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river increasing during the inundation from 9 to 24 feet, and the velocity
of the current increasing from 3 to 7 miles an hour. The entire lower
portion of the delta is torn and furrowed by old channels of the river,
for the surface is a light sand, easily swept away and re-deposited year
by year. A full account of the utility of the Indus, both for irrigation
and navigation, will be found in the separate article on that river. The
plains of Northern Gujarat are watered by a few small streams, the
chief of which are the Sabarmati and Mahi, both rising in the Mahi
Kantha Hills and flowing southward into the head of the Gulf of
Cambay. The Narbada in its westerly course to the sea from Central
India, has but a short section within the limits of the Presidency. It



BO MB A Y PRESIDENC Y. 43

separates the territory of Baroda from Rewa Kantha, and, after passing
the city of Broach, falls into the Gulf of Cambay by a noble estuary.
For about 100 miles from the sea it is navigable at all seasons by
country boats, and during the rains by vessels of 50 tons burthen. The
Tapti, although a smaller river, has a greater commercial importance. It
flows through the whole length of Khandesh District, and enters the
sea a little above the city of Surat. Both these rivers run for the most
part between high banks, and are little used for the purposes of irriga-
tion. Passing southwards, the hill streams which rise in the Western
Ghats and flow west into the Arabian Sea are very numerous, but of
little importance. During the rains they become formidable torrents,
but in the hot season they dwindle away and almost cease to flow. In
the low lands of the Konkan their annual floods have worn deep tidal
creeks, which form valuable highways for traffic. In the extreme south
of the Presidency, in the District of North Kanara, these westward-
flowing streams become larger ; one of them, the Sharavati, plunges
downwards from the mountains in the celebrated Falls of Gersappa.
This majestic cataract consists of five cascades in the dry weather,
which spring over the face of a rock 890 feet in height. During the
rains, the five cascades unite into one magnificent avalanche of water.
On the eastern side of the Ghats are the headwaters of both the
Godavari and Kistna (Krishna) rivers, the former of which rises near
Nasik and the latter near Mahabaleshwar. Both of these, after col-
lecting the waters of many tributary streams, some of considerable
size, leave the Presidency in a south-easterly direction, crossing the
entire plain of the Deccan on their way to the Bay of Bengal.

Bays and Lakes. — The most peculiar natural feature in the Presi-
dency is the Rann of Cutch (Kachchh). Authorities have not yet decided
whether it is an arm of the sea from which the waters have receded, or
an inland lake whose seaward barrier has been swept away by some
natural convulsion. It covers an estimated area of 8000 square miles,
forming the western boundary of the Province of Gujarat ; but when
flooded during the rainy season, it unites the two gulfs of Cutch
and Cambay, and converts the peninsula of Cutch into an island.
In the dry season the soil is impregnated with salt, the surface in
some places being moist and marshy, and in others strewed with
gravel and shingle like a dry river-bed or sea-beach. At this time
the Rann is frequented by numerous herds of antelope, the 'black
buck ' of sportsmen. Large tracts of marshy land are to be found
in the Province of Sind, caused by changes in the course of the Indus.
The Manchhar lake, on the right bank of the river, near the town of
Sehwan, is swelled during the annual season of inundation to an area
of about 160 square miles ; and a large portion of the newly-formed
delta has not yet been fully reclaimed from the antagonistic forces of



44 BOMB A Y PRESIDENCY.

the river and the sea. Along the coast of the Konkan the low-lying
lands on the borders of the salt-water creeks are liable to be overflowed
at high tide. Two artificial sheets of water may for their size be
dignified with the title of lakes ; Vehar tank and Tulsi lake, con-
structed to provide Bombay city with water. The former is situated
about 1 6 miles distant from the city, amid a group of hills near the
town of Thana; it has an area of about 1400 acres. The latter lies
three miles north of Veha>, and about two miles south of the Kanheri
caves, with an area of 331 acres. Another sheet of water, the Kharak-
wasla tank, intended to supply Poona, and also to irrigate the neigh-
bouring fields, covers an area of 3500 acres.

Minerals. — Bombay Presidency is deficient in mineral wealth, although
abundantly supplied with stone adapted for building and road-making.
At Teigar, or Tegur, in the District of Dha>wa>, iron-ore is mined
and smelted, but the scarcity of fuel prevents operations on an exten-
sive scale. In the same District, large slate quarries are worked.
There are five valuable limestone quarries near Karachi (Kurrachee),
and lime is burned in Belgaum District. The bordering mountains
of Baluchistan are reported to contain large quantities of gypsum,
copper, lead, antimony, and sulphur.

The Forests of Bombay belong to two separate classes — the produce
of the alluvial plains in Sind, and the produce of the mountains of
the Western Ghats. The State reserves in Sind are estimated to
cover an area of 375,329 acres, lying along the banks of the Indus.
They are divided into blocks, locally known as betas, which are said
to have been originally formed as hunting-grounds by the Amirs, the
former Muhammadan rulers of the Province. Frequent changes in
the course of the river sweep away large portions of these betas, the
average annual loss from erosion being calculated at as much as
10,000 acres ; and, though fresh deposits of alluvion afford some com-
pensation, it takes many years to replace the timber-trees thus carried
off. The most valuable trees are the sfsu or blackwood (Dalbergia
sisoo), in small plantations ; babul (Acacia arabica), which here attains
a fair size; bhdn (Populus euphratica), a soft wood which grows in great
abundance in Upper Sind ; and tamarisk (Tamarix indica), which never
attains large dimensions, but is extensively used as fuel by the river
steamers. The kundi (Prosopis spicigera) is a very important tree in
the arid tracts. The bamboo is altogether unknown in Sind, but the
true date (Phoenix dactyl'ifera) grows abundantly near Sakkar, in the
upper part of the Province. In 1880-81, the total receipts of the
Forest Department in Sind amounted to ^42,784, against an expendi-
ture of ^29,916, showing a net profit of ^"12,868. The work of con-
servancy is chiefly confined to the prevention of mischief by fire, and
the planting of babul trees.



B OMB A Y PRE SIDE 'JVC Y 4 5

The hill forests of Bombay are practically limited to the Western
Ghats. In Gujarat and the Karnatic, cultivation is too widely spread ;
while in the Deccan and in Khandesh District the atmosphere is too
dry, and the rainfall too uncertain. In the northern extremity of the
Ghats occur the tracts known as the Dangs, which yield little besides
timber j and in the extreme south, the District of North Kanara forms
in its uplands one vast forest, from which half of the total forest
revenue in the Presidency is derived. The woods of the Northern
Konkan possess an especial value from their nearness to Bombay
city. The following are the principal timber-trees in the hills : —
Teak (Tectona grandis), black wood (Dalbergia latifolia), tiwds
(Oujeinia dalbergiodes), hone or bibla (Pterocarpus marsupium),
a in or sddara (Terminalia tomentosa), ebony and pun, babul (Acacia
arabica), khayer or khair (Acacia catechu), hedu (Adina cordifolia),
kalam or yetgal (Stephegyne parvifolia), nana and bonda (Lagerstrcemia
lanceolata), asdna (Briedelia retusa), ironwood or jamba (Xylia dolabri-
formis). Sandal -wood is found only in the forests of Kanara. In
1880-81, the total revenue of the Forest Department in the Regulation
Districts of the Bombay Presidency was £109,496; the total expendi-
ture was £81,593, leaving a profit of ,£27,903. The sowing of teak
and babul plantations is conducted on an extensive scale. The total
forest area of the northern and southern Divisions of the Presidency,
in 1880-81, was returned at 14,300 square miles, of which 13,259
square miles are conserved.

Besides timber-trees, the forests of Bombay Presidency yield other
wild produce of commercial value. The fruit-trees include mango
(Mangifera Indica), jack (Artocarpus integrifolia), ber (Zizyphus jujuba),
and Ml (^Egle marmelos), the fruit of which is a specific in dysentery.
Khayer or Khair (Acacia catechu), besides supplying timber and fire-
wood, is also the source of cutch or Terra japonica ; Terminalia
chebula yields the myrobolams of commerce. Undi (Callophyllum
inophyllum), karanja (Pongamia glabra), and mahud (Bassia latifolia),
all supply oil for industrial purposes. The mahud flowers are an
important article of food, and a spirit is also distilled from them. The
palms comprise the cocoa-nut (Cocos nucifera), the wild date (Phoenix
sylvestris), the Palmyra palm (Borassus flabelliformis), the talipot or
umbrella palm (Corypha umbraculifera), the bherali-mdr (Caryota urens),
and the betel-nut or supdri (Areca catechu). The jungle tribes collect
gums from several varieties of trees, and in Sind the Government
derives a small revenue from the lac found on the babul.

Fauna. — Among the wild animals peculiar to the Presidency may be
mentioned the maneless lion of Gujarat, which zoologists are now dis-
posed to regard as a local variety rather than a separate species ; and
the wild ass, frequenting the sandy deserts of Cutch and Upper Sind.



46 BOMB A Y PRESIDENC Y.

Leopards are common, but the tiger has retreated before the advance
of cultivation, and is now only found in remote jungles. The black
bear (Ursus labiatus) is found wherever rocky hills and forests occur ;
and the bison (Gavaeus gaurus) haunts the mountain glades of Kanara.
Of deer, the sdmbhar (Rusa aristotelis) is found in the same localities
as the bison, though in greater abundance; while the nilgai (Portax
pictus) and the antelope are so numerous, especially in Gujarat, as to
become sometimes a pest to the cultivators. Small game, such as
snipe, quail, partridges, and wild duck, can generally be obtained by
the sportsman in all parts of the Presidency, even within easy reach
of the suburbs of Bombay. In the year 1881, the total number of
registered deaths throughout the Presidency caused by wild beasts was
only 120; whereas venomous snakes killed 1209 persons.

Concerning domestic animals, it may be said that the cattle of
Bombay Presidency are everywhere too numerous for the pasturage
available. In breeding, no attention is paid to artificial selection, and
the present poor condition of the animals is said to be becoming worse.
In Gujarat a class of bullocks of more than ordinary size is met with, used
especially for drawing carts along the deep sandy roads of that country.
Into the south of the Presidency a yet more valuable breed of draught
oxen is imported from Mysore. In certain parts buffaloes are com-
monly used for ploughing ; and throughout Sind, the camel is the one
animal for all agricultural purposes. In former days the horses of
Kathiawar and the Deccan were highly valued for military purposes,
but both breeds have now much deteriorated. Horse shows are en-
couraged by the Government, and stallions, nearly all Arabs, with a few
imported from England, are kept at the public expense. In the year
1880-81 the agricultural returns for the entire Presidency showed a total
of 3,001,226 bullocks and 1,930,395 cows; 373,327 male and 1,020,944
female buffaloes; 45>376 horses, 49,377 mares, and 24,553 foals; 98,833
asses ; and 2,805,664 sheep and goats. A considerable proportion of
the asses, and also many camels, are found in the Districts of Sind.

Population, 1 854-1 881. — Careful estimates, published in 1854, gave
the following figures for the area and population of the Bombay
Presidency. Total area of the British Districts, including Sind,
120,065 square miles; total population, 11,109,067, or an average of
92*55 per square mile. Total area of Native States, 60,650 square
miles; total population, 4,469,925. Grand total, 180,715 square miles
and 15,578,992 inhabitants (1854). The Census of 1872, conducted
throughout the British Districts on the night of 21st February, which
extended to all the Native States with the exception of Baroda, dis-
closed a population of 16,285,636 in the British Districts, 6,801,440
in the Native States; total, 23,087,076 souls, on an area practically
corresponding with the present territory. The latest Census of 1881,



BO MB A Y PRESIDENCY.



47



taken on the night of the 17th February, returned a population of
16,489,274 souls for the British Districts of the Presidency, inclusive
of Aden; and of 9,126,254 souls for the Native States, inclusive of
Baroda; total, 25,615,528. The population of Baroda is here included
for purposes of comparison with the previous Census. The State was
transferred from the political control of Bombay to the Government of
India in 1875. The District operations were conducted under the
orders of the several Collectors. The actual enumeration was effected
by the subordinate Government agency in each village, supplemented
where necessary by paid labour. The total cost of the Census was
^20,244, or an average of about a farthing per head of the population
enumerated, i.e. within British Districts.



Population, etc. of the British Districts in the Bombay Presi-
dency, and of Aden, according to the Census of 1881.



British Districts. Sq^MUes.
1


Towns
and

Villages


Houses
(Occupied).


Population
(1881).


Popuiat'i,

per
Sq. Mile.


Bc-


Ahmaddbdd

Kaira

Pdnch Mahdls,

Broach,

Surat, .....

Thdna

^Koldba


3,821
1,609
1,613

1.453
1,662

4.243
1,496


862
58r
675
405
782
2,101
975


199,996

191,282

50,970

72,235

119,892

154.403

71,930


856,324
804,800

255.479
326,930
614,198
908,548
381,649


224

500
158
225
370
214

255


Total, .


15.897


6,381


860,708


4.147,928


261


ll'j

e - ■

^5


fKhdndesh, ....

Nasik

Ahmadnagar,
Poona (Puna),

Sholdpur

Satdra,


9-944
5.940
6,666
5.348
4.521
4,988


2,683
1.633
1.334
1. 185
712

1.343


208,995
122,816
105,386
153.401
81,203
i5 r .i73


1,237,231
781,206
751,228
900,621
582,487

1,062,350


124

113

168

129

213


Total, .

c . fBelgdum

t> Dharwdr, ....

"5 .'5 i Kalddgi

or North Kdnara,

^^ LRatnagiri, ....

Total, .

. fKardchf, ....
•o 1 Thar and Pdrkar, .
£ | { Haidardbdd, ....
73 •- 1 Shikdrpur, ....
a L Upper Sind Frontier, .

Total, .

Aden, ....
Bombay City,

Total, .


37.407


8,890


822,974


5.315-23


142


4.657
4.535
5-757
3.9II
3,922


1.077
1,285
1,141
1,109
1,297


154,806
161,150

114.533
68,832

177.844


864,014
882,907

638,493
421,840
997.090


186
195

III
108
254


22,782


5.909


677,165


3,804,344


167


14,115
12,729

9.030
10,001

2,139


723

73

1,105

1.373
143


87.059

36,412

150,488

137,702

21,923


478,688

203,344
754,624
852,986
124,181


34
16

^3
85
58

52


48,014


3.417


433.584


2,413,823


12
22


1


5.254
28,310


34,860
773,196


2,505
33.662

23,766


34 [ 2


33o64


808,056




Grand total for Presidency,


124,134 ' 24,599


2.827,995


16,489,274


1 33



48



BOMB A Y PRESIDENCY.



The table on the preceding page shows the area, population, number
of villages and houses, and the average density of population in each
British District, and in Aden, in 1881.

The following table gives the statistics available for the area and
population of the Native States, or aggregates of States under single
Agencies, in political connection with the Bombay Government,
according to the Census of 188 1 : —

Area, Population, etc. of Native States in the Bombay
Presidency (1881).



Native States and Tracts.



Baroda, 1

Kolhapur

Cutch (Kachchh), exclusive of the Rann

Mahi Kantha States,

Rewa Kantha States

Kathiawar States, .

Palanpur States, .

Cambay,

Sawantwari, .

Janjfra, .

Southern Maratha Jagfrs

Satara Jagirs,

Jawhar,

Surat States, .

Sawanur,

Narukot,

Akalkot,

Khandesh States (The Dangs)

Khairpur, Sind, .



Total,



Area,
Square
Miles.



8,570

2,816

6,500

11,049

4.792

20, 559

8,000

35o

900

325

2,734

3.314

535

i, 220

70

143

498
3.840
6,109



82,324



Towns

and

Villages



3,012
1,061
897
1,816
1,104
4,168
1,108

85
226
226
602

73°
116

379

24

52

105

486



16,203



Houses
(Occupied).



479.643
129,148
102,007
117,112
109,730

479.435

125,237

21,702

30,444

I4.4 21
90,799
45,646

8,307

27,894

2,646

I.3I3

8,493

H.3I3

25,720



1,831,010



Population
(1881).



2,185,005
800,189
512,084
517.485
543.452

2,343.899

576,478

86,074

174.433
76,361

523.753
318,687

48,556

151. 13 2

14,763

6,440

58,040

60,270

129.153



9,126,254



2 54'9

284-1

78-8

46-8

"3 '4

ii4'o

72'I

245 '9
193-8

234'9

191-6

96*2

90-9

123-9

2IO"9

45 'o
116-5

i5'7

21*1



no'9



According to these tables, the total area of territory included in the
Presidency of Bombay, with Aden and Baroda, is 206,457 square miles,
and the population is 25,615,528 souls. The average density of popu-
lation throughout the British Districts of the Presidency is 133 per square
mile, but the pressure varies greatly in different tracts. The two most
densely peopled Districts in Bombay Proper are Kaira, with 500 persons
to the square mile, and Surat, with 370. The two least populous in
Bombay Proper are Kaladgi, with in, and North K^nara, with 108.
The average in the outlying Province of Sind is only 52 per square
mile, falling as low as 16 in the sandy desert of Thar and Parkar.
Classified according to sex, the population of the British Districts,
exclusive of Aden, is made up of 8,497,718 males and 7,956,696 females;
proportion of males, 5 1 '6 per cent. This proportion of males is main-

1 In 1875, the political control of the State of Baroda was transferred from Bombay to
the Supreme Government of India ; as it comes within the Presidency limits, it is here
included.



BOMB A Y PRESIDENCY.



49



tained fairly uniformly throughout, except in Sind, where it rises to
54-55 per cent. The low proportion of 47-4 per cent, of males in
Ratnagiri District, as compared with the high rate of 6o*o per cent,
in Bombay city, is to be explained by the natural influx of male
labourers from the neighbouring country to find work in the city.
Classified according to age, there are, under fourteen years of age,
3,371,089 boys and 3> o6 5*95 6 g irls \ total children, 6,437,045, or 39*1
per cent, of the entire population. The proportion of girls to total
females is nearly equal to that of boys to total males. The number
of persons afflicted with certain specified infirmities is thus returned :
— Unsound mind — males 5137, and females 2617; total, 7754: deaf
and dumb — males 7151, and females 4706; total, 11,857: blind —
males 20,355, females, 23,400; total, 43>755 : lepers— males 7425,
females 2670; total, 10,095: grand total of infirms, 73,467, or 1 in
every 224 of the population. The large preponderance of males in all
these classes except among the blind is noteworthy. The classifica-
tion of the people according to occupation shows — 267,393 persons in
Government employ, or 1*62 per cent. ; 5,288,006 engaged in agricul-
ture and with animals, or 32*14 per cent.; 200,712 in trade and
commerce, or 1*22 percent.; 1,554,457 in manufactures and arts, or
9*45 per cent.; 182,950 in domestic occupations, or i*ii per cent. ;
and 8,846,834, or 53*75 per cent., as belonging to the indefinite and
non-productive classes, including women and children who do not
work. The returns give a total of 995,464 persons as able to read and
write, or under instruction; being 1 in every 16 of the population.

Ethnology and Language. — The classification according to caste and
nationality adopted in the Census Report of 1872 did not throw much
light upon the ethnical characteristics of the population of Bombay ;
but it was supplemented by two valuable papers drawn up by the late
Rev. Dr. John Wilson. The Census of 1881 returns for the British
Districts 16,418,704 Asiatics ; 16,852 non-Asiatics; and 18,858 whose
birthplace was not returned or not ascertainable. The Asiatics are
sub-divided into those from beyond the frontier of India, who number
73,252, almost entirely Baluchi's, Mekram's, Persians, Pathans, and
Arabs, found mostly in the Province of Sind ; and natives of British
India, who are further sub-divided into 562,678 aborigines, 12,308,582
Hindus, 3,021,131 Musalmdns, and 453,061 'others.' The total
number of Hindus, again, is made up of 664,411 Brahmans, 196,906
Rajputs, 9,100,933 castes of good social position, and 2,346,332 other
inferior castes of Hindus.

A more intelligible principle of ethnical classification arranges the
people according to their languages. This would give three territorial
divisions of the Presidency, having the Marathi, the Gujarathi, and the
Sindhi as their prevailing speech; and two minor territorial sub-divisions

VOL. III. D



5o BOMB A Y PRESIDENCY.

represented by the Kanarese and the Konkani dialects. The principal
languages are Marathi, spoken by 47 "ir per cent, of the people;
Gujarathi, by i8 # 86 per cent.; Kanarese, by 1277 per cent.; Sindhi,
by 1 2 '47 per cent. ; and Hindustani or Urdu, by 5*3 per cent.

In the north of Khandesh, Marathi merges into Hindi ; and in the
Dangs, on the west of Khandesh, the Gujarathi element is more pro-
nounced. Along the coast, Marathi may be said to begin at the
Damanganga river, or with Thana District, and to run, with local
variations, down to Goa ; but to the east the extension is wider, and for
a considerable distance into the Central Provinces, Berar and the
territory of the Nizam, Marathi is the most prevalent vernacular. In
the south, away from the coast and above the Ghats, it may be said to
follow the course of the Krishna, beyond which river Kanarese pervades
the whole of the southern part of the Presidency.

The Gujarathi language begins at the north of the Daman river,
and is the prevalent speech over the whole territory between that
river and the confines of Rajputana. Owing to the enterprise of
merchants from Gujarat, and to the use of the same language by
Parsis, as well as by Hindu traders, it has become the commercial
tongue of the seaports, and is found all over the Presidency. In
Cutch the language, though more Gujarathi than anything else, has a
strong Sindhi element in it. The Sindhi is confined mostly to the
Province from w r hich it derives its name.

Of the languages of the Bombay Presidency, all except the Kanarese
are derivatives from the Sanskrit, closely allied to each other, though
distinguishable by broad lines of difference. The Kanarese is a
member of the Dravidian family, which is dominant throughout
Southern India. It is perhaps necessary to point out that the common
derivation of these languages from the Sanskrit by no means involves
as a corollary that the peoples who use them are equally descended
from the Aryan stock. No decisive inference can be drawn from
language to race. For example, the hill tribes of Bhils, who are mani-
festly the aborigines of this part of India, have lost the recollection of
their own language, and now use whatever dialect is spoken by their
more immediate neighbours. The classification, however, into Marathi,
Gujarathi, Sindhi, and Kanarese, accurately enough represents the
principal nationalities of Western India, as determined by ethnical
characteristics and a common history.

The Marathas have a distinct national individuality. They are an
active, energetic race, liable to religious enthusiasm, and full of military
ardour. In their native mountains of the Deccan, they never submitted
to a permanent Muhammadan yoke ; and under the successors of Sivaji,
they not only asserted their independence, but laid the greater part of
India under tribute. In the season of their prosperity their vices were



BOMB A Y PRESIDENCY. 5 1

rather those of treachery and violence than of debauchery. In physical
appearance they are of middle height, and somewhat of a copper colour,



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