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probably a settlement of considerable antiquity, and its ruined fort
shows that it was a place of much consequence under early Hindu
rulers. In a.d. 1600, it was a large town and well peopled, with a
temple of Rameshwar, to which Hindus came from great distances.
It was handed over by Sindhia in 1820, restored to him in 1837, and
came again under British rule in 1844. Population (1881) 13,932, of
whom 11,005 are Hindus, 2740 Musalmans, in Jains, and 76 'others;'
area of town site, 305 acres. Municipal revenue (1881-82), ^370 ; rate
of taxation, 6d. per head. Post-office, dispensary, and 3 schools. Large
trade in cotton and linseed.

Chora. — Town in the Jhalawar District, Kathiawar, Bombay Presi-
dency. Population (1881) 5061, namely, 3802 Hindus, 628 Muham-
madans, and 631 Jains.

Chorangla. — Petty State of the Sankhera Me was, Rewa Kantha,
Bombay Presidency. Area, 16 square miles ; 17 villages. Estimated
revenue in 1882, ^250. Tribute of £9, 10s. is paid to the Gaekwar
of Baroda. The chief is a Rahtor Rajput, but the bulk of the people
are Kolis.

Chorasi (Chaurdst). — Sub-division of Surat District, Bombay Presi-
dency. Area, no square miles; contains 2 towns and 65 villages. Popu-
lation (1881)154,608, namely, 78,072 males and 76,536 females. Hindus
number 112,574; Muhammadans, 27,118 ; 'others,' 14,916. The Sub-
division forms a richly-wooded plain, with highly-cultivated fields enclosed
with hedges. With the exception of the Tapti, which forms the northern
boundary of the Sub-division for about 18 miles, there is no river of
importance, and the water-supply is defective, owing to the smallness
of the village reservoirs, and the brackishness of the well water. Of
the total cultivated Government area (excluding alienated lands), 25,412
acres were under cultivation in 1874. Grain crops occupied 10,314



458 CHOTA NAGPUR—CHUADANGA.

acres; pulses, 2810 acres; oil-seeds, 463 acres; fibres, 5141 acres;
fallow or grass, 5811; and miscellaneous crops, 1245 acres. In
1865-66, the year of Settlement, 5880 separate holdings were returned
of an average area of a little over 6| acres each, and paying an average
annual rental of £4, us. od. Divided among the agricultural popula-
tion, these holdings would represent an average of 2| acres for each
person, paying an average rental of £1, 16s. 3d. Distributed among
the total population, the average area would be 1*5 acres, and the
average incidence of land-tax, 13s. iojd. per head. Total land revenue
realizable in 1883, ^£21,179. The Sub-division, which includes Surat,
the head-quarters of the District, contained in the same year, 4 civil
and 10 criminal courts, with 2 police stations (thdnds) ; strength of
regular police, 213 men; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 221.

Chota Nagpur. — See Chutia Nagpur ; for Chota Bhagirathi, Chota
Udepur, etc., see Chhota Bhagirathi, Chhota Udaipur, etc.

Choti. — Town in Dera Ghazi tahsil, Dera Ghazi Khan District,
Punjab. Lat. 29 50' 30" n., long. 70 32' e. Collection of scattered
hamlets, with little pretensions to rank as a town.

Chotila. — Petty State of North Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency ;
consisting of 35 villages, with 9 independent tribute-payers. Estimated
revenue in 1876, ^2187, of which ^65 is payable as tribute to the
British Government, and £2 2 to Junagarh.

Chowghat. — Town in Malabar District, Madras Presidency. — See
Chaughat.

Chuadanga. — Sub-division of Nadiya District, Bengal, lying between
23 22' 15" and 23 50' 15" n. lat., and between 88° 41' and 89"
4' e. long. Area, 437 square miles, with 452 towns or villages, and
38,309 occupied houses. Population (1881), Muhammadans, 148,923 ;
Hindus, 104,748 ; and Christians, 624 : total, 254,295, namely,
125,510 males and 128,785 females. Average density of population,
582 persons per square mile; houses per square mile, 91*4; persons
per village, 562 ; persons per house, 6'6. The Sub-division comprises
the 5 police circles (thdnds) of Alamdanga, Chuadanga, Damurhuda,
Kalupol, and Jibannagar. In 1882, it contained one revenue and
magisterial court, a small cause court, and a mimsift, with a regular
police force 49 strong, besides 503 chaukiddrs or village watchmen.
The chief crops grown in the Sub-division are rice, wheat, sugar-cane,
indigo, oil-seeds, pulses, and chillies. Principal manufactures, sugar,
made from both the cane and date, and indigo.

Chuadanga. — Town in Nadiya District, Bengal, and head-
quarters of Chuadanga Sub-division ; situated on the left bank of the
Matabhanga river, locally known as the Haulia, on the road from
Jhanidah to Mihrpur. Lat. 23 38' 45" n., long. 88° 53' 55" e. A
station on the Eastern Bengal Railway, 83% miles north from Calcutta.



CHUNAR—CIIUXL \X. 459

Besides the usual sub-divisional courts, the village contains a small cause
and a munsifs court, and also a high-class English school.

Chunar.— Tahsil, town and fort in Mirzapur District, Xorth-Western
Provinces. — See Chanar.

Chunchangiri.— Hill in Hassan District, Mysore State. Lat. 13*
1' n., long. 76 49' e. At its foot is held a jatra or religious gathering,
called Gangadhareswara, at which 10,000 persons assemble, and which
lasts fifteen days.

Chunchankatta.— Dam across the Kaveri (Cauvery) river in Mysore
District, Mysore State. Lat. 12 31' n., long. 76 20' e. Constructed
advantageously a short distance from the head of a narrow gorge, and
a few hundred yards above the cascade or rapids of Chunchan, which
have a fall of 70 feet. The Ramasamudaram channel, leading from
this dam, has a course of 26 miles, and irrigates 1689 acres ; revenue,
p£i2ii. Both dam and channel were constructed by Chikka Deva
Wodeyar, Raja of Mysore (1672-1704). An annual festival, lasting for
about a month, is held near the falls in January, and is attended by
2000 people.

Chundernagore. — French settlement in Hiigli District, Bengal.—
See Chandarnagar.

Chunian.— Tahsil of Lahore District, Punjab, lying between 30 37'
and 31 22' n. lat., and between 73° 40' and 74° 28' e. long., occupying
the western half of that portion of the District which lies within the
Bari Doab. Area, 1227 square miles. Population (1881) 202,061,
namely, males 109,921, and females 92,140; average density per square
mile, 165. Hindus numbered 42,487 ; Sikhs, 30,101 ; Muhammadans,
128,905; and 'others,' 268. The administrative staff of the Sub-division
consists of 1 tahsilddr and 1 munsif, who preside over 1 criminal and
2 civil courts ; number of police stations (thdnds), 5 ; strength of
regular police, 91 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 266.

Chunian.— Town in Lahore District, Punjab, and head-quarters of
Chunian tahsil, situated upon the high bank of the old bed of
the Beas (Bias), on the road from Firozpur to Multan, 38 miles
from Lahore. Lat. 30 58' n., long. 74° 1' 30" E. Population
(1881) 8122, namely, 3835 Hindus, 4085 Muhammadans, and 202
Sikhs. Formerly divided into three fortified hamlets, one of which is
now in ruins, while the other two have completely coalesced. Tahsi/i,
police station, school, dispensary, and rest-house. Centre of trade in
country produce, but only of importance as the head-quarters of the
tahsil It is connected with the Changa Manga Station of the Multan
branch of the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, by a metalled road,
8 miles in length. Municipal revenue in 1880-81, ^47° J expenditure,
^531 ; average incidence of taxation, is. if d. per head of population
(8566) within municipal limits.



460 CHURA—CHURAMAN.

Chlira. — Petty State in Kathiawar, Province of Gujarat (Guzerat),
Bombay Presidency, lying between 22 23' and 22 30' n. lat., and
between 71 37' and 71 51' e. long. Population (1881) 13,495,
distributed over 14 villages. Estimated gross revenue, ^9 17 2.
Transit dues through the State are not levied. The appearance of the
country is flat, relieved at intervals by ranges of low rocky hills. The
climate, though hot and dry, is healthy, the only prevailing disease
being fever. The soil is generally light, producing besides the ordinary
grains considerable quantities of cotton, which finds its way to the port
of Dholera. Chura ranks as a 'third-class' State among the many
petty States in Kathiawar. The ruler first entered into engagements
with the British Government in 1807. The present chief, Bechar
Singhji, a Jhala Rajput, bears the title of Thakur. He maintains a
military force of 150 men, and pays a tribute of ,£632, 8s. to the
British Government, ^67, 12s. to the Nawab of Junagarh, and
^"14, 6s. as sukri on account of Ahmadabad. There is no sanad
authorizing adoption. The succession follows the rule of primogeniture.
There are 7 schools in the State, with 330 pupils.

Chlira. — Chief town of the State of Chura in Kathiawar, Province
of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22 29' n., long. 71
44' E.

Churaman. — Village in Dinajpur District, Bengal ; situated on the
east or left bank of the Mahananda river. Lat. 25 26' n., long.
8o° 9' 30" e. Of some importance as a seat of trade, the principal
export being rice.

Churaman. — Port on the Gammai river, a branch of the Kansbans,
Balasor District, Orissa. Lat. 21 7' 50" n., long. 86° 49' 16" e.
The mouth of the river has now silted up, and is so completely
concealed by a dense fringe of jungle, that it is almost impossible
for a stranger sailing down the coast to discover it. At present, no
vessel exceeding 45 tons burthen can enter the river, even at high water.
The rice sloops, which nominally receive their cargo at Churaman,
and its sister port, Laichanpur on the Kansbans, 5 miles to the
north, in reality load from small boats while at anchor several miles
out at sea, 6 miles being no uncommon distance in the case of
sloops of 150 tons. Local tradition asserts that within recent times
Churaman was the principal port of Orissa, and this is corroborated
by reference to the old records. In 1809, the Balasor Collector of
Customs wrote that ' Churaman is considered the most safe and con-
venient port on the coast of Orissa, and carries on a sea-going trade
exceeding that of Balasor;' and again, in 1812, he reported that 'last
year, no less a quantity than 1,100,000 maunds of rice were exported
from the port of Churaman and rivers contiguous thereto.' In 1873-
1874, the value of the imports of Churaman and Laichanpur, taken



CHURESAR—CHUTIA NAGPUR STATES. 461

together, amounted to ^"251, and of the exports to ^13,831 ; in
1874-75, the imports were nil, and the exports ,£5834 in value; in
1 88 1, the value of the imports was ^3062, and the exports ^8710.

Churesar. — Petty State in Rewa Kantha, Bombay Presidency ; area,
2 \ square miles. It is under the rule of six chiefs. Estimated
revenue in 1881, ^100 ; tribute of £$1 is paid to the Gaekwar of
Baroda.

Chlirjajira. — Town in the Munshiganj Sub-division of Dacca
District, Bengal. Population (1881) 7467, namely, 3787 males and
3860 females.

Chuni. — Town in Bikaner (Bickaneer) State, Rajputana. Lat.
28 19' 15" n., long. 75 1' e. Population (1881) 10,666; number of
houses, 2130. Several trade routes converge here.

Chutia. — Village in Lohardaga District, Chutia Nagpur, Bengal ;
situated 2 miles east of Ranchi town, in lat. 23 21' 20" n., long. 85 ° 23'
45" e. Contains an ancient temple in a small square enclosure, with
four flanking bastions, and a well in the centre, which is approached by
a gradually-descending covered passage. This village was the original
residence of the Rajas of Chutia Nagpur, and is said to have given its
name to the State. In the temple are two stone images of Rama and
Sita, under the care of a resident Brahman.

Chutia Nagpur. — Division or Commissionership of Bengal, lying
between 21 58' 30" and 24 48' n. lat, and between 83 22' and
87 15' e. long. Bounded on the north by the Districts of Mirzapur,
Shahabad, and Gaya ; on the east by Monghyr, the Santal Parganas,
Bankura, and Midnapur ; on the south by the Orissa Tributary States ;
and on the west by the Sambalpur District of the Central Provinces,
and the Native State of Rewa. This Division comprises the 4 British
Districts of Hazaribagh, Lohardaga, Singbhum, Manbhum, and the 7
States of Chang Bhukar, Korea, Sirguja, Udaipur (Chhota), Jash-
pur, Gangpur, Bonai, with 2 semi-independent estates of Kharsawan
and Saraikala, all of which see separately. Area (including British
Districts and Feudatory States), 43,020 square miles, with 32,744
villages or towns and 869,221 houses, of which 851,957 are occupied,
and 17,264 unoccupied. Population (1881) 4,903,991, namely, males
2,438,807, and females 2,465,184. Classified according to religion,
the population consisted of — Hindus, 3,858,836; Muhammadans,
235,786; Christians, 40,478; Buddhists, 24; Brahmos, 3; Jains, 56;
Jews, 2; and 'others,' consisting of tribes still professing aboriginal
faiths, 768,806. These aboriginal tribes are principally composed of
Kols, 601,688; and Santals, 100,257.

Chutia {Chhota) Nagpur Tributary States.— A collection of
petty Native States in the western portion of the Chutia Nagpur
Division, lying between the valley of the Son (Soane) and that of



462 CHUTIA NAGPUR TRIBUTARY STATES.

the Upper Mahanadi, and extending from lat. 21° 35' to 24 6'
30" n., and from long. 8i° 37' to 84 31' 55" E. Bounded on the
north by Rewa State and by Mfrzapur District in the North-Western
Provinces; on the east by Lohardaga and Singhbhiim Districts; on the
south by the Tributary States of Orissa and by Sambalpur District
in the Central Provinces ; and on the west by Bilaspur District in the
Central Provinces and by Rewa State. These States are nine in num-
ber, viz. (1) Bonai, (2) Chang Bhakar, (3) Gangpur, (4) Jashpur, (5)
Kharsawan, (6) Korea, (7) Sarai Alak,(8) SARGUjA,and (9) Udaipur,

all of which see separately in their alphabetical arrangement. The

physical contour of the Tributary States is a confused mass of hills,
ravines, and plateaux, which have been sculptured into their present
shape by the combined action of rivers, w T ind, and rain. It is pro-
bable, indeed, that at a remote geological period, the entire country
formed a uniform table-land about 3600 feet above the sea. Traces of
such a state of things are to be found in the peculiar flat-topped hills,
locally known as pats. These pats are capped with a horizontal stratum
of trap rock, and stand up like pillars of earth left in making ex-
cavations, as if to mark the progress of the work of denudation. A
distinct watershed can be traced right across the States from east to
west, with a slight inclination towards the south. From the northern
slope of this watershed, the Kanhar and Rehr pass off to join the
river system of Behar; while on the south, the Brahmani, lb, and
Mana flow direct towards the Bay of Bengal.

Population. — It is now a matter of conjecture who were the original
settlers in these States. It may be roughly stated that Gonds were the
dominant race in the western, and Kols in the eastern States. On
the disruption of the Gond kingdoms in Central India, that people
drove the Kols backward almost to the frontier of Chutia Nagpur
proper. Indeed, the limits of the ascendancy of the Dravidian and
Kolarian races can be ascertained with tolerable accuracy in a large portion
of the Chutia Nagpur Province, by observing to what tribe the principal
military fief-holders belong. Thus, in the States of Chang Bhakar, Korea,
Sargiija, and Udaipur, the chief feudal sub-proprietors are Gonds ; in
Jashpur, Korwas ; in Gangpur and Bonai, Bhuiyas; and in Manbhum and
Singhbhiim Districts, Bhumijs. The people, however, who ultimately pre-
dominated, were not invariably the original settlers ; and the evidence
afforded by the military tenures should be confirmed by observing who
are the peculiar priests of the aboriginal gods. Everywhere the belief is
current that these local divinities are most readily propitiated by the
tribe which has had the longest acquaintance with them— that is, who
first colonized the country. From scattered passages in Colonel
Dalton's Ethnology of Bengal, it seems that in Gangpur and Bonai, the
priests of the sylvan deities are Bhuiyas; in Jashpur and Sargiija,



CHUTIA NAGPUR TRIBUTARY STATES. 463

Konvas ; and in Korea and Chand Bhakar, Kiirs or Muasis. It would
thus appear that in all but the two southern States of Gangpur and
Bonai, which were first colonized by the Dravidian tribe of Bhuiyas,
the earliest settlers were of Kolarian descent. In Chang Bhakar,
Korea, Udaipur, and the western portion of Sargiija, they were sub-
jugated by the Gonds, who are now the principal sub-proprietors. But
up to 1858, the Konvas were in possession of military tenures in eastern
Sargiija; and in Jashpur, the head of the Korwa fief-holders not only
claims to be the hereditary diwdn, or minister of the State, but is
admitted by the Raja to be a descendant of the original rulers of the
country.

Assuming that Kolarian races were the first settlers in the country,
and that they were afterwards subdued by the Dravidian Gonds, there
remains a further and more difficult problem. In the wildest jungles of
these States are found the remains of temples planned by skilled
architects, crumbling embankments of fine tanks, and mango groves
that are obviously not of natural growth. All these works the present
inhabitants are incapable of constructing, nor have they any tradition
that throws light on their existence. It has been supposed that they
mark the settlements of early Aryan colonists who failed to civilise
the aborigines, and, after a time, were either absorbed or driven
out. But it is far more probable that they belong to the period of
Gond ascendency in Central India, when the western States may well
have been an outlying Province of Garha Mandla or Deogarh. The
Gond monarchs were celebrated for the number and magnificence of their
temples, tanks, plantations, and other public works; and in the Introduc-
tion to the Central Provinces Gazetteer it is noticed as a peculiar feature
of the social development of the Gonds, that their princes were ' only
able to advance by leaving the body of the people behind.' On this
view, the limits of the Gond kingdom extended just so far as the
remains of temples and tanks are met with. When the Maratha
conquest swept over the country, the leaders of civilisation who built
the temples and dug the tanks, disappeared, while the mass of the
population was reduced to a state of barbarism. This hypothesis is not
to be considered as a conclusive solution of a notoriously obscure
question ; but there seems to be a presumption in favour of attributing
these vestiges of civilisation to a powerful neighbouring kingdom, which
was finally broken up so late as 1781, rather than to the semi-historical
era of the Aryan advance into Hindustan.

The population of the Chutia Nagpur Tributary States, as returned
by the Census of 1881, was 678,002, spread over an area of 16,054
square miles, and occupying 112,554 houses. This shows an increase
°f i 79j395j or 35 '98 percent., over the population returned in the Census
Report for 1872. But this large percentage of increase is probably due



464 CHUTIA NAG PUR TRIBUTARY STATES.

to some extent to incorrectness in the returns for 1872. The total
male population amounted in 1881 to 345> 2 3 8 > an d the female to
332,764; proportion of males, 50*92 per cent. Average density of the
population, 42-23 persons per square mile; villages per square mile,
'2^; houses per square mile, 7-01 ; persons per occupied house, 6-03.
Classified according to religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 671,126 ;
Muhammadans, 4504; Christians, 105; and ' others,' or aboriginal hill
people still professing their primitive faiths, 2267. This by no means
represents the ethnical classification, as in the religious return nearly
the whole of the aboriginal population are returned as Hindus, and
the process of converting aborigines into Hinduism goes on steadily.
According to the ethnical classification, the aborigines number 355,403,
or 52-4 per cent, of the population, classified as follows: — Bhuiya,
23,322; Bhumij, 12,686; Gond, 75,266 ; Kharwar, 24,067; Koch,
116; Kol, 59,147; Santal, 17,216; and 'others,' i43,5 8 3- Th e
population of Hindu origin number 282,533 ; the principal castes
being — Brahman, 8452; Rajput, 5258; Bagdi, 17,011; Baniya,
50,151; Gwala, 45,742 ; Lohar, 12,646; Kurmi, 14,288; and Raj war,
14,475. The following table illustrates the area, population, etc.,
of each State, according to the Census of 188 1 : —



Census of the Chutia Nagpur Tributary States (1881).







No of




Population




a- 5


a>

0. .


States.


Area in
square


towns


No. of
occupied






>.*


a 3










miles.


villages.


houses.


Total.


Males.


Females.


c 3
u 3


a


Chang Bhakar,


906


I IO


2,733


13,466


6,826


6,640


14-9


4'9


Korea, . . .


1,625


249


5,798


29,846


15,162


14,684


i8'3


5*i


Sarguja, . .


6,055


1286


51,122


270,311


137,389


132,922


44-6


5'3


Udaipur, . .


1,055


I96


6,135


33,955


17,111


16,844


32 2


5'5


Jashpur, . .


1,963


390


14,780


90,240


45,999


44,241


46*0


6-i


Gangpur, . .
Bonai, . . .


2,518


24O


6,844


107,965


56,009


51,956


42-9


15-8


i,349


256


4,372


24,030


12,445


H,585


I 7 -8


5*5


Kharsawan, .


145


255


5,622


3i, I2 7


15,496


15,631


2147


5 '5


Saraikala, . .
Total, .


438


651


15,048


77,062


38,801


38,261


I75-9


5i


16,054


3633


112,454


678,002


345,238


332,764


42*2


60



Administrative History. — These States, now under the political
superintendence of the Commissioner of Chutia Nagpur, belong
historically to two separate clusters, known as the Sambalpur and
Sarguja groups. The southern or Sambalpur group, comprising Bonai
and Gangpur, together with eight other States now under the Central
Provinces, was ceded to the British Government in 1803 under the
treaty of Deogaon by Raghuji Bhonsla 11., the Maratha Raja of



CHUTIA NAGPUR TRIBUTARY STATES. 465

Nagpur. In 1806, the entire group, with the exception of Raigarh,
was restored to the Raja gratuitously. In 1818, however, they again
reverted to the British under a provisional agreement concluded with
Madhuji Bhonsla (Apa Sahib), after the repulse of his treacher-
ous attack upon the Nagpur Residency; and finally passed to us
under the treaty of 1826, when Raghuji Bhonsla ill., the successor
of Apa Sahib, attained his majority. On the provisional cession
of the States in 181 8, it was found necessary to annul the feudal
supremacy of the Raja of Sambalpur; and in 182 1, separate sanads
were made to each of the subordinate Chiefs, and the tribute was fixed
on a lower scale than had been formerly payable. Up to i860, the
Sambalpur States were administered from Ranchi in Lohardaga by the
Governor-General's Agent for the South-West Frontier. In that year
they were all, except Bonai and Gangpur, placed under the Superin-
tendent of the Orissa Tributary States, and were soon afterwards incor-
porated with the new Commissionership of the Central Provinces. Bonai
and Gangpur remain attached to Chutia Nagpur. The northern or
Sargiija group of States embraces Chang Bhakar, Jashpur, Korea,
Udaipur, and the large State of Sarguja, which last in early times
exercised an ill-defined feudal supremacy over the rest. This group
was first ceded to the British under the provisional agreement concluded
with Madhuji Bhonsla (Apa Sahib) in 1818, and is not mentioned in
the subsequent treaty of 1826. Under the rough military rule of the
Maratha dynasty of Nagpur, the position of the tributary Chiefs was of
necessity uncertain and fluctuating. At one time they were held in
severe check by a strong local governor, and at another left in almost
complete independence. The British Government adhered to the latter
system, and from the first declined to lay down any definite rules for
the guidance of the Chiefs. Only a general line of policy was indi-
cated ; and the ascertained rights of the Chiefs, and of all classes of
their subjects, together with such customs as were not inconsistent
with the usages of civilised nations, were to be maintained in full.
In the settlements made with the Chiefs, they were expressly authorized
to realize from their subjects both rents and customary dues, with the
exception of certain cesses which were prohibited as obstructive to
trade. Separate engagements were also taken from each Chief, binding



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