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lake. This changeable inland sea forms one of a series of lacustrine
formations down the western shores of the Bay of Bengal, the result of
a perpetual war going on between the rivers and the sea — the former
struggling to find vent for their water and silt, the latter repelling them
with its sand-laden currents. The Chilka may be regarded as a gulf
of the original Bay of Bengal. On the south, a bold, barren spur of
hills runs down to the coast; on the north, the land-making rivers
have pushed out their rounded mouths and flat deltas into the ocean.
Nor has the sea been idle ; but meeting and overmastering the languid
river-discharge that enters the Chilka, it has joined the two promon-
tories with a bar of sand, and thus formed a lake. At this moment the



4l6 CHILE A LAKE.

delicate process of land-making from the river silt at the north-east
end of the lake is slowly but steadily going on ; while the bar-building
sea busily plies its trade across its mouth. Old documents show that
a century ago the neck of land was only from half a mile to a mile
broad in places where it is now two miles. On the other hand, the
opening in the bar, which was a mile wide in 1780, and had to be
crossed in large boats, was described forty years later as choked up.
Shortly before 1825, an artificial mouth had to be cut; and although
this also rapidly began to silt up, it remained, as late as 1837, more than
three times its present breadth. The villagers allege that it still grows
narrower year by year ; and the difficulty in maintaining an outlet from
the Chilka forms one of the chief obstacles to utilizing the lake as an
escapement for the floods that desolate the delta. Engineers report
that although it would be easy and cheap to cut a channel, it would be
very costly and difficult to keep it open; and that each successive
mouth would speedily choke up and share the fate of its predecessors.

The scenery of the Chilka is very varied, and in parts exceedingly
picturesque. In the south and west, hill ranges bound its shores ; and
in this part it is dotted with a number of small rocky islands. Proceed-
ing northwards, the lake expands into a majestic sheet of water. Half-
way across is Nalbana, literally ' the reed forest,' an island about 5 miles
in circumference, scarcely anywhere rising more than a few inches above
water-level. This island is altogether uninhabited, but is regularly
visited by parties of thatchers from the mainland, who cut the reeds
and high grasses with which it is completely covered. On the eastern
side of the lake lie the islands of Parikud, with new silt formations
behind, and now partially joined to the narrow ridge of land which
separates the Chilka from the sea. At some places they emerge almost
imperceptibly from the water ; at others, they spread out into well-raised
rice-fields. Their northern extremity slopes gracefully down to the lake
like an English park, dotted with fine trees, and backed by noble masses
of foliage. Water-fowl of all kinds are very abundant in every part of
the lake. Salt-making is largely carried on in Parikud. Beyond the
northern end of Parikud, the lake gradually shallows until it becomes
solid ground. At this point, the Puri rivers empty themselves into the
lake, and the process of land-making is going on steadily. The northern
shores of the Chilka comprise the pargands of Sirai and Chaubiskud,
and it is these tracts which have to bear the greatest suffering in times
of general inundation in Puri. Until Ganjam was abandoned, on
account of its unhealthiness, the Chilka lake was during the hot months
a frequent resort of Europeans from the Madras Presidency. At the
southern extremity of the lake stands the populous and important village
of Rambha, having an extensive trade in grain with Orissa, for which it
gives salt in exchange. A steam launch plies between Rambha and



CHILMARI— CHI XL 4 1 7

Burukudi on the Puri side, a distance of about 34 miles. The Chilka
Canal, connecting the southern extremity of the lake with the Rushi-
kulya river, is 7 miles in length, and navigable throughout the year.
Large quantities of grain and salt are carried to and fro along it.

Chilmari — Village in Rangpur District, Bengal ; situated on the
banks of the Brahmaputra river. Lat. 25 27' 20" n., long. 89 48' 50" E.
Considerable export trade in rice, paddy, and jute.

Chimiir. — Pargand in the north-west of Chanda District, Central
Provinces, comprising 158 villages; area, 416 square miles. Hill and
jungle cover the south and east. The soil is chiefly red, yellow, or
sandy, with considerable tracts of black loam. Principal products —
rice, sugar-cane, oil-seeds, wheat, cotton, gram, jodr. Chief towns —
Chimiir, noted for its fine cotton cloth j Neri, and Bhisi. At Jambul-
ghata, a large weekly market is held.

Chimiir. — Town in Warora tahsil of Chanda District, situated in
lat. 20 31' n., long. 79 25' 30" e. Population (1881) 4846, namely,
Hindus, 4255 ; Satnamis, 7 ; Muhammadans, 459 ; Jains, 3 ; Christians,
3; tribes professing aboriginal religions, 119. Police station and
vernacular school. Seat of an honorary magistrate. One of the
principal annual fairs in the District is held here. Manufacture of fine
cotton cloths.

Chinab. — River in the Punjab. — See Chenab.

Chinamandem (Chinnamandiem). — Town in Rayachati tdluk^ Cud-
dapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency. Lat. L3 56' n., long.
78 44' e. Population (1881) 4042, namely, 3353 Hindus and 689
Muhammadans; number of houses, 923.

Chinchimulla. — Formerly a separate estate, but in 18 14 added to
Banaganapalli, Madras Presidency.

Chinchli. — Petty State in Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency. —
See Dang States.

Chinchni. — Town in Thana District, Bombay Presidency. Popula
tion (1881) 4165. Situated on the north bank of the Chinchni Tdrapur
creek, about 6 miles west of the Vangaon station of the Baroda and
Central India Railway, and 8 miles south of Dahnanu. Vernacular
school and dispensary.

Chingleput. — District, taluk, and town in Madras Presidency. — See
Chengalput.

Chini. — Village in Bashahr State, Punjab ; situated about a mile
from the right bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj), in a slight depression on the
southern slope of a lofty mountain, in lat. 31 31' n., and long. 7S
19' e. Elevation above the river, 1500 feet; above sea-level, 90S5
feet. Naturally irrigated by a large number of little rills, and sur-
rounded with vineyards, whose grapes, dried into raisins, form a
principal article of food for the people. Large dogs, specially trained

VOL. III. 2 D



4 1 8 CHINIO T— CHINNAMALPUR.

for the purpose, deter the bears from plundering the vines. Chini was
the favourite hill residence of Lord Dalhousie.

Ohiniot. — Tahsil of Jhang District, Punjab ; lying for the most part
in the Rechna Doab, but also extending a little beyond the Chenab,
between lat. 31 30' 30" and 31 50' 30" n., and long. 72 35' and 73
14' e., into the country immediately above its junction with the Jehlam
(Jhelum). Area, 2149 square miles. Population (1881) 128,241,
namely, males 68,863, and females 59,378. Muhammadans number
112,173; Hindus, 15,369; Sikhs, 693; and 'others,' 6. Revenue
(1883), ^"13,921. The administrative staff consists of a tahsilddr and
??iunsif i presiding over 1 criminal and 2 civil courts. Number of police
stations (thdnds), 5 ; strength of regular police, 100 men; village watch-
men (chaukiddrs), 183.

Chiniot. — Town in Jhang District, Punjab, and head-quarters of
Chiniot tahsil, situated 2 miles south of the present bed of the Chenab,
on the road from Jhang to Wazirabad. Lat. 31° 43' 32" n., long. 73
o' 59" e. Population (1881) 10,731, namely, 3475 Hindus, 7143
Muhammadans, and 113 Sikhs; number of occupied houses, 1088.
Founded prior to the Musalman conquest of Upper India. The town
suffered much from the Durani inroads during the last half of the
1 8th century, and also during the troubles of 1848, being the
scene of constant sanguinary struggles between the leaders of local
factions. Chiniot now bears a prosperous aspect, and is a thriving
town, most of the houses being of excellent brickwork, lofty and com-
modious, especially those of the Khoja traders, who have large business
dealings with Amritsar, Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi. Handsome
mosque built by Nawab Sadulla Khan Tahim, governor of the town in
the reign of Shah Jahan ; also a shrine dedicated to Shah Barhan, a
Muhammadan saint revered by Hindus and Muhammadans alike,
Chiniot is celebrated for its wood-carving and masonry, and many of its
masons are said to have been employed in building the Taj Mahal at
Agra. The architect of the golden temple at Amritsar was also a
Chiniot man, and the head mason now attached to the building is
another. Manufacture of coarse cloth. Exports of cotton, wool, g/u,
bones, horns and hides. Besides the sub-divisional courts and offices,
the town contains a good charitable dispensary, school-house, rest-house,
etc., and a beautiful garden, well stocked with fruit-trees. The country
is well wooded, and the surrounding scenery is attractive. Municipal
revenue in 1881-82, ^658, or is. 2jd. per head of population.

Chilina Kimedi (or Pratdpgiri). — Zaminddri in Ganjam District,
Madras Presidency. — See Kimedi.

Chinnamalpur.— Peak of the Eastern Ghats, in Ganjam District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 18 40' n., long. 84 6' e. Height, 1615
feet above sea-level. Situated a mile east of the Parla Kimedi and



CHINSURAH— CHINTPURNL 4 1 9

Chicacole road. One of the stations of the Great Trigonometrical
Survey of India.

Chinsurah. — Town in Hiigli District, Bengal ; situated on the right
bank of the Hiigli river, a short distance south of Hiigli town. Lat.
22 53' 1" n., long. 88° 26' 40" e. Chinsurah is now included within
the Hiiglf municipality, and the Census returns of 1881 do not dis-
tinguish between the two towns, which contained a joint population in
that year of 31,177. See Hugli town. The Dutch established them-
selves at Chinsurah in the 17th century, and held the place till 1825,
when it was ceded by the Netherlands Government to Great Britain.
The town is neatly laid out. It was formerly used as an invalid depot
for troops, and for regiments arriving from or proceeding to England ;
but within the last few years it has been abandoned as a military station.
It contains a public library and printing-press.

Chintadrapet. — A quarter of Madras Town.

Chintalnar. — Zaminddri or estate in Bastar State, attached to
Chanda District, Central Provinces. Area, 480 square miles. Popu-
tion (1881) 4374, namely, 2184 males and 2190 females. Number of
villages, 48; occupied houses, 752. The forests supply teak, which is
exported by the Chintalnala, a small stream flowing into the Talper
river. The chief resides at Jigargunda.

Chintamani. — T&luk in Kolar District, Mysore State. — See Srini-
vaspur.

Chintamani-pet. — Town in Kolar District, Mysore State ; 25 miles
north-north-west of Kolar. Lat. 13 24' 20" n., long. 78 5' 45" e.
Population (1881) 5119, namely, Hindus, 4635; and Muhammadans,
484. Municipal revenue (1874-75), £\Z ; rate of taxation, id. per
head. Named after its Maratha founder, Chintamani Rio, and a seat
of the Kumati or banking class. Considerable trade, chiefly in grain,
gold, silver, and precious stones. The neighbourhood is famous for
pomegranates. Until 1873, the town was the head - quarters of the
Ambaji-durga taluk.

Chintpurni (or Sola Singhi). — Mountain range in Hoshiarpur Dis-
trict, Punjab, forming the eastern boundary of the Jaswan Dun. Com-
mences at a point close to Talwara, on the Beas (Bids) river, and runs
in a south-eastward direction between the Districts of Hoshiarpur and
Kangra. Its highest point, at the encamping ground of Bharwain, 28
miles from Hoshiarpur on the Dharmsala road, is 3896 feet above the
sea. Thence the ridge continues till it crosses the valley of the Sutlej
(Satlaj), its northern slope sinking gradually into the Beas (Bids) basin,
while its southward escarpment consists in places of an abrupt cliff about
300 feet in height. The space between its central line and the plain
portion of the Jaswan Dun is occupied by a broad table-land, thickly
clothed with forest, and intersected by precipitous ravines, which divide



420 CHIPLUN SUB-DIVISION AND TOWN

the surface into natural blocks. The name Chintpurni belongs not
so much to the range of hills described above, as to the village of
that name situated on the range, in Hoshiarpur District, where is
a famous shrine dedicated to the goddess Devi, to which thousands
annually resort from considerable distances. Beyond the Sutlej, the
chain assumes the name of the Nalagarh Range.

Chipllin. — Sub-division of Ratnagiri District, Bombay Presidency.
Area, 670 square miles; contains 1 town and 211 villages. Population
(1881) 168,921, namely, 80,048 males and 88,873 females. Hindus
number 157,535; Muhammadans, 11,323; 'others,'63. The Sub-division
stretches from the coast inland to the watershed of the Sahyadri range,
and is throughout more or less hilly and rugged. The seaboard, with
the exception of an open sandy roadstead, some five miles long,
extending on each side of the village of Guhagar, is broken and
irregular. Close to the shore rise a series of high laterite plateaux,
which stretch some ten miles inland, where they are succeeded by a
belt of lower undulating land ; but on meeting the spurs and ravines
thrown out by the great mountain chain of the Sahyadri range, the
country becomes very rugged and precipitous. The only rivers of
importance are the Vashishti on the north, and the Shastri on the south
of the Sub-division, both of which are tidal for a distance of about 25
miles from their mouths, and are navigable within these limits by
moderate-sized boats. The total area under cultivation in 1877-78,
the latest year for which details are available, was 296,576 acres.
Grain crops occupied 280,271 acres; pulses, 12,673 acres; oil-seeds,
2000 acres; fibres, 523 acres; miscellaneous crops, 1107 acres. Up
to 1880, the Sub-division had not been fully surveyed. It contains
1 civil and 3 criminal courts, with 6 police stations (thdnds) ; strength
of police force, 96 men.

Chipllin. — Chief town of Chipllin Sub-division, in Ratnagiri District,
Bombay Presidency. Lat. 17 31' 25" N., long. 73 33' 50" e. Situated
108 miles south-east of Bombay, and about 25 miles from the coast,,
on the south bank of the river Vashishti, which is navigable for boats
of nearly 2 tons. Population (1881) 12,065, namely, Hindus, 8853;
Muhammadans, 3208; Jains, 3 ; and Christian, 1. Area of town site,
73 acres. A prosperous commercial town, situated near the head of
the Kumbharli pass, one of the easiest routes from the Deccan
to the seaboard. The town contains good roads, an efficient con-
servancy establishment is maintained, and the streets are lighted.
The chief want of the place is a good water-supply, but this is
now being remedied by the construction of a reservoir and aqueducts.
Municipal revenue in 1882-83, £i$4, of which ^1012 was derived
from taxation, or an average incidence of is. 8jd. per head ;
expenditure, ^1264. Sub-judge's court, telegraph, and post-office.



CHI PUR UPALLE— CHI RANG DMA R. 4 2 1

About a quarter of a mile south of the town are some Buddhist
excavations.

Chipurupalle — Taluk of Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency.
Area, 535 square miles. Houses, 30,059. grouped into 268 villages,
all zaminddri. Population (18S1) 138,896, almost all Hindus, or
69,197 males and 69,699 females.

Chipurupalle. — Estate in Vizagapatam District, Madras Presidency ;
consisting of one village, assessed at ^381 per annum. Formerly part
of the Panchadarla estate ; but when that hunda was transferred to
the Vizianagram domains, within the ancient territorial limits of which
it was found to lie, the remainder was named the Chipurupalle estate,
after the most central village in it. The Raja of Vizianagram bought
the estate, which then contained 24 villages, for an annual payment of
^3623. Fifteen of the 24 villages have since lapsed to Government
on account of arrears of revenue, and 8 others have been apportioned
among as many different proprietors. The present estate, therefore,
consists of one village only.

Chirakkal. — Tdluk in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. Area,
648 square miles, containing 1 town and 44 villages (amscwis). Houses,
44,250. Population (1881) 272,669, namely, 132,715 males and
139,954 females. Chief town Cannanore. Land revenue demand
(1882-83), ;£45>344- The tdluk contains 2 criminal courts, but in
civil matters is subject to the jurisdiction of the mimsif's court at
Tellicherry.

Chirakkal. — -Township (amsam, or ' parish ') in the Chirakkal tdluk,
Malabar District, Madras Presidency; situated 3 miles north of
Cannanore, in lat. n° 54' n., and long. 75 29' e. Houses, 1257.
Population (1881) 8658, namely, 5818 Hindus, 2829 Muhammadans, and
11 Christians. Formerly head-quarters of the tdluk, and still contain-
ing the Malabar central jail. It was by grant from the Chirakkal or
Kolattiri Raja, whose descendant still lives in the neighbourhood,
that the British first obtained a permanent footing at Tellicherri.

Chirala. — Town in Bapatla tdluk, Kistna District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 1 6° 58' 20" n., long. 8o° 4 10" e. Houses, 1856. Population (1SS1)
9061, namely, 8652 Hindus and 409 Muhammadans. Formerly in
Nellore District. Noted for its cotton manufactures. Dispensary.

Chiramkod.— Division or ndd of the Nilgiri District, Madras Presi-
dency. Area, 41 square miles, comprising a single township or parish
(amsam). Population (1881) 4280, namely, 2380 males and 1900
females; number of occupied houses, 731.

Chirang Dwar— One of the Dwars or sub-montane tracts conquered
from Bhutan in 1869, and now forming part of the Eastern Dwars, in
Goalpara District, Assam. Area, 495 square miles; population (iSSr)
1 2 16. Almost the entire area is waste, the density of population being



422 CHIRA WA—CHITALDR UG.

less than 3 persons per square mile. A tract of 225*60 square miles,
or nearly one-half of the whole, has been set apart as forest reserves,
and divided into 13 valuable sal forests. The settlement of the culti-
vated fields, which cover an aggregate of only 1329 acres, is effected
by Government on the Assam system by annual engagements directly
with the cultivators.

Chirawa. — Town in the Shaikhawati division of Jaipur (Jeypore)
State, Rajputana. Population (1881) 5489, namely, Hindus, 31 17 ;
Muhammadans, 2123 ; and unspecified, 19.

Chirgaon. — Town in Jhansi District, North-Western Provinces,
situated in lat. 25 35' n., and long. 78 52' E.,on the road to Cawnpur,
18 miles north-east of Jhansi, and 14 miles south-west of Moth.
Population (1881) 3748, namely, Hindus, 3452 ; Muhammadans, 257;
and ' others,' 39. A small municipal revenue, in the shape of a house-
tax, is raised for police and conservancy purposes under the provisions
of Act xx. of 1856. Chirgaon, with 25 other villages, was formerly
the property of a Bundela Thakur, a descendant of Bir Singh Deo of
Orchha, who held a sanad from the British Government. In 1841,
Rao Bakht Singh, the ruling chief, was expelled for disloyalty ; his
fort was razed to the ground, and his whole estate confiscated. He
was afterwards killed at Panwari. His surviving son, Rao Raghunath
Singh, was granted a pension of ^300 a year, for services rendered
during the Mutiny; and a pension of ^150 has been continued to his
son, Dalip Singh, the present (1883) chief.

Chirkhari. — State and town in Bundelkhand, North-Western Pro-
vinces. — See Charkhari.

Chitaldnig (Chitaldroog). — District of the Nagar Division, Mysore
Native State. Including the extreme limits of two long narrow projec-
tions into the Madras District of Bellary, it is situated between 13 35'
and 1 5 2' n. lat., and between 75 43' and 77 30' e. long. Area,
4871 square miles. Population (1881) 376,310. On the north and
north-east, Chitaldnig is bounded by the District of Bellary, in the
Madras Presidency ; on the south and south - east by Tumkur
District (Mysore) ; on the west by Kadiir and Shimoga Districts
(Mysore) ; and on the north-west it is separated by the Tungabhadra
river from the Bombay District of Dharwar. The administrative
head-quarters are at the town of Chitaldrug.

Physical Aspects. — The District is distinguished in Mysore for its low
rainfall, and the arid, stony character of the soil. It consists for the
most part of the valley of the Vedavati or Hagari river, a tributary of
the Tungabhadra, running from south-west to north-east ; and it is
traversed crosswise by a belt of intermittent parallel chains of low
hills. The highest summits of these hills are from 2800 to 3800 feet
above sea-level. The rest of the District is an open plain, entirely



CHITALDRUG. 423

destitute of picturesque features, with an average elevation of about
2000 feet. The Vedavati river occupies a wide sandy bed, which is
almost dry of water during the hot months, except where wells are
sunk for irrigation. The Tungabhadra river forms the north-western
boundary for a few miles, and the Northern Pinakini enters the District
on the extreme east for an equally short distance. In no part of
Chitaldrug are trees numerous ; and the present sterile condition of
the country is attributed to the reckless destruction of the former
forests. Rich grass for pasturage abounds in certain tracts, and the
soil is productive wherever it can be artificially watered. The well-
known ' black cotton-soil,' interspersed with sandy patches, prevails in
the north and west ; in the south, the earth is largely impregnated with
salt, which is favourable to the production of the cocoa-nut; and
towards the east, the surface soil is light and sandy, and abounds in
springs, which form so prominent a feature in the agriculture of the
neighbouring Districts of Tumkiir and Bellary. The central range of
hills presents a succession of different formations. In the south, the
hills are mainly composed of a ferruginous clayey slate, topped with
magnetic ironstone ; about Chitaldrug is found the prevailing syenite
of Mysore, with felspar and mica ; while towards the north, the lower
ridges consist of a compound in which chlorite, oxide of iron, and
hornblende appear. Among minerals may be mentioned iron-ore in
various forms, asbestos, potstone, slate, actinolite, and carbonate of
soda. The wild animals include the tiger, panther, bear, hyaena, and
wild hog. As elsewhere in Mysore, trees have been planted out in
avenues along the public roads, and the cultivators are encouraged
to grow groves of their own ; but the trees thus planted are kept alive
with much difficulty, and there is not sufficient timber in the District
to serve for the local demands of housebuilding.

History— -The history of Chitaldrug is chiefly associated with the
names of the palegdrs or petty chieftains, who rose to independence
during the 17th century. The most ancient site in the District is the
village of Nirgunda, which is proved by inscriptions of the 5th century
a.d. to have been the capital of a Jain principality, tributary to the Ganga
Empire. It is believed that descendants of the Ganga line continued
to govern the country during the predominance of the Chalukya and
Ballala dynasties. When the latter kingdom was overthrown by the
Muhammadans in the 14th century, the Hindu sovereigns of
Vijayanagar became paramount over all Southern India ; but the re-
moteness of their authority allowed numerous feudatories to assert
semi-independence. Foremost amongst these were the palegdrs
of Chitaldrug, Nidugal, and NayakanhattL The Chitaldrug family
belong to the Bedar, or Boya, caste, who subsist by hunting and
tending cattle. The Bedar caste corresponds to the Kiratas of Sanskrit



4 2 4 CHITALDRUG.

writers. The founder of the family obtained possession of the hill fort
of Chitaldriig in about the year 1508 ; and, by the help of his warlike
tribesmen, his descendants gradually extended their power over the
greater part of the present District. During the wars which followed
from the disputes between the Muhammadans of Bijapur, the Mughals,
and the Marathas, the Chitaldrug palegdr served as a valuable auxiliary
on the one side or the other ; but, like the rest of the local chieftains,
he fell before the conquering armies of Haidar Ali. In 1779, the
fort of Chitaldriig, which had been besieged by Haidar Ali on
more than one occasion, was surrendered to him by treachery ; he



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