William Wilson Hunter.

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Municipal Act, some attention has been paid to drainage and sanitary
requirements.

Dhasan.— River of Central India, rising in Bhopal State, in latitude
23° 30' N., and longitude 78° 32' e., a few miles north of Sirmau, at an
elevation of 2000 feet. After a course of 10 or 12 miles, it enters Sagar
(Saugor) District, Central Provinces; through which it flows for 60 miles,



2 68 DHA ULA GIRI—DHA URAHRA,

and then runs along the southern boundary of Lalitpur District, North*
Western Provinces; finally, after a course of 220 miles, falling into the
Betwa. On the road between Sagar (Saugor) and Rahatgarh, the
Dhasan is crossed by a stone bridge.

Dhauld,giri (Dewdldgiri). — Mountain in the State of Nepal.
Latitude 29° 11' n., longitude 82° 59' e. One of the loftiest peaks of
the Himalayas ; height, 26,826 feet above sea-level.

Dhauleshvaram. — Town in Godavari District, Madras Presidency.

See DOWLAISHVARAM.

Dhaurahra. — Fargand of Nighasan tahsil, Kheri District, Oudh j
bounded on the north by the Kauriala, on the east by the Dahawar,
and on the south by the Chauka rivers ; the western boundary is
Nighasan pargand. In early times, prior to the Muhammadan conquest
of Kanauj, Dhaurahra was the freehold property of Alha and Udal, the
famous generals of Mahoba. It then formed a part of Garh KiU
Navva, which was settled and visited by Firoz Shah, and was probably
owned by Pasis, whose Raja lived at Dhaurahra. The Bisens held this
tract during the decline of the Mughal power ; but they were displaced
by the Chauhan Jangres, who now own it. First constituted 2, pargand
by Nawab Safdar Jang. It consists of alluvial deposits from the
Kauriala and Chauka rivers, and is annually inundated. The inhabit-
ants suffer much from fever, and cultivation is very backward. Soil
principally loam and clay, rather sandy towards the Chauka. Area,
261 square miles, of which 145 are cultivated and 72 cultivable. The
117 villages which the pargand comprises are held in idlukddri tenure
by 18 proprietors. Population (1881) 82,567, namely, Hindus, 74,510,
and Muhammadans, 8057. Land revenue, ;£"8239. The roads consist
merely of rough bridle-paths, crossing the rivers by ferries. Communi-
cation principally by the Kauriala, Dahawar, and Chauka rivers ; by
means of which, during ten months of the year, a brisk trade is carried
on in grain and oil-seeds.

Dhaurahra. — Town in Kheri District, Oudh ; 3 miles west of the
Chauka river, 80 miles north of Lucknow, and 73 miles east of Shah-
jahanpur. Lat. 28° n., long. 81° 9' e. Population (i88r) 5767,
namely, Hindus, 4023 ; and Muhammadans, 1744. Area of town site,
163 acres. Constituted a municipality under the provisions of Act xv.
of 1873. Town police force consisting of i sub-inspector, 3 head-
constables, and 12 constables. During the Mutiny of 1857, the
fugitives from Shahjahanpur and Muhamdi, escaping towards Lucknow,
sought the protection of the Dhaurahra Raji ; but he, on pressure from
the rebel leaders, gave them up to their enemies. For this he was
afterwards tried and hanged, and his estates confiscated.

Dhaurahra.— Town in Faizabad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; 4 miles
from the Gogra river, and 20 miles from Faizabad town on the road to



DHA URA-KUNJA RA—DHERI SHAH AN. 269

Lucknow. Population (1881) 3168, namely, 3108 Hindus and 60
Muhammadans. It contains neither temple, mosque, nor school ; but
a handsome gateway, said to have been built by a king of Oudh,
Asaf-ud-daula, stands just outside the town. On the opposite side of
Dhaurahra is an ancient Hindu shrine, shaded by a magnificent grove
of tamarind trees. A Hindu legend relates that Mahadeo once lived
here, his body being buried in the earth. A party of religious mendi-
cants on their way to Ajodhya conceived the idea of digging out
the deity and exhibiting him for gain. As they dug, however, his
head sank into the earth, and the party fled in horror. To com-
memorate the miracle, a dome, surrounded by a masonry platform and
a wall, was constructed over the spot by two devout merchants. The
place is now almost in ruins.

Dhaura-Kunjara. — Petty chiefship under the Indore Agenc>,
Central India. A remuneration of ^8 is granted to the thdkur or
chief for protection of the roads between Simrol Ghat and Sigwar.

Dhenkdnal. — Tributary State of Orissa, Bengal. Lat. 20° 31' to
21° 11' 30" N., and long. 85° 3' to 86° 5' e. ; area, 1463 square miles ;
population (1881) 208,316. Bounded on the north by Pal Lahara and
Keunjhar, on the east by Cuttack District and Athgarh, on the south
by Tigaria and Hindol, and on the west by Talcher and Pal Lahara,
the Brahmani forming the boundary for a considerable distance. This
river runs from west to east, through a richly-cultivated valley, afford-
ing a waterway for trade. Cultivable waste land abounds. Iron is
plentifully found, but is only worked on a small scale. A petty trade
in cochineal is also carried on. Chief village, also the residence of the
Raja, Dhenkanal, situated in lat. 20° 39' 45" n., long. 85° 38' 16" e.
Weekly markets, for the sale of country produce, are held at Hodipur
and Sadaipur villages. Population (1881) 208,316, namely, Hindus,
128,358; Muhammadans, 535; Christians, 2; Buddhists, 48; aboriginal
tribes (the most numerous being the Savars), 79,347 ; and ' others,' 26.
Estimated annual revenue, ;^79oo; tribute payable to Government,
;£"509 ; militia, 44 men ; regular police, 41 ; rural police, 742. Dhen-
kanal is the best organized and most prosperous of the Orissa Tributary
States. The late chief received the title of Maharaja in 1869, in
recognition of his moderation and justice towards his people, and of
his liberality in the Orissa famine of 1866. The present chief being a
minor, the State is now (1883) under the direct management of
Government.

Dheri Shahan (or Shdh Dheri). — Village in Rawal Pindi tahsil,
Rawal Pindi District, Punjab. Lat. 33° 17' n., and long. 72° 49' 15" e.
Identified by General Cunningham with the ancient city of Taxila.
The existing remains extend over an area of 6 square miles, and rank
as the most interesting and extensive, and the best preserved memorials



270 DHI-DHARAMRAI—DHODAR ALL

of antiquity in the whole Punjab Province. The number and size of
the stupas and monasteries render them worthy of the greatest attention.
The earliest inhabitants of the surrounding region appear to have been
the Takkas, who originally held all the Sind Sagar Doab ; and from
their name General Cunningham derives that of Taxila or Takshasila,
which Arrian describes as ' a large and wealthy city, the most populous
between the Indus and the Hydaspes ' (or Jehlam). The city stood a
few miles to the north of the Margala Pass, where several mounds still
mark the sites of its principal buildings. Alexander rested his army at
this point for three days, and was royally entertained by the reigning
sovereign. The Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Fa Hian, visited Taxila,
as a place of peculiar sanctity, about 400 a.d. Again, in 630 and
643, his countryman and co-religionist, Hwen Thsang, also made it
a halting-place while on his pilgrimage, but found the seat of govern-
ment removed to Kashmir. The ruins of Taxila consist of six separate
portions. The mound of Bir, close to the modern rock-seated village
of Dheri Shahan, abound in fragments of brick and pottery, and offers
a rich mine of coins and gems for the antiquary. Hatial, a fortified
spur of the Margala range, probably formed the ancient citadel ; it is
enclosed by a ruined wall, and crowned by a large bastion or tower.
Sir-Kap presents the appearance of a supplementary fortress, united
with the citadel by a wall of circumvallation. Kacha-Kot possibly gave
shelter to the elephants and catde during a siege. Babar-Khana con-
tains the remains of a stupa, which General Cunningham identifies with
that of Asoka, mentioned by Hwen Thsang. Besides all these massive
works, a wide expanse, covered by monasteries or other religious build-
ings, stretches on every side from the central city to a considerable
distance.

Dhi-Dharamrai. — Petty chiefship under the Bhil (Bheel) or
Bhopawar Agency of Central India. The population is entirely Bhil.

Dhoba {Dhobd-Dhobini). — Mountain peak in the Pratdpgiri or
Chinna Kimedi estate, Ganjam District, Madras Presidency. Latitude
20° N., longitude 84° 23' e. It forms part of the Eastern Ghat range,
8 miles distant from Dimrigiri. Height, 4166 feet above the sea. A
station of the Great Trigonometrical Survey of India.

Dhoba-khal. — Village in the Garo Hills District, Assam ; on the
Somesw\ari river, near which a fine outcrop of the coal strata was
discovered in 1873 by the officers of the Survey. Lat. 25° 28' n., long.
90° 46' E.

Dhodar All. — One of the most important of the raised' roads or
embankments constructed in Assam by forced labour during the rule
of the Aham dynasty. It runs parallel to the Brahmaputra through
the entire length of Sibsagar District, for a distance of 117^ miles, and
is under the management of the District Road Committee. It joins



DHOLA—DHOLKA. 271

the Assam Trunk Road at the Dhaneswari river in the Golaghat Sub-
division.

Dhola. — Petty State in Gohelwar pranth or division, Kathiawar,
Gujarat, Bombay Presidency ; consisting of i village, with i indepen-
dent tribute-payer. Estimated revenue, ;£i5o, of which ^£"32, los. is
payable as tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda and ^^5, i8s. to Junagarh.

Dholarwa. — Petty State in South Kathiawar, Gujarat, Bombay
Presidency ; consisting of i village, with i independent tribute-payer.
Estimated revenue, ^200 per annum, of which £,10^ 6s. is payable as
tribute to the Gaekwar of Baroda and ^^2, 6s. to Junagarh.

Dholbaja. — Large village in Purniah District, Bengal. Lat. 26° 16'
N., long. 87° 19' 21" E. Situated on the Matiyari road, 40 miles
distant from Purniah town, and 16 miles from Basantpur Primary
school.

Dholera. — Seaport in the Dhandhuka Sub -division, Ahmadabad
District, Bombay Presidency; 62 miles south-west of Ahmadabad. One
of the chief cotton-marts in the Gulf of Cambay. Latitude 22° 14'
45" N., and longitude 72° 15' 25" e. Population (1881) 10,301, namely,
7266 Hindus, 1289 Muhammadans, 1740 Jains, 4 Christians, and 2
Parsis. Situated in the swampy tract extending along the west of the
Gulf of Cambay, within the limits of the Peninsula of Kathiawar.
Though called a port, the town of Dholera lies about 12 miles from
the sea. The Bhadar or Dholera creek on which it stands is said
to have been, a century ago, open for boats up to Dholera; but for
the last fifty years the creek has silted up and trade passes through tw^o
ports — Khun, about 5 miles lower down on the same creek, and Bavliari,
on an inlet of the sea about 16 miles south. The space between the
town and the port was traversed by a tramway constructed by a
company of native speculators at a cost of ;2^5ooo, but it has ceased
to run. There is a lighthouse at the entrance to the creek, Post-office,
telegraph office, 3 Government schools, police station, and dispensary.
Dholera has given the trade name to a quality of cotton well known in
the European market : during the American War (1862-65) ^^ was the
chief cotton port in Gujarat.

Dholka. — Sub-division of Ahmadabad District, Bombay Presidency.
Bounded on the north by Sanand ; on the. east by Kaira District and
Cambay ; on the south by Dhandhuka ; and on the west by Kathiawar.
Area, 665 square miles ; contains i town and 117 villages. Population
(1881) 111,192, namely, 56,485 males and 54, 707 females. Hindus num-
ber 98,080; Muhammadans, 11,284; 'others,' 1828. The Sub-division
is a plain sloping south-west to the little Rann. In the east along the
Sabarmati the fields are hedged and the land is thickly planted with
fruit-trees. The south-west is a bleak country exposed to the biting
winds of the cold season. The only river is the Sabarmati. In 1877



2 7 2 DHOLKA^DHOLPUR.

there were 2534 wells, 132 water lifts, and 725 ponds. Average rain-
fall, 30 inches. In the year of the Bombay thirty years' settlement
(1856-57), there were 9763 holdings with an average acreage of 12
acres, paying an average rental of ^i, os. pd. Agricultural stock
in 1877 — horned cattle, 47,839; horses, 1068; sheep and goats,
12,181; camels, 79; ploughs, 10,532; carts, 4358. In 1878, the
total area of cultivated land was 222,141 acres, of which 27 per cent,
were fallow or under grass. Cereals occupied 136,891 acres out of
the 162,714 under actual cultivation; wheat occupied 91,638 acres;
iodr, 29,889; cotton, 14,638. In 1884, the Sub-division contained i
civil and 2 criminal courts ; police stations, 3 ; regular police, 102 men ;
village watchmen {chaiikiddrs), 334. Land revenue (1883), ;^2 9,986.

Dholka. — Chief town of the Dholka Sub-division, Ahmadabad
District, Bombay Presidency; 22 miles south-west of Ahmadabad.
Latitude 22° 43' 30" n., longitude 72° 28' 30" e. Population (1881)
17,716, namely, 11,880 Hindus, 5658 Muhammadans, 126 Jains,
and 9 Parsis. Municipal revenue (1881-82), £^()2 ; rate of taxation,
IS. ijd. per head. Dholka is situated amidst ruined palaces,
mosques, mausoleums, and spacious tanks, embanked and lined with
masonry. Though not regularly fortified, it is surrounded by a wall
of mud 4 miles in circumference. Probably one of the oldest towns
in Gujarat. Dholka lies on the river Sabarmati, on the chief land-
route between Gujarat proper and Kathiawar. It is supposed, in
the early Hindu period, to have been the resting-place of the
Pandyas, of Prince Kanaksen of the Solar race, of Minal Devi, the
mother of Sidhi Raj of Anhilwada (1094-1143), and of Vir Dhaval,
the founder of the Vaghela dynasty (13th century). During the
Muhammadan period, Dholka was the residence of a local governor
from Delhi, and it still contains the remains of many fine Musalman
buildings. It was taken by the Marathas in 1736; came into the
Gaekwar's hands in 1757; and was eventually ceded to the British in
1804. The greater part of the inhabitants are Kasbdtis ('townsmxen'),
the descendants of the soldiers of fortune who came with the Vaghelas
when driven from Anhilwada by the Khilji Ala-ud-din in 1297. The
chief industry is the weaving of women's robes, saris, the best of their
kind in Ahmadabad District. There are 5 schools, sub-judge's court,
post-office, and dispensary.

Dholpur. — Native State in Rajputdna, Central India, under the
political superintendence of the Dholpur Agency. Lies between
26° 22' and 26° 57' N. latitude, and between 77° 16' and 78° 19' e.
longitude; area, 1200 square miles. It extends from north-east to
south-west for a length of 72 miles, with an average breadth of 16
miles. Dholpur is bounded on the north by the British District of
Agra, from which it is for the most part divided by the Banganga river;



DHOLPUR. 273

on the south by the river Chambal, which separates it from the State of
GwaHor ; on the west by the States of Karauh' (Kerowlee) and Bhartpur
(Bhurtpore). Chief town, Dholpur.

Physical Aspects. — The Chambal flows from south-west to north-east
for over 100 miles through Dholpur territory. During the dry weather
it is a sluggish stream 300 yards wide, and lies 170 feet below the
level of the surrounding country. In the rains it rises generally about
70 feet above its summer level ; its breadth is then increased by more
than 1000 yards, and it runs at the rate of 5|- miles an hour. It is
bordered everywhere by a labyrinth of ravines, some of which are 90
feet deep, and extend to a distance of from 2 to 4 miles from the river's
bank. The Chambal is unnavigable on account of its rapid changes of
level. Boats ply at 16 ghats or crossings between the Dholpur and
Gwalior banks. The most important crossing is at Rajghat, 3 miles
south of the town of Dholpur, on the high road between Agra and
Bombay. A bridge of boats is kept up between the ist November
and the 15th June, and a large ferry-boat plies during the rest of the
year. No tributaries fall into the Chambal during its course through
Dholpur territory. The Banganga or Utangan river, rising in the hills
near Bairat in Jaipur, runs for about 40 miles between the northern
boundary of Dholpur and the District of Agra ; its bed is about
40 feet below the surrounding country, and in the rains it is liable
to floods, with a rise of from 17 to 20 feet. The other rivers are
the Parbati, which rises in Karauli, and, traversing Dholpur in a
north-easterly direction, falls into the Banganga; and its two tribu-
taries, the Merka and Merki. These three streams dry up in the hot
season, leaving only occasional pools where the channels are deep.
The general nature of the soil being a friable alluvium overlying a
stratum of stiff yellow clay, the beds of all the rivers in Dholpur are
considerably below the general level of the country, and all their banks
are more or less cut up and fringed with ravines.

A ridge of red sandstone, varying in breadth from 2 to 14 miles, with an
elevation of from 560 to 1074 feet above sea-level, runs for over 60 miles
through the State in the direction of its greatest length. It affords a
valuable stone for building purposes, fine grained and easily worked
in the quarries ; it hardens by exposure to the weather, and does not
deteriorate by lamination. The railway bridge over the Chambal
is built entirely of this stone. Kankar, or nodular limestone, is
found in many places in the ravines leading to the rivers ; and a bed
of excellent limestone occurs on the banks of the Chambal, near the
Agra and Bombay road, within 2 J miles of the town of Dholpur.
No coal or metallic ores are found in the State. The soil is every-
where poor on the sandstone ridge, and in its immediate vicinity ;
but it becomes richer and more fertile in proportion to the increase of

VOL. IV. s



2 74 DHOLPUR,

distance from the ridge. In the north and north-west, the soil is for
the most part a mixture of sand and clay, known as domat^ which is as
productive as the best land in Agra District. To the north-east, in the
Rajakhera /^r§-^;/i, an area of about 90 square miles is covered with
black soil, similar to that of Bundelkhand, yielding excellent cold
weather crops. Dholpur is a grain-producing country, and is not j
remarkable for any special manufactures. The chief crops raised are
bdjra (Holcus spicatus), moth^ and jodr (Holcus sorghum) ; and in
the cold season a considerable quantity of wheat and barley. Cotton
and rice are also produced. Irrigation is carried on by means of
tanks and wells, the average depth at which water is found being 25
feet. Of the total area of the State (768,000 acres), about 50 per
cent, is under cultivation. About 43*3 per cent, of the country is
barren, and about 3 per cent, is occupied by villages, rivers, tanks, etc.
The land tenures are in most respects similar to those of the North-
western Provinces, with this important exception, that in Dholpur, as
under other Native Governments, the chief is the absolute owner of the
land. The zaminddrs, or la??ibarddrs as they are more usually termed,
are persons (generally descendants of the original founders of the
village) who contract with the State for the payment of the revenue
demand, which they collect from the cultivators. So long as they
observe their contract, they are considered as owners of the land
actually cultivated by them and by their tenants, and also of uncultivated
land sufficient for the grazing of the village cattle. The remainder of
the untilled land, with its produce, groves, tanks, etc., belongs to the
State.

Population. — A rough Census of the population taken during the sur-
vey of the State in 1876, showed a total of 227,976 inhabitants. The
regular general Census of 1881, five years later, disclosed a population
of 249,657 persons, dwelling in 4 towns and 534 villages, and occupying
48,429 houses; average density of inhabitants per square mile, 208*04;
number of towns and villages per square mile, "45 ; number of
houses per square mile, 40*35 ; number of persons per house,
5-15. Total males, 138,342; females, 111,315. Classified according
to religion, there were returned 229,050 Hindus, 18,097 Muhammadans,
27 Christians, and 2483 Jains. Among the Muhammadans were
included 9680 Shaikhs, 970 Sayyids, 229 MughaJs, 5585 Pathans, and
1633 ' others.' The most numerous classes are at two extremes of the
Hindu social scale — Brahmans, 44,347, and Chamars, 35,075. Rajputs
number 23,766; Giijars, 19,482; Kachhis, 2510 ; Minas, 11,924; Jats,
3932; Baniyas, 13,664; Ahirs, 768; and other Hindu castes, 76,065.
The Muhammadans live for the most part in the towns of Bari and
Dholpur. The Giijars, the oldest known inhabitants of the country
are generally found along the banks of the Chambal, in the Dang 01



DHOLPUR,



275



ravine taluks of Ban and Gird ; they are great cattle-lifters. The
Minas, believed to have come originally from Jaipur (Jeypore), are
among the best cultivators of the State. The people generally are
engaged in tilling the land, and the whole country is agricultural. The
dominant religion is Hinduism of the Vishnuvite sect. Four towns
have a population of over 5000, namely, Dholpur (15,833), Purani
Chaoni (5246), Barf (11,547), and Rajakhera (6247). In 1882, 8
schools, with a total daily attendance of 447 pupils, were maintained
in the larger towns of the State. In one of these, English, Persian,
and Hindi are taught ; in three, Persian and Hindi \ and in four,
Hindi alone.

The Trunk Road from Agra to Bombay runs through the State from
north to south, passing by Dholpur town. There are no other
metalled roads but a few fair-weather tracks — one leading from Dholpur
by Rajakhera to Agra ; a second with a main direction west from
Dholpur to Bari, and thence to Bhartpur on one side and Karauli on
the other; a third having a main direction to the north-east from
Dholpur to Kolari and Baseri, and thence to Karauli.

The Sindhia State Railway, between Agra and Gwalior, runs through
the State in a direction generally parallel to the Grand Trunk Road.
It crosses the Chambal by a bridge of 12 spans of 200 feet each, about
112 feet above the river bed.

Ad}ninist7'aiio7i. — The land revenue of Dholpur in 1882-83 amounted
to ;!^7 1,400. Customs and other sources of revenue brought up
the gross total to ;^i 10,572. The expenditure in the same year
was ^91,001. The land, which had not been surveyed since 1570,
in the reign of Akbar, was re-surveyed in 1875-76, preparatory to a
re-settlement which was conducted on a basis similar to that of the
North-Western Provinces, but simpler in its details. For fiscal purposes
the State is divided into the following five sub-divisions or tahsils —
namely. Gird Dholpur, of 5 taluks ; Bari, of 7 taluks ; Baseri, of 2
taluks ; Kolari, of 3 taluks ; and Rajakhera, of 2 taluks. Fifty-seven
villages in the State belong to jdgirddrs^ who in return are expected
themselves to serve in the State army, and to furnish a certain number
of horsemen for the State service ; 44 villages have been set apart
principally as religious grants ; and the State exercises the right of
interference in cases of oppression or exaction on the part of the
jdgirddrs. The Maharaj Rana is assisted by a council of regency
consisting of three members. The Dholpur jail is managed on
a system similar to that in British jails. It contains an average
of 130 prisoners. The police and judicial administration is under
the Nazim, or chief civil and criminal judge, who tries all cases ; but
those involving a punishment heavier than three years' imprisonment
must be referred for confirmation to the Council of Manasrement. In



2 76 DHOLPUR.

1882-83, 1978 criminal cases were disposed of; and 348 civil suits
were heard. There are 1 1 police stations and 44 outposts, with a
watchman in each village. A small forest department is employed in
each pargand under the tahsilddr. The arrangements for the collection
of customs are co-ordinate with those for land revenue.

The climate is generally healthy. The hot winds blow steadily and,
strongly during the months of April, May, and June. The annual rain-
fall averages from 27 to 30 inches. There are three State dispensaries,
at which 20,561 cases were treated in 1882; 7895 persons were vac-
cinated during the same period.

History. — According to local tradition, Dholpur derives its name from
Raja Dholan Deo Tonwar (of the ancient Tomar or Tonwar dynasty of
Delhi), who about 1004 a.d. held the country between the Chambal
and Banganga rivers. Previous to that time it is supposed to have



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