William Wilson Hunter.

The imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) online

. (page 9 of 56)
Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 9 of 56)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


duties are entrusted with magisterial powers. The remaining principal
departments of Government are the police, public works, forests, educa-
tion, jails, registration and medical departments, each of which possesses
an organization extending throughout all the different Districts of the
Presidency.

The Political relations between the Government and the Native States
in connection with the Bombay Presidency are maintained by the
presence of an Agent or representative at the principal Native Courts.






BOMB A Y PRESIDENC Y. 6 7

The position and duty of the Agent varies very considerably in the
different States, being governed by the terms of the original treaties, Dr
by recent sanads or patents. In some instances, as in Cutch, his
power is confined to the giving of advice, and to the exercise of a
general surveillance. In other cases the Agent is invested with an
actual share in the administration ; while States whose rulers are minors
— and the number of these is always large — are directly managed by
Government officers. The characteristic feature of the Bombay Native
States is the excessive number of petty principalities, such as those of
the Rajput and Bhi'l chieftains. The peninsula of Kathiawar alone
contains no less than 187 separate States. The recognition of these
innumerable jurisdictions is due to the circumstance that the early
Bombay administrators were induced to treat the de facto exercise of
civil and criminal jurisdiction by a landholder as carrying with it a
quasi-sovereign status. The rule of succession by primogeniture applies
only to the larger principalities, and consequently the minor States are
continually suffering disintegration.

The Bombay ariny in 1881 consisted of a strength of 13,082 Europeans
and 26,730 natives ; total, 39,812 fighting men. This force was made
up of 1 regiment of European and 9 regiments of native cavalry ; 47
European and 541 native sappers; 23 batteries of European artillery
with 96 guns, and 2 of native artillery with 12 guns (the heavy ordnance
in Bombay island, Karachi and Aden not included) ; 1 1 regiments of
European and 30 of native infantry. The military Divisions and
Districts of the Presidency are as follow : Poona (Puna) Division, with 9
stations, head-quarters Poona; Northern Division, with n stations, head-
quarters Ahmadabad ; Aden Brigade, head-quarters Aden ; Belgaum
District, with 4 stations, head-quarters Belgaum ; Bombay District, with 5
stations, head-quarters Bombay city ; and Sind District, head-quarters
Karachi ; and there are besides several cantonment stations, includ-
ing Mau (Mhow), Nimach (Neemuch), Nasirabad (Nusseerabad), and
Disa (Deesa), in Central India, which all lie beyond the geographical
limits of the Presidency. The military convalescent stations are
Purandhar on the hills, and Kolaba and Ghizri Bandar on the sea-
coast. In the year 1880-81, the total military expenditure amounted
to ^"5,428,599, of which ^540,683 belonged to the European, and
,£719,844 to the native army; ,£1,760,629 was devoted to effective
services, ,£136,122 to non-effective services, including pensions, and the
remainder, ,£2,271,321, to the war in Afghanistan.

The Bombay Marine in 1881 consisted of ten steam vessels, two
hulks in ordinary, and two ironclad turret monitors (the Abyssinia and
the Magdald) for the defence of Bombay harbour. The total establish-
ment consisted of about 700 officers and men. Of the ten steam
vessels mentioned above, two were stationed at Aden, and two in the



68 BOMB A Y PRESIDENC Y

Persian Gulf. The total receipts for 1 880-81 of the shipping office
amounted to £3258, against an expenditure of £1408. The total
expenditure during the year 1880-81 of the Bombay Port Trust
was £270,394, including a sum of ,£121,534 for interest to be paid
in 1881-82, against which must be set off receipts amounting to
.£276,682.

The Police consists of several distinct forces,— the Regular District
Police, the Bombay City Police, the Railway Police, and the Village
Watch. The last-mentioned body is maintained only in certain parts
of the country, at the expense of the villagers, and is not directly under
the control of Government. The Bombay City Police will be treated
of in the separate article on Bombay City. The following figures,
therefore, only apply to the Regular and the Railway Police. In the
year 1880-81, these two forces consisted of a strength of 3280 officers
and 16,353 men — total, 19,633; being 1 man to every 6-4 square
miles as compared with the area of the Presidency, or 1 to every
810 of the population. The proportion of police to area is largest in
the Panch Mahals District of Gujarat (Guzerat), where it is 1 to 2-07
square miles, and least in the Thar and Parkar District of Sind, where
it is 1 to 26*0 square miles. The total cost was £324,967, of which
£297,785 was met from Provincial revenues, and £"27,182 was
payable from other sources than Provincial revenue, showing an
average cost of £2, i 2s. 4d. per square mile of area, and 4^d. per
head of population. Of the total force, 45 per cent, were armed with
firearms, and 34 per cent, with swords, the rest having only batons.
In 18S0-81, the total number of cases of cognizable crime reported
was 62,487 ; 53,428 persons were arrested and 48,923 put on their
trial, of whom 42 per cent, were convicted. The total number of non-
cognizable cases was 2089 ; 3368 persons were arrested or summoned,
of whom 1547 were convicted. By far the greater number of the
convictions were for petty offences.

Jails. — In 1 88 1, there were altogether 27 jails in Bombay Presi-
dency, including the common jail and the house of correction in
Bombay city, the central jail at Yerauda near Poona (Puna), and the
jail at Aden; and 78 subordinate lock-ups. In that year the daily
average prison population was 11,236, of whom 536 were women.
These figures show 1 prisoner always in jail to every 1464 of the
population, and 1 woman in jail to every 14,845 of the female popu-
lation. The number of deaths was 493, or 4-4 per cent, of the average
strength. The gross total expenditure, exclusive of the sum expended
on subordinate jails, was ,£89,702, or £6, 19s. 3 fd. per head. The
expenditure on subordinate jails was £"2596. Jail manufactures,
including garden work and extramural labour, yielded a net profit of
£20,337.



BO MB A Y PRESIDE NC V. 69

Revenue and Expenditure of the Bombay Presidency for 1880-81.



Receipts.



I infer ml.
Land Revenue, .
Tribute and Contributions
Forests,

Assessed Taxes, .
Customs,

Salt

Opium,

Mint, ....
Police, . ....

Stationery and Printing,
Interest,

Receipts in aid of Super ,
tion and other allowance
Miscellaneous, .
Gain by Exchange, .
Post-Office,
Military,
Marine,

Public Works, .
Irrigation, .
Telegraph, .



Total,

Provincial Funds.
Land Revenue, .
Excise,

Assessed Taxes,
Customs,

Salt

Stamps,
Registration,
Minor Departments, .
Law and Jusuce,
Police,
Marine,
Education, .
Medical, .

Stationery and Printing,
Interest,

Superannuation, .
Miscellaneous, .
Other Public Works. .
Contributions, Imperial
Local Funds, .



Total,

Lncal Funds.
District Road Funds,
District Educational Fund
Fund for Pensions,
Port Fund, .
Cantonment Fund,
Indus Conservancy, .
M.scellaneous, .

Total,

Municipal Funds.
Bombay Municipality,
Uther Municipalities,

Total,

Grand Total,



and



£

3,090,029

131.925

152, 2tO

98,006
782,129

1,495,816

2.526,374

64,326

29

1,784

163,957

39.456
10,473
53.007
288,835
245.797
28,018
12,164
26,726

156,454



9,368,265



665,017

549,839

4^,533

8,541

4,388

421,536

27,93i
2,130

9°o53

24,034
5. ° 2

22,IC5

8,944
3,955
5.713

13,119

7,805

60,998

,471,586



3.433,849



229,560
124,380
5-695
26,859
10,022
5,268
16, 2*6

418,010



325.187
272,633



597,



[3>8i7.944



EXPENI IT' 11 .



Imperial.

Interest on hen ice bunds,
Refunds and Drawbacks, -
Forests, ....

Salt,

Opium, ....

Mint,

Administration, .
Minor Departments, .
Police, ....

Marine, ....
Stationery and Printing, .
Political Agencies,
Allowances and Assignment*
Civil Furlough Allowances,
Superannuation,
Miscellaneous, -
Post-Office,
Loss by Exchange,
Public Works, .
Irrigation, ....
Telegraphs,
Bombay Army, v



Total



tit.



Provincial F'n
Refunds, .
1 and Revenue, .
Excise,

Assessed Taxes, .
Customs,

Salt, ....
Stamps,
Registration,
Mint, ....
Post-Office,
Administration, .
Minor Departments. .
Law and Justice,
Police,
Marine,
Education, .
Ecclesiastical, .
Medical, .
Stationery and Printing,
Political Agencies,
Allowances and Assigmnei.
Superannuation, .
Miscellaneous, .
Other Public Works,
Contributions, Imperial and Local,

Total,

Local Funds.
District Road Fund, .
District Educational Fund,
Indus Conservancy Fund, .
Port Fund, .
Cantonment Fund,
Miscellaneous, .



Total,

Municipal Funds.
Bombay Municipality,
Other Municipalities,

Total,

Grand Total,



84,972
67.506
111,878

35,554

1,916

4i,797

38,401

8,114

3,8i9

158,983

3,960

74,*o9

132,270

i,734

71,022

5,320

374,148

594,462

175,757

150,738

167,108

5,432,957



7,7 5 7.365



27,780
64 A ,99o
i8,753
2,470
81,342
55,2io
18,598

22,2i8

26

8,927

122,539

n.5'4

521, BOO

405,585

7,111

100,289

32,703
117,648

46,026

386

691,383

1&3.379

26,701
245,594

80,843

?, ?95, 8 55



.24,782
118,624
5>°3 2
39.418
9.702
17,106



4H,^74



305,792
281,520



587. 3'*



12.135.2c6



* This item shows an increase of ^2,271,318 over that of the previous year,

War in Afghanistan.



lue entirely to the



7o



BO MB A Y PRESIDENCY.



Revenue and Expenditure. — The table on the previous page shows
the revenue and expenditure of the Bombay Presidency for the year
1 880-81, including provincial, local, and municipal funds.

This table, which has been specially compiled from the materials
given in the Administration Report for that year, must not be accepted
as an accurate balance-sheet of the finances of the Presidency. For
example, the receipts from opium are not, properly speaking, an item
of revenue to Bombay, but a tax levied upon the Chinese consumer of
a drug which has been produced in Central India. Similarly, on the
other side of the account, items of Imperial expenditure, such as the
army and interest on debt, are not debited against the Bombay treasury.
It must also be observed that the apparently adverse balance in the
department of Provincial funds is equalized by a grant of ,£982,233
from the Imperial exchequer, which sum is again debited as Imperial
expenditure in the Bombay accounts.

Education. — The educational system in Bombay, as throughout the
rest of India, is based upon the celebrated Despatch of Sir Charles
Wood, dated 19th July 1854. It consists on the one hand of a widely
distributed class of vernacular or village schools, subsidized by grants-
in-aid from Government, and under inspection by the Educational
Department ; and on the other, of a limited number of institutions,
which teach in English up to the curriculum of the University, and are
for the most part maintained at Government expense. In the year
1 880-8 1, the total number of schools and colleges in the Presidency
was 5343, attended on an average by 223,364 pupils daily, showing 1
school to every 23*2 square miles of area, and i3 - 8 pupils to every
thousand of the population. Of the 41,997 towns and inhabited villages
contained in the Presidency and its dependencies, 4154, or about 1 in
10, were provided with schools, and the number of scholars on the
rolls at the close of the year was 316,974. Of the whole number of
schools, 4398 were Government institutions, 255 private institutions
receiving aid from Government, 662 were unaided, but under inspection
by Government agency, and 28 were police and jail schools. In these
figures are included 9 colleges for higher instruction, 7 technical schools,
9 normal schools, 50 high schools for boys, 2 high schools for girls, and
240 middle-class schools, of which 16 are for girls. The total expendi-
ture of the department amounted to ^£244,705, of which ^108,91 2 was
derived from Provincial funds, and ,£135,793 from Local funds. In
addition, a sum of ,£70,285 was expended the same year on education
by the Native States of the Bombay Presidency. The vernacular
schools alone numbered 4705, attended by 275,642 scholars. These
are mainly supported by an allotment of one-third of the 1 anna cess
on every rupee of the land revenue, augmented by the grant of a lump
sum from Government. There were 298 primary girls' schools, with



BOMB A Y PR ESI D EN C Y 7 1

17,612 pupils, of which nearly one-half are private institutions. Of the
total number of the children in schools connected with Government,
2 -12 per cent, were Christians, 22*11 Brahmans, 60*96 other Hindus, 11*32
Muhammadans, 2*59 Parsis, and the remainder were Jews, aborigines,
and ' others.' Of the principal races that attend the schools in this
Presidency, Brdhmans are the most numerous in proportion to their
number, and Hindu cultivators and Muhammadans the least numerous
class, except in primary schools, where the proportion of Parsi pupils
is the smallest. About one-quarter of the pupils attending educational
institutions of the higher classes are sons of Government official;; one-
eighth sons of persons of property ; one-ninth, sons of private clerks ; one-
sixteenth, sons of merchants, and the remainder sons of cultivators.
The number of pupils learning English was 22,237, and Sanskrit 3295.
The most important colleges are, the Elphinstone College in Bombay
city, with an average daily attendance of 158 in 1881-82 • the Deccan
College at Poona, with 1 20 pupils ; the Gujarat College, with an
average daily attendance of 17 ; and the Rajaram College, with an average
daily attendance of 18. Among institutions for special instruction may
be mentioned — the Law School, with 152 students ; the Grant Medical
College, with 282 ; and the Poona College of Science, with 188. The
Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art, with 103 pupils, is also under the
Education Department. The Bombay University was founded by
Lord Elphinstone in 1857. It consists of a chancellor, vice-chancellor,
and senate ; and its function is to examine and confer degrees in
arts, law, medicine, and engineering. Large endowments have been
received at different times from the wealthy merchants of Bombay, by
means of which a handsome hall and library have been erected on the
esplanade.

The languages spoken in the Bombay Presidency are Marathf,
Gujarathi, Sindhi, and Kanarese ; Urdu or Hindustani is also in
common use among the educated and trading Muhammadans. In the
year 1880-81, the total number of publications registered was 980, of
which 91 were printed in English, and 889 in Oriental languages. The
total number of printing-presses was 74, of which as many as 47 are
found in Bombay city, and 20 in the Deccan. The number of native
newspapers appearing was 73, either printed or lithographed, of which
2 were entirely in English, 1 1 Anglo-Marathi, 30 purely Marathi, 4 Anglo-
Gujarathf, 27 purely Gujarathi, and the remainder in Urdu, Hindi and
Persian. Two of these papers, edited in Bombay city by Parsis,* have
existed for 57 and 45 years respectively. The leading association for
the advancement of learning in the Presidency is the Bombay Branch
of the Royal Asiatic Society, originally founded in 1804, with which
the Bombay Geographical Society was amalgamated in 1874. The
Medical and Physical Society was founded in 1863. The Sassoon.



7 2 B OMB A Y PRESIDENC Y.

Mechanics' Institute has a reference library of 15,000 volumes.
There are altogether 90 libraries registered in the Presidency. In the
year 1880-81, the post-offices numbered 735, the letter-boxes 1380, and
the total mileage of postal lines was 10,493. The post-office received
for delivery a total of 28,084,992 articles. The length of telegraph
line at the close of the same year was 1930 miles, and the length of
wire 6490 miles in Bombay Proper ; in Sind the length of line was 1593,
and of wire 4518 miles.

Medical Aspects— Climate.— -Great varieties of climate are met with in
the Bombay Presidency. In its extreme dryness and heat, combined
with the aridity of a sandy soil, Upper Sind resembles the deserts of
Arabia. The thermometer here has been known to register 130 F. in
the shade. At Haidarabad, in Lower Sind, the mean maximum
temperature during the six hottest months in the year is 98-50° ; the
rise of temperature in the water of the Indus is also remarkable. In
Cutch and Gujarat the sultry heat, if not so excessive, is still very trying.
Bombay island itself, though in general cooled by the sea-breeze, is oppres-
sively hot during May and October. The Konkan is hot and moist, the
fall of rain during the monsoon sometimes reaching 300 inches. The
table-land of the Deccan above the Ghats possesses an agreeable climate,
as also does the South Maratha country. On the hills of Mahabalesh-
war, Singarh, and other detached heights, Europeans may go out all
hours of the day with impunity. According to a series of returns,
extending over a period of twenty-eight years, taken at the meteoro-
logical station of Kolaba, the mean annual temperature is 79-2° F.,
ranging from 73*6° in the month of January to 84-2° in May; the
average annual rainfall is 70*30 inches, of which 70-8 fall in the seven
months between May and November. The south-west monsoon generally
breaks about the first week in June, and pours down torrents of rain
along the coast. From that date up to October the rainy season may
be said to last, during which travelling is everywhere difficult and
unpleasant, except in Sind, where the monsoon rains exert little
influence.

Diseases.— The most prevalent diseases are fevers of various types, in-
cluding the malarious fevers of Gujarat and Kanara, especially dreaded by
Europeans ; cholera, which seems to display a curious tendency towards
epidemic outbreaks at triennial intervals ; bowel complaints, including
diarrhoea and dysentery ; small-pox, which has recently been checked
to some extent by the extension of the practice of vaccination ; ague,
rheumatic affections, lung diseases, syphilis and various cutaneous
disorders. Conservancy arrangements are enforced by the Sanitary
and Vaccination Departments, which have been amalgamated, and
an official with the title of Deputy Sanitary Commissioner has
been placed in every District. The actual outlay in 1880 under



BOMBAY CITY. 73

the head of sanitary works, military, amounted to ^14,069. The vital
statistics are recorded in the several municipalities by the municipal
officers, and elsewhere by the village head-men and accountants— except
in cantonments and in the province of Sind, where, in the absence of a
regular village establishment, the work is done by the ordinary revenue
officers; they cannot be accepted as accurate, but they give some indica-
tion of the relative mortality from different diseases. During 1880-81,
328,673 deaths were registered throughout the Presidency, giving a
death-rate of 20*25 per thousand, as compared with an average of 24-35
for the previous nine years. Of the total number of deaths, 246,779
were assigned to fevers, a very vague term among native practitioners ;
only 684 to cholera, which in 1878 carried 0(146,743, and in 1879, 6937
persons; 24,452 to bowel complaints; and 940 to small-pox: 11 79
deaths from snake-bite were recorded in the same year. In the same
year 370,873 births were registered, showing a birth-rate of 22-85 P er
thousand. Calculations based upon the ages of the population yield
an average death-rate throughout the Presidency of 35*57 pe r thousand,
and a birth-rate of 41-05. In the year 1880-81, the staff of 431
vaccinators performed 704,984 operations at a total cost of ^23,714.

Charitable institutions for medical relief consist of two classes. The
Civil Hospitals in 1880-81 numbered 43, at which 307,030 patients
were treated. The Dispensaries in 1880-81 numbered 144, of which
6 were in Native States; they were attended by 893,366 patients. The
total expenditure on these dispensaries was ^24,171. There were 5
Lunatic Asylums in the Presidency, with 913 inmates in the year 1881.
The expenditure was ^9140, ° r an average of ^15 per head.

Bombay.— The city of Bombay, the capital of the Presidency of
Bombay, and the principal seaport of Western India, is situated on an
island in 18° 55' 5" n. lat, and 72 53' 55" e. long. Bombay island is
one of a group (perhaps that called Heptanesia by Arrian) lying off
the coast of the Konkan ; but by the recent construction of causeways
and breakwaters, it is now permanently united on the north with the
larger island of Salsette, and so continuously with the mainland. The
remainder of the group of islands constitute a part of Thana District.
For certain administrative purposes, Bombay city is regarded as con-
stituting a District by itself, with an area of 22 square miles, and a
population, according to the Census of 1881, of 773> I 9 6 souls.

Bombay island is in shape a trapezoid. It is popularly likened to a hand
laid palm upwards, with the fingers stretching southwards into the sea,
and the thumb representing Malabar Hill, with Back Bay between the
thumb and forefinger. Others see a resemblance in it to a withered
leg, with a very high heel and pointed toe, the heel being Malabar
Hill, and the toe Kolaba. It is 1 i\ miles long from the south extremity
of Kolaba to Lion Causeway, over which the railway passes to the larger



74 BOMB A* CITY.

island of Salsette, and from 3 to 4 miles broad in that portion which
lies to the north of the esplanade. The portion of Bombay called the
Fort, abutting on the harbour, and separated from the native city proper
by a large maiddn or park, is the most important, most English, and
busiest quarter of the town.

History. — The name of Bombay was erroneously supposed to have
been given by the Portuguese, on account of the geographical position
of the island — Bom-bahia or Boa-bahia, ' statio fidissima nautis.' Colonel
II. Yule, however, traces it back to the latter half of the compound name
Tanna-Maiamba or Mayamba, which, according to Barbosa, circ. 15 16,
was used to designate the kingdom of the Konkan in the 16th century.
The name appears as Maimbi in the very early geographical Sommario
de Regni t translated from the Portuguese in Ramudio, written probably
1520-25. There can be little doubt that this word, in its turn, was a
corruption of Mamba-devi, a goddess who had a famous shrine in the
neighbourhood, mentioned in Forbes' Rds Maid, circ. 1630. The
Portuguese of the 16th century call it Mombain or Bombaim, never
Bom-bahia or Boa-bahia. The Maratha name of Bombay is Mumbai,
from Mahima, 'Great Mother,' a title of Devi. In support of the
popular etymology from Buon Bahia, ' fair haven,' it may be said that
Bombay undoubtedly possesses one of the finest harbours in the world.
But the evidence leaves little doubt that the true derivation is from the
Maratha Mumbai, i.e. Mahima, ' the Great Mother,' or Devi. It thus
happens that both the great British capitals of India, Bombay on the
western coast, and Calcutta (q.v.) on the eastern, take their names from
titles or designations of the same goddess, the wife of Siva, the lord
of death and reproduction.

The history of Bombay begins with the cession of the island by the
Portuguese to Charles 11. in 1661, as part of the dowry of his queen,
Catherine of Braganza. The adjoining islands, however, of Salsette
and Karanja still remained in the possession of the Portuguese. At
this time the population was estimated at 10,000 souls, and the revenue
at 75>°°° xeraphins, or ^6500. The king appears to have found his
distant acquisition unprofitable, and in 1668 he transferred it to the
East India Company on payment of an annual rent of £\o in gold.
The Company forthwith took steps for the strengthening of the fortifica-
tions, and the encouragement of European settlers. Dr. Fryer, who
visited the island in 1673, describes the population as numbering
60,000— 'a mixture of most of the neighbouring countries, mostly
rogues and vagabonds.' He has left an elaborate description of the
place as it then existed. The fort or castle was armed with 120 pieces
of ordnance ; and the town, which lay at some distance, was a full
mile in length. The greater number of the inhabitants, especially of



Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 3) → online text (page 9 of 56)