town. A prosperous village, and site of a large weekly cattle
market. Good school ; post-office.

Chatna. — Village and head-quarters of a police outpost, in Bankura
District, Bengal. Lat. 23 18' 30" n. ; long. 87 o' 20" e.

Chatra. — Town in Hazaribagh District, Bengal; situated about
36 miles north-west of Hazaribagh town. Lat. 24 12' 27" n. ; long.
84 55' e. The chief market of the District, carrying on a considerable
trade with Lohardaga, Gaya, Shahabad, Patna, Bardwan, and Calcutta.
A large cattle fair, held annually during the Dasahard festival, is
attended by butchers from Calcutta. Population (1881), Hindus, ZZ^l
Muhammadans, 3058; 'others,' 9: total, 11,900, namely, 5613 males
and 6287 females. Municipal income (1881-82) £488; average
incidence of taxation, o/fd. per head. On the 2nd October 1857, an en-
gagement took place at Chatra between H.M.'s 53rd Foot — supported
by a detachment of Rattray's Sikhs — and the Ramgarh Battalion, which
had mutinied at Ranchi, and was marching to join the rebel zaminddr



C/L 1 TRAPUR—CHA UKIDANGA.



o/ d



Kunwar (Kooer) Singh at Bhojpur in Shahabad. The mutineers, posted
in great force on the brow of a hill, made a stubborn resistance, but
were defeated with a loss of 40 men and all their supplies.

Chatrapur. — State and town in Bundelkhand, North- Western Pro-
vinces. — See Chhatarpur.

Chatrapur (Chetterpur, Satrapuram). — Town in Ganjam District,
Madras Presidency; situated 19 miles north-east of Barhampur (Ber-
hampur), and 5 miles distant from Ganjam town. Lat. 19 21' N.,
long. 85° 3' e. The residence of the Collector of the District, and of
the Superintendent of Police. There is a school here, endowed by a
late Collector, Mr. A. P. Onslow, with some house property, which
includes the house usually occupied by the Collector. The oldest
rooms in this house were built by Captain Evans, who managed a horse-
breeding establishment here, which was broken up about 18 14, after an
existence of sixteen years. A weekly market is held on Thursdays,
when native cloths and other goods are brought from Berhampur and
Ganjam for sale. Provisions for Europeans have usually to be brought
from Berhampur, and even for natives the bazar is but indifferently
supplied. The public buildings consist of a subsidiary jail, the police
hospital and police lines, and the Collector's court.

Chats!!. — Town in Jaipur State, Rajputana; distant about 24 miles
south-east from Jaipur, on the Agra and Nasirabad route. An important
town, in which eight annual fairs are held, most of them largely attended.
A dispensary is maintained here by the Maharaja.

Chaugachha. — Village in Jessor District, Bengal ; situated on the
bank of the Kabadak river. A sugar manufacturing and refining village,
surrounded by groves of date palms.

Chaughat (Chdvakkdd). — Formerly a taluk of Malabar District,
Madras Presidency; but in i860 amalgamated with Kutnad and Vettat-
tanad taluks, and formed into the present taluk of Ponani (q.v.).

Chaughat (Chdvakkdd). — Town in the Ponani taluk, Malabar
District, Madras Presidency. Lat. io° 35' n., long. 76 3' 51" e. ;
houses, 1057; population (1881) 5535, namely, 2768 Hindus, 1712
Muhammadans, and 1055 Christians. Formerly the head-quarters of
the Chavakkad (Chaughat) taluk, and still containing subordinate
judicial and administrative offices; local funds school, etc.

Chauka. — River in Oudh ; one of the names assumed by the Sarda
in the lower part of its course through Kheri and Sitapur Districts ;
afterwards becoming the Dahaur, and ultimately joining the Kauriala
at Kutai Ghat, where it becomes the Gogra or Ghagra. — See Sarda
and Ghogra.

Chaukidanga. — Mine in the Raniganj coal tract, Bardwan District,
Bengal; situated in the Singaran valley : total thickness of seam, con-
sisting of alternate layers of coal and shale, 15 feet 9 inches; thickness



37 6 CHAUL.

of coal in seam, 14 feet 6 inches. This colliery was first worked in
1834; in 1861 much damage was caused by fire, owing to the liability
of the Raniganj coal to spontaneous combustion. The mine was
closed about 1878, and up to 1883 had not been re-opened.

Ohaul {Cheul, or Revdanda). — Town in Alibagh Sub-division, Kolaba
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 18° 33' n., long. 73 o' e. Popula-
tion (1881) 5355, namely, Hindus, 5282; Muhammadans, 30; and
' others,' 43. Area of town site, 2871 acres. Situated on the coast about
30 miles south of Bombay, and on the right bank of the Kundalika river,
or Roha creek. Chaul is a place of great antiquity. Under the names
of Champavati and Revatikshetra, local Hindu traditions trace it to the
times when Krishna reigned in Gujarat, b.c. 1200 (?). It seems probable
that Chaul or Cheul is Ptolemy's (a.d. 150) headland and emporium of
Symulla or Tymulla : and it has a special interest, as Ptolemy mentions
that he gained information about Western India from people who had
come from Symulla to Alexandria. About a hundred years later (a.d.
247), it appears in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea as Semulla, the
first local mart south of Kalliena ; and in 642 it is called Chimolo by
Hwen Thsang. Chaul next appears under the names Saimur and Jaimur
in the writings of the Arab travellers of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth
centuries. The Russian traveller Athanasius Nikitin (1470) calls it
Chivil. Thirty-five years later (1505) the Portuguese first appeared
at Chaul, and a few years after were allowed to build a factory there.
In 1583 the Dutch traveller Jean Hugues de Linschot described
Chaul as a fortified city with a good harbour, and famous for trade.
It was then a great centre of manufactures, with very deft and hard-
working craftsmen, who made a great number of chests and Chinese-
like cabinets, very rich and well wrought, and beds and couches
lacquered in all colours. There was also a great weaving industry in
cotton and silk. As late as 1668 (Bruce's Amia/s), the weavers of
Chaul are mentioned as making 5000 pieces of taffaties a year.

The insecurity of native rule at Chaul was of great advantage
to Bombay. The silk-weavers and other skilled craftsmen of the
town were induced to settle in Bombay, where the first street was
built to receive them : and their descendants of several castes, copper-
smiths, weavers, and carpenters, are still known as Chaulis, thus
preserving the name of their old home. Upper and Lower Chaul,
or, as they are more often called, Cheul and Revdanda, are among
the prettiest and most interesting places in Kolaba District, and
can be reached either by land from Alibagh, or by sea. The begin-
ning of the 7 miles of land journey from Alibagh is made trouble-
some by the Alibagh creek, but beyond the creek most of the way lies
through shady palm groves. Except the Portuguese ruins in Revdanda
or Lower Chaul, the Musalman mosque, baths, and castle of Rajkot in



CHA UMUHA— CHA URIA. 3 7 7

Old or Upper Chaul, and the Buddhist caves in the south and south-
west faces of the hills, Chaul has now few objects of interest.

Chaumuha. — Agricultural village in tahsil Chata, Muttra (Mathura)
District, North-Western Provinces, situated 8 miles south-east from
Chata town, on the metalled road from Muttra to Delhi. Popu-
lation (1881) 2275, chietiy Gauria Thakiirs. Weekly market held on
Tuesdays.

Chaumiin. — Town in Jaipur State, Rajputana. Distant about 18
miles north of the city of Jaipur, and the seat of the Thakiir of
this name, the premier noble of the State. A large, flourishing, and
fortified town. Dispensary, maintained by the Maharaja.

Chaur, The. — Peak in Sirmur (Sarmor) State, Punjab, forming the
highest summit among the mountains which occupy the sub-Himalayan
tract, with an elevation of 11,982 feet above the sea. Lat. 30 52' x. ;
long. 77 32' e. From its peculiar shape and great height it forms a
conspicuous element in the landscape for many miles around, being
easily recognised amongst the smaller ridges on every side. The Cham-
presents a striking appearance from the plains of Sirhind, and the view
from its summit embraces the vast lowland tract on the south, and a
wide panorama of the snowy range to the northward. Though below
the limit of perpetual snow, drifts remain in the shady chasms on its
flanks throughout the summer months. A dense forest of deodars
and other conifers clothe the northern and north-eastern declivities,
and rhododendrons, ferns, or gentians grow in patches on the detritus
of its granite slopes.

Chauradadar. — Hill plateau in the east of Mandla District, Central
Provinces; upwards of 3200 feet above sea-level. The winter nights
are intensely cold, and in the hottest days of April and May the heat
is not excessive. Water is abundant ; and, but for its inaccessibility,
Chauradadar might prove an excellent sanitarium.

Chauragarh. — Ruined fortress in Narsinghpur District, Central
Provinces ; en the crest of the outer range of the Satpura table-land,
800 feet above the level of the Narbada (Nerbudda) valley, and 22
miles south-west of Narsinghpur. Lat. 22 46' n. ; long. 78 59' e.
The northern, eastern, and western faces of the fort are scarped for
several hundred feet ; while to the south a small hill has been fortified
as an outwork. The circuit of defences embraces two hills, divided by
a dip of about 100 yards. On one of these stand the ruins of the
palace of the old Gond Rajas, and on the other the remains of barracks
built by the Nagpur Government. Numerous tanks yield a constant
supply of water ; and the exterior walls are still good in many parts.
There are three approaches.

Chauria. — Small estate or zaminddri in Behfr tahsil, Balaghat
District, Central Provinces. Area (1881) 25 square miles; number of



378 CHAUSA— CHEDUBA.

villages, 12; occupied houses, 101 ; population (1881) 526. A wild
jungle tract, the grant of which to the holder appears to have been
made on condition of his guarding the neighbouring hill passes.

Chausa. — Village and police outpost station in Shahabad District,
Bengal, and a station on the East Indian Railway ; 4 miles west of
Baxar town, and close to the east bank of the Karamnasa. Population
(1881) 2484. Noted as the scene of the defeat of the Emperor
Humayun by the Afghan Sher Shah, in June 1539. The Emperor,
with a few friends, was barely able to escape by crossing the Ganges,
but 8000 Mughal troops perished in the attempt. In the following
year, after a second defeat of Humayun near Kanauj, Sher Shah
ascended the Imperial throne of Delhi.

Chausa. — Canal in Shahabad District, Bengal ; a branch of the Son
(Soane) Canal system, leaving the Buxar Canal at the second mile,
which latter takes off from the Main Western Canal at the 12th mile
from the headworks at Dehri. The canal, which is 40 miles in
length, is designed for irrigation purposes only, and has a discharge of
545 cubic feet of water per second. Capable of irrigating 43,600 acres
of kharif and 98,100 acres of rabi crops.

Chavakkad. — Town and taluk in Malabar District, Madras Presi-
dency. — See Chaughat.

Chawindah. — Village in Zaffarwal tahsil, Sialkot District, Punjab.
Lat. 32 20' 45" N. ; long. 74 45' 15" e. Distant from Sialkot 14 miles
south-east, on the road to Zaffarwal. Purely agricultural community,
consisting chiefly of Bajwa Jats, the proprietors of the surrounding
lands.

Chedambaram. — Town and shrine in South Arcot District, Madras
Presidency. — See Chidambaram.

Cheduba (or Man-aung). — Island on the east coast of the Bay of
Bengal, forming a township in Kyauk-pyu District, Arakan, British
Burma. Lat. 18 40' to 18 56' 30" n. ; long. 93 30' to 93 47' E.J
population (1881) 23,867; area, 240 square miles. Head-quarters at
Cheduba or Man-aung. The general appearance and character of
Cheduba are those of a fertile, well-wooded island. A narrow plain,
slightly above the sea-level, extends round the coast ; within lie irregular,
low, undulating hills, varying in height from 50 to 500 feet, enclosing
several detached mounds (the highest about 1400 feet), with steep,
well-wooded sides. In the extreme north-west corner is a so-called
1 volcano,' from which flames issue, but which are really due to a copious
discharge of inflammable gas, and not to volcanic action. Petroleum
is found in several places on the island. A considerable quantity of
rice is exported coastwise : and Cheduba is noted for the excellence of
its tobacco. The township is divided into 8 revenue circles ; the gross
revenue realized in 1881-82 was ^5217. Two derivations are given



CUED UBA— CHENAB. 3 7 9

for the name • Man-aung,' which signifies ' overcoming of the evil dis-
position.' According to ancient tradition, a governor of the island,
appointed by San-da-ra 1., King of Arakan, who reigned some 2000
years B.C., so oppressed the people, that they complained to the
sovereign, who summoned the governor to appear before him. On the
governor refusing to attend the court, the monarch struck the sea with
a rod, and ordered it to bring his disobedient subject into his presence.
The sea obeyed, and in a few days the dead body of the rebel was
washed ashore near the royal city. According to another account, the
island was the place of transportation for those considered to be politi-
cally dangerous, whose evil disposition was thus overcome by their
being rendered powerless. The classical name is Mek-ka-wa-df. The
name Cheduba, by which the island is known to Europeans and natives
of India, is said to be a corruption of Char-dhuba, or ' four capes,' from
the headlands at the four corners of the island. A shoal, with probably
only two or three fathoms at low water, has lately been discovered 8
miles to the north-west of Beacon Island, Cheduba. In October 1878,
the Government deemed it necessary to warn mariners that ' the whole
of the neighbourhood of Cheduba and Ramri (Ramree) islands is
imperfectly known, and careful navigation is necessary.'

Cheduba (or Man-aung).— Small town, situated on the Un river, in
the north-west of the island of the same name in Kyauk-pyii District,
Arakan Division, British Burma. Population (1881) 1032. Contains
a court-house, market, school, and police station.

Chellakere.— Village in Chitaldriig (Chitaldroog) District, Mysore
State ; 18 miles east-north-east by road from Chitaldriig. Lat. 14 18' N.,
long. 76 43' e. ; population (1881) 1513; municipal revenue (1874-75)
£\i; rate of taxation, 2d. per head. The inhabitants are mostly
Lingayat traders, to whom belongs the chief building in the place, the
temple of Chellakere-amma. Head-quarters of the Dodderi taluk.

Chellapalli.— Town in Kistna District, Madras Presidency. Popu-
lation (1881) 5615, namely, 5118 Hindus and 497 Muhammadans ;
houses, 586.

Chenab (Chindb). —River in the Punjab, and one of the five streams
from which the Province derives its name. Rises in the snowy
Himalayan ranges of Kashmir ; pursues a winding course through the
gorges of Jammu ; and enters British territory in Sialkot District, near
the village of Khairi Rihal. Receives the waters of the Tavi, a con-
siderable confluent, and forms for some 18 miles the boundary between
Sialkot and Gujarat Districts. Flows in this portion of its route through
the alluvial plain of the Punjab, in a wide and shifting bed of sand.
It afterwards forms the limit between the Rechna and the Jech Doabs,
where many flat-bottomed country boats navigate its stream. A belt of
low-lying alluvial soil fringes either bank for some miles inland ; but



380 CHENARI— CHENG ALPA T.

beyond this narrow zone, the water of the river becomes practically
useless for purposes of irrigation. Passing along the whole western
border of Gujranwala District, the Chenab next enters the desert region
of Jhang, where it occupies a broad valley, nearly 30. miles in width,
consisting of modern deposits, through which the changing stream cuts
itself a fresh channel from time to time. The present bed lies about
midway between the high banks which confine the central valley at
either end. The shores are for the most part cultivated down to the
water's edge, the area under tillage having considerably increased since
the settlement of the country. Numerous islands stud the river, but
constantly change their places with every inundation. The depth of the
stream is here about 10 feet during the cold weather, rising to 16 feet
in the rainy season. At Timmu, the Chenab and the Jehlam (Jhelum)
unite. A railway bridge crosses the Chenab at Wazfrabad ; and a
bridge of boats conveys the road from Jhang to Dera Ismail Khan.

Chenari. — Village in Sasseram Sub-division, Shahabad District,
Bengal. Population (1881) 2536, namely, 1844 males and 1692 females.
A municipal union, with an income in 1881-82 of ^82.

Chendia. — Seaport in North Kanara District, Bombay Presidency.
The creek where goods are landed, called Aligaddi, is 6 miles south
of Karwar ; and the village of Chendia is about a mile and a half inland.

Chendwar.— Hill in Hazaribagh District, Bengal, near Hazaribagh
town; height, 2816 above sea-level, and 800 feet above the elevated
plateau on which it is situated. Lat. 23 ° 57' 15" n., long. 85 ° 28' 30" e.

Chengalpat (Chingleput, 'The brick town '). — District in the
Presidency of Madras, lying between 12 13' and 13 54' n. lat., and
between 79 35' and 8o° 23' e. long. Extreme length, 115 miles;
extreme breadth, 42 miles. Area, 2842 square miles ; population (188 1)
981,381 souls. In point of size, Chengalpat ranks twentieth, and in
population sixteenth, among the Districts of the Madras Presidency.
The Bay of Bengal bounds it on the east ; on the north lies Nellore
District ; on the south, South Arcot ; and on the west, North Arcot
District. The District contains 6 towns and 1997 villages. Land
revenue (1881-82) ,£i77>39 6 ; total revenue, ,£566,287.

Physical Aspects. — The District generally presents a flat and unin-
teresting aspect. The land seldom rises to an elevation of more than
300 feet, and in many places near the coast it sinks below the sea-level.
Long reaches of blown sand, which within the last few years have
become covered with larch-like plantations of casuarina-trees, and
which are often separated from the mainland by backwaters or lagoons,
form the chief feature of the coast scenery. Inland, great expanses
of flat rice plains, interspersed with groves of cocoa-nut and tamarind
trees, in which lie the villages of the people ; sandy plains, stony and
gravelly wastes, and stretches of poor pasture land, covered in most



CHENGALPAT. 3 Sr

places with dwarf date-trees and thorny bushes, form the principal
varieties of the landscape. The dreary palmyra palm (Borassus flabelli-
formis) abounds, and long lines of these trees usually mark the situa-
tion of the dams which form the tanks used for irrigation purposes.
Along the north-western corner runs the Nagalapuram and Kambd-
kam range, the highest point of which, the Kambakam-drug, is 2548
feet. In parts of the Chengalpat and Madhurdntakam taluks the
surface undulates, at times even rising into cones and ridges above
500 feet in height ; but there are no other elevations deserving the
name of hills. The drainage of the country is entirely from west to
east, into the shallow valleys of the Naranavaram, Cortelliar, Nagari,
and Palar. The soil is tor the most part poor, and, where no}
sandy, which is generally the case, is very often either saline or
stony. The principal streams are the Palar, Cortelliar, Naranavaram
(known more commonly as the Araniyanadi), the Cheyar, Adyar,
and Cooum (Kuvam) ; but none are navigable, being for part of every
year either empty sandbeds or trickling rivulets. The numerous back-
waters along the coast are connected by canals, which run through
the whole District from north to south, and to these is confined all
water traffic. The canals are known as a whole by the name of the
Buckingham Canal, after the Duke of Buckingham, a recent Gover-
nor of Madras. The Enmir (Ennore) and the Pulicat Lake are
the most important backwaters. The latter is a shallow salt-water
lagoon, about 35 miles in extreme length, with a breadth varying
from 3 to n miles, the greatest depth being about 14 to 16 feet.
The coast -line measures 115 miles, and the well-known 'Madras
surf beats on it throughout its length. Except Pulicat, where the
shelter is merely the shoal to the north-east, and Covelong, which is
protected from the south by a reef, there is nothing which can pre-
tend to the name of a harbour even for the smallest craft ; but, on
the other hand, there are two points of danger along the line — the
Pulicat shoal, and the Tirupalliir reef a little north of Covelong, as
well as the smaller reef at the latter-mentioned place. The average
depth at Naranavaran, 400 yards off shore, is over 20 feet, and the
bottom is firm throughout. The tide rises and falls 3 feet at the full
and new moons. Of mineral wealth, the District possesses little or
none; laterite, for building purposes, and the Chengalpat felspar and
granite, used in ornamental work, representing all its known resources.
The only forests are the comparatively poor growths on the Kam-
bakam and Nagalapur Hills, which have been conserved for 15 years,
but as yet have yielded no revenue. But the sand-dunes along the
coast, a large area occupying 20,000 acres, have within the last few
years been taken up by private enterprise for casuarina plantations,
which are extending year by year, and already occupy almost all



382 CHENGALPAT.

the land of this description bordering on the sea. This tree yields rapid
returns, attaining in favourable localities its full growth in about fifteen
years ; and as there is a large and increasing demand for firewood in
Madras, the enterprise has attained such proportions as to materially
change the physical aspect of long stretches of the coast, which will in
a few years be still more altered by this means as the plantations
mature. The flora of the District includes the cocoa-nut and palmyra
palms, the mango, pipal, banian, tamarind, babul (Acacia arabica),
margosa, and korakapillai (Garcinia cambogia). As might be expected



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 45 of 56)