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order of Mubarik Khan, the new Sultan, his skin w^as hung over the
gate of Deogiri. A succession of favourites of the Delhi Sultan now
ruled in Deogiri ; until in 1325, Muhammad Tughlak Shah, the son of
Ghiyas-ud-din, ascended the throne. In 1338, Muhammad Tughlak
conceived the idea of making Deogiri the capital of the Muhammadan
Empire ; and having re-christened the fort Daulatabad, or ' The For-
tunate City,' issued stringent orders for the evacuation of Delhi and
for the immediate removal of the population to Deogiri. The distance
from Delhi to Deogiri is 800 miles. Delhi, called by an annalist of
that time the ' Envy of the World,' became deserted at the order of
the cruel and eccentric Emperor. The story runs that a paralytic
and a blind man alone were found in the silent streets when the
evacuation was over. The paralytic was blown from the mouth of a
culverin ; the blind man w^as dragged from Delhi to Deogiri, a march
of forty days; but 'the poor wretch fell in pieces during the journey,
and only one leg reached Daulatabad.' Deogiri, however, rose into


importance. Ibn Batuta, a native of Tangiers, visited Daulatabad
when Tughlak had his court there, and compares it for size and
splendour to the former Delhi. Not once but twice did Deogiri gain
at the expense of Delhi, and wholesale migrations were ruthlessly
commanded and as ruthlessly enforced. On the second occasion,
the ravages of a famine were added to the disasters of a long and
painful journey. In a few years, the dynasty of Tughlak was fol-
lowed, in this region, by the Bahmani kings of Gulbarga and chiefs of
Bider. The Bahmanis held Daulatabad until they became extinct in
1526. The Bahmanis were succeeded by the Nizam Shahi kings of
Ahmednagar, who held the fortress until their kingdom fell beneath the
sway of the Mughal. After the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, the fortress
of Daulatabad, with other Mughal possessions in the Deccan, passed
into the hands of Asaph Jah, the founder of the Nizam's dynasty, in
whose family they have remained ever since. Daulatabad has not
been garrisoned as a fortress for many years. At present there is a
force of about 100 military police stationed there. The gardens for
which the place was once famous have nearly all disappeared.

Daulat Khan. — Village and formerly the head-quarters of Dakshin
Shahbazpur Sub-division, Bakarganj District, Bengal. Lat. 22° 38' N.,
and long. 90° 50' 30" e. Principal article of export, areca-nut. The
village was destroyed and the inhabitants nearly all drowned by a
cyclone and storm wave in October 1876.

Daulatpur. — Village in Naushahro Sub - division, Haidarabad
(Hyderabad) District, Sind, Bombay Presidency ; situated in lat. 26°
30' 30" N., and long. 68' o' 15" e. on the trunk road between Haidar- |
abad and Rohri. Population insignificant, and mainly agricultural.
The Muhammadans belong to the Hotpotra tribe; the Hindus are
chiefly Lohanos. Rest-house for travellers.

Dauleswaram. — Town, Godavari District, Madras Presidency. — See


Daundia Khera. — Pargand in Purwa tahsil, Unao District, Oudh,
Bounded on the north by Ghatampur and Bhagwantnagar pargands,
on the east by Sareni, on the south by the Ganges, and on the west
by Ghatampur pargand. Conquered from the Bhars by the Bais
clan of Rajputs, who here first laid the foundation of their future
greatness. They rapidly extended their dominions, and their descen-
dants now hold considerable possessions in Rai Bareli and Bara
Banki. Area, 64 square miles, of which 35 are cultivated. Govern-
ment land revenue, ^5327, or an average of 2s. 6d. per acre. Principal
autumn crops — cotton, rice, millet, iird, mug, vetches, etc. ; spring
crops — wheat, barley, gram, arhar, oil-seeds, sugar-cane. Population
(1881) 33,467, namely, 16,397 males and 17,070 females. Of the 104
villages comprising the pargand, 26 are held under tdhikddri, 34 under


zaminddri, and 44 und^x pattiddri tenures. Six bi-weekly markets are
held for the sale of country produce.

Dausa.— Town in Jaipur (Jeypore) State, Rajputana, Central India.
Population ( 1 881) 7384, namely, Hindus, 6057 ; Muhammadans, 1139;
and unspecified, 188. Station on the Rajputana State Railway, distant
about ^^ miles east from Jaipur. Dausa was once the capital of the
State before Amber was wrested from the Minas. It stands on the
slope of a large isolated flat hill nearly four miles in circumference,
fortified with a loopholed wall with bastions of considerable strength.
The town contains numerous Hindu temples and ancient edifices fast
falling to decay. At the close of the Mutiny, Tantia Topi, the famous
rebel leader, was caught between two columns of British troops in the
neighbourhood of Dausa, when a battle was fought under its walls.
Staging bungalow, dispensary, and post-office. The Agra and Ajmere
trunk roads intersect at Dausa.

Davangere.— T^i////^ in Shimoga District, Mysore State, Southern
India. Area (including Harihar taluk, incorporated in 1875), 662
square miles; land revenue (1882), exclusive of water-rates, ;^i5,59i.
The taluk is watered by the Tungabhadra, which runs along the
western boundary. The surface is a wide, level, and dreary plain.
Black soil prevails in the west, and stony or gravelly soil in the east.
Chief crops, Jola, cotton, and ragi. Rice and sugar-cane are grown
to a small extent The dynasty of the Kadambas were probably
the earhest Hindu occupants of the country. The Chalukya and
Ballala dynasties followed, the seat of government being at Huchangi-
Durga. The Yadavas of Deogiri were in possession when that dynasty
declined on the advent of the Muhammadans in the 13th century.
After falling to the Vijayanagar Empire and the Bednur chiefs, Davan-
gere taluk eventually became part of Haidar All's possessions. Noted
for the manufacture of finely -woven kaniblis or woollen blankets,
which have been known to sell for £20 or ^,^30 a-piece. The taluk
contains i criminal court ; police stations {thdnds), 10; regular police,
76 men ; village watchmen (chaukiddrs), 294.

Davangere.— Town in Shimoga District, Mysore State, Southern
India.^ Lat. 14° 28' n., and long. 75° 59' e. ; 40 miles north-west
of Chitaldriig. Population (1881) 6362, namely, 5584 Hindus, 763
I^Iuhammadans, and 15 Christians. Origirially an obscure village,
Davangere became a centre of trade under the patronage of Haidar
All, who gave it as 3. Jdgir to a Maratha chief. The merchants are
mostly Sivaite Bhaktas or Lingayats. Their most valuable business is
the carrying trade between Wallaja-pet in North Arcot and the
neighbourhood of Sagar and Nagar. Exports— areca-nut, pepper, and
kamblis or country blankets.

Davasi-betta.— Peak on the Brahmagiri Hills, Mysore.


i62 r>A VID, FORT ST.- DA WNA.

David, Fort St. (Native name, Thevanapatnam or Tegnapaiam).-^
A ruined 'fort in South Arcot District, Madras Presidency ; situated in
lat. 11° 44' 20" N., and long. 79° 49' 3°" e., 100 miles south of Madras,
and I J miles north of Cuddalore, of which it may be called a suburb.
It was purchased from the Marathas in 1690, and was included in
the kaul of that year, by which Cuddalore was granted to the Com-
pany. All the land round the fort, to the distance of a ' randome shott '
fired on every side, was included in the purchase. It was christened
* Fort St. David,' perhaps by its Welsh Governor M. E. Yale ; and
from 1746 to 1752 it replaced Fort St. George as the chief settlement
on the Coromandel coast. (See Cuddalore.) Upon the capitulation
of Madras to the French under Bourdonnais in 1746, the Company's
agent at Fort St. David assumed the general administration of British
affairs in the south of India, and successfully resisted an attack by
Dupleix. Clive was appointed Governor in 1756. In 1758, the French,
under M. Lally, captured and dismantled the fort while Clive was
serving in Bengal, but sufficiently restored it in 1783 to withstand an
attack by General Stuart. The ruined houses on the ramparts are still
interesting, and some parts of the fort are in good preservation. Sub-
terranean passages appear to have run completely round under the glacis,
thus forming a safe means of communication for the garrison ; while, at
short intervals, other galleries striking off at right angles, and terminating
in powder chambers, served as mines. At the south-east corner, the
gallery ran down to the edge of the sea, while on the other three sides
the fort was protected by the river Pennar and two canals. The ruins
form a recognised landmark for mariners.

Dawa.— Z^wf;^^«Vf or estate in Bhandara District, Central Provinces,
lying to the north of the Great Eastern Road, and about 30 miles north-
east of Bhandara. Population (1881) 4997, chiefly Gonds and Halbds,
dwelling in 12 villages, on an area of 26 square miles, of which 7 square
miles are cultivated. Dawa and Kor Seoni, the only large villages, both
possess indigenous schools, and the latter contains a strong colony of
Koris. The chief is a Halba. Dawa village is situated in lat. 2 1° 1 1' N.,
and long. 80° 13' e.

Dawer. — Town in Mervvara, Ajmere-Merwara Division, Rajputana.
Lat. 25° 26' N., long. 73° 51' E. Situated at the extreme south of
Merwara, at the head of the Dawer pass into Jodhpur. Police station,
school, and post-office.

Dawna. — Range of mountains forming the eastern boundary
of Amherst District, Tenasserim Division, British Burma. Th's
chain starts from the Muleh-yit Hill (5500 feet high) in the main
range, in lat. 16° 5' 45" n., long. 98° 42' 3" e., and extends north-
west for 200 miles, dividing the waters of the Haung-tharaw and
Hlaing-bhweh rivers from those of the Thaung-yin. The general



appearance of the range is that of a wooded plateau of laterite cut up
by drainage into ridges. At places the underlying rocks project into
the bed of the Thaung-yin, indicating volcanic agency. Large areas on
the Dawna Hills are covered with evergreen forests, containing many
varieties of valuable timber.

Dayd, (' The River of Mercy '). — The western distributary of the waters
of the KoYAKHAi river, in Orissa, through Puri District into the Chilka
Lake. Subject to disastrous floods, which in the rainy season burst the
banks, and sometimes desolate hundreds of square miles. In the dry
weather, a series of long shallow pools, amid expanses of sand. Fall per
mile at section half-way between Cuttack city and the sea, 1 7 feet ;
mean depth of section, 1678 feet; estimated discharge, 33,100 cubic
feet per second. Thirty-six breaches were made in its embankment in

Dayang" or Doyong". — River in Assam, forming in part the eastern
boundary between the Naga Hills District and the unexplored country
occupied by the independent Nagas. It rises in the prolongation of
the Barel range which runs through the Naga Hills, and divides that
District from Manipur State, its source being between the lofty peaks
called Khurrho and Kopamedza. It ultimately falls into the
Dhaneswari (Dhansiri) river, a short distance above Golaghat, in lat.
26° 26' N., and long. 93° 58' e. Navigable by small boats during the
rainy season as high as its junction with the Dihinggjan.

Debar. — Lake in Udaipur (Oodeypore) State, Rajputana, Central
India. Situated about 30 miles south-east of Udaipur town, the
centre lying in lat. 24° 18' n., and long. 74° 4' e. It is formed by a
dam entirely made of massive stone, built across a perennial stream,
where it issues through a gap in the surrounding hills.. This dyke is
called /j/ Samand, after Rana Jai Singh, by whom it was constructed
A.D. 1 68 1. The length of Lake Debar from east to west is 8 or 10
miles, and its average breadth about a mile, with a circumference of
about 30 miles ; elevation above sea-level, 960 feet. Its northern shore
is dotted with picturesque fishing hamlets, and its surface with small
wooded islands, adding greatly to the beauty of perhaps one of the
largest artificial sheets of water in the world.

Debhata. — Village and municipality in Maihati pargand, Khulna
District, Bengal; situated on the river Jamu^a. Lat. 22° 33' 30" n.,
long. 89° o' 15" K Population (1881) 5514, namely, Hindus,
4002; and Muhammadans, 1512 ; area of town site, 2400 acres.
Municipal income (1881-82), ^336; average incidence of taxation,
IS. id. per head of municipal population. Large trade in lime produced
from burnt shells.

•Debi Patan. — Village with temples and large religious fair, in Gonda
I^istrict, Oudh. Lat. 27° 32' 8" n., long. 82° 26' 30" e. Stated to be

1 64 DECCAN.

probably one of the oldest seats of the Sivalte cultus in Northern India.
The earliest legend connects it with Raja Kama, son of Kunti, the
mother of the three elder Pandavas by the Sun-god, and hero of the
impenetrable cuirass, who, abandoned in his cradle on the Ganges, was
adopted by Adirath, the childless King of Anga. Brought up at the
court of Hastinapur, Kama was refused by Drona the arms of Brahma,
which, however, he eventually obtained from Parasurama by faithful
service at his retreat on the Mahendra mountain. In after life, he
attended Duryodhana to the Swayainvara, described in the Maha-
bharata, and, having taken a prominent part in the great war, was finally
granted the city of Malini by Jarasindhu, the Sivaite King of Magadha,
over which he reigned as a tributary to Duryodhana. The ruins of an
ancient fort, once occupying the site of the present temple, and an
adjoining tank, are popularly ascribed to this legendary monarch. In
the middle of the 2nd century a.d., Vikramaditya, the Brahminist king,
who restored the sacred city of Ajodhya on the decline of Buddhism,
erected a temple on the site of the ancient fort. This in its turn fell
into ruins; and another was built on the same spot at the end of the 14th
or beginning of the 15th century, by Ratan Nath, the third in spiritual
descent from Gorakh Nath, the deified saint whose worship is spread
all over the Nepal valley. As far as can be judged from the remains,
this temple must have been of considerable size, adorned by profuse
sculptures, and full of stone images of Siva and Devi in their various
forms. For some centuries, the temple was a great resort for pilgrims,
chiefly from Gorakhpur and Nepal, until its importance attracted the
attention of the iconoclastic Aurangzeb, one of whose officers slew the
priests, destroyed the temple and images, and defiled the holy places.
The temple was soon afterwards restored, but on a smaller scale, and still
exists. A large religious-trading fair, lasting for about ten days, and
attended by about 100,000 persons, is held here each year. The
principal articles of commerce are — hill ponies, cloth, timber, mats,
ghi^ iron, cinnamon, etc. During the fair, large numbers of buffaloes,
goats, and pigs are daily sacrificed at the temple.

Deccan {Dakshi?i, 'The South'). — The Deccan, in its local accepta-
tion, signifies only the elevated tract situated between the Narbada
(Nerbudda) and Kistna (Krishna) rivers, but it is generally and properly
understood to include the whole country south of the Vindhya moun-
tains, which separate it from Hindustan proper. In its larger sense,
therefore, it comprehends the valley of the Narbada, and all southward
— the belt of lowland that fringes the coast, as well as the triangular
table-land, the sides of which are formed by the Eastern and Western '
Ghats, and the base of the Satpura range of the sub-Vindhyas. On
the western side, this table-land descends seaward by a succession of |
terraces, the Ghats throughout averaging 4000 feet in height above the j

DEC CAN. 165

sea, and terminating abruptly near Cape Comorin, the extreme southern
point of the peninsula, at an elevation of 2000 feet. From here,
following the coast-line, the Eastern Ghats commence in a series of
detached groups, which, uniting in about lat. 11° 40' n., run northward
along the Coromandel coast, with an average elevation of 1500 feet;
and join the main ridge, which crosses the peninsula in lat. 13° 20' n.
They terminate in nearly the same latitude as their western counter-
part. The Vindhyan range, running across the north of the Deccan,
joins the northern extremities of the two Ghats, and thus completes the
peninsular triangle. The eastern side of the enclosed table-land being
much lower than the western, all the principal rivers of the Deccan —
the Godavari, Kistna, Pennar (Ponnaiyar), and Kaveri (Cauvery) — rising
in the Western Ghats flow eastward, and escape by openings in the
Eastern Ghats into the Bay of Bengal. Between the Ghats and the sea
on either side, the land differs in being, on the east, composed in part of
alluvial deposits brought down from the mountains, and sloping gently ;
while on the west, the incline is abrupt, and the coast strip is broken by
inegular spurs from the Ghats, which at places descend into the sea in
steep cliffs.

Geologically, the Deccan table-land presents a vast surface of hypo-
gene schists, penetrated and broken up by extraordinary outbursts of
plutonic and trappean rock ; varied on the Western Ghats by laterite :
on the eastern by laterite, sandstones and limestones ; and in the valley
of the Kaveri by granite. To the north-west, this schistoid formation
disappears, emerging occasionally from under one of the largest sheets
of trap in the world. Underlying this surface throughout, is a granite
floor; while in places overlying it are, in the following order, gneiss,
mica and hornblende schists, clay-slate, marble — all destitute of organic
remains — together with fossiliferous limestones, varieties of clay and
sand rocks. Through all these aqueous deposits, the volcanic trap
thrusts itself. Two rocks, characteristic of the Deccan, are found
capping the trap — viz. laterite, an iron-clay, and 7'egar known in its
disintegrated state as ' black cotton-soil.' The latter is remarkable for
its retentiveness of moisture, and for its fertility.

Litde is known of the history of the Deccan before the close of the
13th century. Hindu legends tell of its. invasion by Rama, and
archaeological remains bear witness to a series of early dynasties, of
which the Dravida, Chola, and Andhra are the best known. Continuous
history commences with the Muhammadan invasion of 1 294-1 300 a.d.,
\v1ien Ala-ud-din, the Khilji Emperor of Delhi, conquered ' Maharashtra,'
' felmgana,' and ' Karnata.' In 1338, the reduction of the Deccan was
completed by Muhammad Tughlak ; but a few years later, a general
revolt resulted in the establishment of the Muhammadan Bahmani
dynasty and the retrogression of Delhi supremacy beyond the Narbada.


The Bahmani dynasty subverted the Hindu kingdom of Telingana
(1565), and (at the battle of Talikot in the same year) the great Hindu
kingdom of Vijayanagar or ' Karnata.' A few years later, it itself
began to disintegrate, and was broken up into the five Muhammadan
kingdoms of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Golconda, Bidar, and Berar.
The two last became extinct before 1630; the other three were
successively restored to the Delhi Empire by the victories of Shah
Jehan and his son Aurangzeb. The Deccan was thus for a second
time brought under the Delhi rule, but not for long. The Marathas
in 1706 obtained the right of levying tribute over Southern India.
Their leader, concentrating his strength in what is now the Bombay
Presidency, founded the Satara dynasty, which afterwards resigned
all real power to the Peshwa of Poona. Another usurper, rallying
the southern Muhammadans round him, estabhshed the Nizamati
of Haidarabad (Hyderabad). The remainder of the imperial posses-
sions in the Deccan was divided among minor chiefs, who acknow-
ledged the supremacy of the Peshwa or the Nizam, according as
they were north or south of the Tungabhadra respectively. Mysore,
generally tributary to both, became eventually the prize of Haidar
All ; while in the extreme south, the Travancore State enjoyed, by
its isolated position, uninterrupted independence. Such was the
position of affairs early in the i8th century. Meanwhile, Portugal,
Holland, France, and Great Britain had effected settlements on the
coast ; but the two former on so small a scale that in the wars of
the Deccan they took no important part. The French and English,
however, espoused opposite sides ; and the struggle eventually resulted
in establishing the supremacy of the latter. The Deccan is to-day
represented by the British Presidency of Madras and part of Bombay,
together with Haidarabad (Hyderabad), Mysore, Travancore, and other
Native States.

Dedan.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. It consists
of 1 1 villages, with 2 independent tribute - payers. The revenue in
1881 was estimated at ;^3ooo, of which ^295, 12s. is payable as
tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda. Area, 30 square miles ; population
(1881) 5437.

Dedarda.— Petty State in Kathiawar, Bombay Presidency. It con-
sists of I village, with 2 independent tribute-payers. The revenue in
1881 was estimated at ^410, of which ;^io, 6s. is payable as tribute
to the Gaekwar of Baroda.

Deeg" (Z>/^).— Town and fortress in Bhartpur State, Rijputana.— 5^^

Deesa {Disa). — British cantonment in Palanpur State, Bombay
Presidency. — See Disa.

Degdm (Z?^//^^iw).— Seaport in the Jambusar Sub-division, Broach


District, Bombay Presidency; situated in lat. 22° 11' n., and long. 72''
39' E,, on the left bank of the Mahi river, about a mile from the Gulf
of Cambay, and 18 miles north-west of Jambusar town. Population
(1881) about 2000; average annual value of trade for the five years
ending 1871-72,^14,108, viz. exports, ^5135, and imports, ^8973.
Mention is made of Degam as a seaport of Broach in the Ain-i-Akbari.
Degh.— River in Jammu (Jummoo) State, and in Sialkot, Lahore,
and Montgomery Districts, Punjab. Formed by the union of two
streams at Parmandal, in Jammu, both of which take their rise in the
outer Himalayan ranges. Enters British territory near the village of
Lehri-Kalan in Sialkot, passes into Lahore District, and finally joins
the Ravi in Montgomery District in lat. 31° 2' n., long. 73° 24' e.
The Degh is a river of the lower slopes, and consequently depends
entirely for water-supply upon the local rainfall ; but its channel in the
upper portion never runs dry. In Sialkot District, a fringe of alluvial
land lines the bank, and the current shifts constantly from side to side
of the wide valley; but artificial irrigation is only practised by means of
Persian wheels in a few isolated spots, where the banks rise somewhat
higher than usual above the river bed. Large areas, however, benefit
by the silt deposited from the summer floods. At Tapiala, in Lahore
District, the Degh divides into two branches, — the western of which is
only full of water during the rainy season, — and these join again near
the village of Dhenga. Below Udeheri, irrigation can be effected by
the natural flow of the water, the banks having subsided almost to the
river's edge. Excellent rice grows upon the lands submerged by the
inundations. In Montgomery District, the Degh again flows between
high banks, but still contains sufficient water for irrigation. Its course
in this portion of its course is remarkably straight, and it presents all the
appearance of an artificial canal. So much water is withdrawn for
agricultural purposes during its upper course, that the bed not unfre-
quently runs dry by the time it reaches Montgomery District. Several
bridges span the Degh, notably an ancient one of very curious con-
struction, at the point where it passes from Sialkot into Lahore, besides
two at Pindi Das and Hodial, erected by the Emperor Jahangir.

Dehej.— Seaport in the Wagra Sub-division, Broach District, Bom-
bay Presidency; situated in lat. 21° 42' 45".N., and long. 72° 38' 30" e.,
on the right bank of the Narbada (Nerbudda), about 3 miles from the
sea, and 26 miles west of Broach. Houses, 618. Population (1881)
about 2000. The port, though convenient of approach, does not admit
of boats of more than 55 tons burthen. In 1804 it was closed, and
opened again in 1819. Dehej was formerly the chief town of a fiscal
division of 1 2 villages, which first came under British rule in 1 780. This
tract was ceded to the Marathas in 1783, and recovered in 1818 on the
final overthrow of the Peshwa's power. Mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari.


Dehli. — Division, District, and City, Punjab. — See Delhi.

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