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house, 6*7. Classified according to religion, the population is returned
as follows: — Hindus, 804,624, or 88*65 per cent, of the population;
Muhammadans, 101,284, or 1 1*34 per cent. ; Jains, 814 ; Sikhs, 60 : and
Christians, 826. Among Hindus, the Brahmans numbered 83,696
persons. The Rajputs, descendants of the original colonists, and still
the leading landowners in the northern half of the District, were
returned at 62,991 persons. South of the Kali Nadi, in the tract
formerly subject to the Oudh Wazirs, the Rajput Thakurs were for the
most part dispossessed by the severe fiscal exactions of the Lucknow
court. The other principal castes and tribes, according to numerical
superiority, but not to social rank, are the following : — Chamar, the
most numerous caste in the District, although the lowest in social
estimation, 95,949; Kurmi, 93,983; Ahir, 87,080; Kachhi, 74)552;
Lodhi, 32,027; Kahar, 31,173; Gadaria, 30,126; Baniya, 27,937;
Kori, 17,425; Nai, 16,802; Teli, 16,424; Dhanuk, 15,582; Kayasth,
14,454; Dhobi, 12,509; Lobar, 11,747; Barhai, 10,814; Bhiirji,
10,546; Kumbhar, 8292; Bhangi, 7234; Sonar, 6019, The Muham-
madans are divided according to sect into 99,395 Sunnis and 1889
Shias. The Musalmd.n population includes 1212 Rajputs and 19
Mewatis by race. The Christian community consists of 298 British-
born and 69 other Europeans, 78 Eurasians, and 381 native converts.

Dhnsion into Town and Country. — With the exception of 130,221
persons, residing in eight towns containing above 5000 inhabitants, the
population is entirely rural. These eight towns are — Farukhabad, the
largest and most important town in the District, and the main centre
of commerce and communications, population 62,437; Fatehgarh,
the civil station and administrative head-quarters, 12,435 \ Kanauj,
16,646; Kaimganj, 10,443; Shamsabad, 8271; Chhibramau, 7990;
TiRWA, 6220; and Taugram, 5779. Of the 1723 towns and villages,
565 contain less than two hundred inhabitants, 651 had from two to
five hundred, 337 from five hundred to a thousand, 127 from one to
two thousand, 26 from two to three thousand, 9 from three to five
thousand, 4 from five to ten thousand, 2 from ten to fifteen thousand,
I from fifteen to twenty thousand, and i upwards of fifty thousand.
As regards occupation, the Census Report classifies the male population
into the following six groups: — (i) Professional, including civil and
military and the learned professions, 6956 ; (2) domestic servants, inn


and hotel keepers, etc., 1210; (3) commercial, including merchants,
traders, carriers, etc., 10,479; (4) agricultural, including cultivators,
gardeners, and sheep and cattle tenders, 216,157; (5) industrial, in-
cluding manufacturers and artisans, 54,463 ; (6) indefinite and non-
productive (comprising 35,907 general labourers, and 165,336 male
children and persons of unspecified occupation), 201,243.

Agriculture. — Out of a total area of 17 19 square miles, all but 88
square miles pay Government revenue. Of the assessed area, thus
amounting to 1630 square miles, 348 were uncultivable, 313 cultivable
waste, and 969 actually under tillage in 1882-83. The usual agricultural
seasons of the Doab prevail throughout— the kharif, or autumn crops,
being sown in June and harvested in October or November; while the
rahi, or spring crops, are sown in October or November and reaped in
March or April. Rice, maize, bdjra, Jodr, and cotton, with the lentils
[arhar and vioth) grown among the last-mentioned three crops, form the
staples of the autumn harvest, covering a total area in 1882-83 (includ-
ing twice-cropped land) of 367,054 acres. Wheat and barley, with
gram and peas either intermixed with them or grown separately, and
opium, are the spring products. These covered (also including two-
crop lands), 355,694 acres. Indigo forms the chief intermediate (or late
hot-weather and early rainy season) harvest. The cultivation of potatoes
has been introduced, especially in the neighbourhood of Farukhabad
itself, and the smaller towns of Kaimganj, Shamsabad, and Chhibramau.
In the villages near the city, the system of a triple crop (one of them
potatoes) is in full working. The cultivation of sugar-cane gives rise to
an exceptional rotation of crops. When the autumn harvest has been
gathered in November, the land remains fallow, and undergoes frequent
ploughings for the next sixteen months, and the cane is planted in the
second following March. It is not cut till January or February of the
second year. Cultivators with rights of occupancy have a fairly com-
fortable livelihood; tenants-at-will pay somewhat heavier rents and
clear a smaller margin of profits. Occupancy tenants hold 64 per cent,
of the whole cultivated area ; and where the proprietors do not them-
selves till their lands, they obtain the best plots, which the landlords
would otherwise have kept as homestead. The total adult male
agricultural population, including field labourers, in 1881 was 215,418,
cultivating an average of 3-04 acres each. The total population
dependent on the soil, however, was 572,815, or 63-11 per cent, of
the total District population, giving an average of i'5i acre per head
of the agricultural population. Government assessment, including rates
and cesses, ^145,812, or an average of 4s. tI^I- Per cultivated acre;
amount of rent actually paid by the cultivators, ^^265,372, or an average
of 8s. i|d. per cultivated acre. The average rent rates per acre ruled as
follows in 1877 :— Resident tenants, 7s. iid. j non-resident, 6s. 7d. ;


although for exceptionally poor lands, or for lands growing specially
valuable crops, rents vary from is. to ^5 an acre. The principal land-
owning tribes are the Thakurs, Brahmans, and Musalmans, who hold
about 36, 20, and 21 per cent, of the District respectively. Coolies
and unskilled town labourers receive 2jd. to 3! d. per diem ; agricultural
labourers, 2jd. to 3d. ; bricklayers and carpenters, 6d. to yjd. The
prices-current of food-grains ruled as follows in 1882-83: — Wheat,
6s. 3d. per cwt. ; best rice, i6s. per cwt. ; common rice, 7s. 4d. per
cwt. ; jodr^ 4s. yd. per cwt. ; bdjra^ 4s. Qd. per cwt. These prices are
considerably more than double of those which prevailed in 1803.

Natural Cala7nities. — The famines of 1770 and 1783 doubtless
affected Farukhabad, as they did the whole of the North-Western
Provinces, but the existing accounts are too scanty to admit of
separate estimates for each District. In subsequent famines, Farukh-
abad suffered severely in the four worst years, 1803-04, 1 815-16,
1825-26, and 1837-38. The area affected by minor scarcities did
not extend so far northward as to embrace the pargands then
included under the present District ; and the southern portion of the
existing territory, originally incorporated with Cawnpur and Etawah,
is believed to have been much more liable to dearth than the northern
region ; although the opening of the canal in the southern portion of
the District, and other less intelligible causes, has rendered this tract
comparatively safe in recent times of scarcity. In the disastrous
season of 1837-38, Farukhabad suffered with great severity, nearly
one -fourth of the cultivated area being abandoned. In August

1837, relief measures were adopted, reaching their maximum in March

1838. The famine of i860 was confined to the Upper Doab and
Rohilkhand, and scarcely affected this District, except by raising the
price of grain. The last scarcity, in 1868-69, occasioned considerable
distress in Farukhabad for a short period, but the dearth rapidly passed
a\vay. Relief operations continued from February to October 1869.

Commerce and Trade. — The cereal crops produced in the District
barely suffice for local needs, and no surplus for export exists ; on the
contrary, grain is largely imported from Oudh and Rohilkhand for the
use of Farukhabad city. But potatoes and other products are largely
exported. The receipts at the ferries and bridges have increased five-
fold since 1844, a fact which shows how greatly more active the traffic
of the District has become during the interval. The city of Farukhabad
contains a few native banking establishments ; but their operations do
not extend to the villages of the District, where the professional money-
lender and the zaminddr still retain the exclusive power of making cash
advances, and keep a firm hold over the indebted peasantry. The
prevalent rates of interest are from 18 to 37 per cent, on personal security,
6 to 15 per cent, on jewels or other pledges, and 10 to 24 per cent.


on mortgages of landed property. Fatehgarh town is noted for its
manufacture of tents, and also for its gun-carriage factory, which since
1830 has been the sole depot for supplying the Bengal Army with gun-
carriages and other vehicles required for garrison, field, and siege
artillery. The principal manufactures of the District are sugar and
indigo. Two European planters have between them thirteen indigo
factories, and several minor concerns are worked by natives. Other
manufactures include the weaving of cloth and chintz, and the extraction
of saltpetre. The Grand Trunk Road formed till recently the chief
I connecting link between Farukhabad and the surrounding country,
keeping up the communication with the east and north-west ; but in
188 1, the Cawnpur-Farukhabad light railway was opened, and this now
forms the chief communication with the east. The same line is about
to be extended to Hathras, and operations have (1883) been commenced.
This line will be the chief route to the Panjab, Agra, Rohilkhand, and
perhaps even Bombay. The District has been hitherto injuriously
atfected by its distance from the railway system. When the Grand
Trunk Road and the river Ganges formed the main channels of com-
merce, the situation of Farukhabad admirably adapted it for the trade
in which its merchants were chiefly engaged ; but when the railway
offered a new and better outlet for the produce of the North-West,
the course of traffic deserted the city for towns more favourably
situated on the modern route. The road into Rohilkhand crosses
the Ganges at Fatehgarh, where a bridge of boats suffices for the
requirements of traffic during the greater part of the year ; but inter-
ruption is caused in the rains by the substitution of ferry-boats for a
standing bridge. Internal communication is well maintained by an
excellent system of unmetalled roads, while abundant feeders in every
direction connect the various villages with each other and with the
main thoroughfares.

Admi7iistration. — The District staff usually comprises a Collector-
Magistrate, a Joint Magistrate, an Assistant and two Deputy Magistrates,
besides the ordinary fiscal, medical, and constabulary officials. Farukh-
abad is the head-quarters of a civil and sessions judge, whose jurisdiction
is entirely confined to the District. The whole amount of revenue,
imperial, municipal, and local, raised within the District in 1876, was
;£i97,229, of which ;^i24,673, or more than five-eighths, was derived
from the land-tax. In 1882-83, the total imperial revenue was returned
at ^156,975, of w^hich the land tax contributed ^122,523. The
cost of civil administration in the same year, as represented by the
salaries of officials and police of all kinds, was ^34,o43- The last land
settlement was commenced in 1863, and completed in 1874; it
resulted in an increase of revenue by ^12,127. Farukhabad contains
two places of confinement for criminals— the central prison and the


District jail, both of which are situated within a short distance of
Fatehgarh. The central jail had a daily average of 1078 prisoners
in 1882, of whom 43 were females. The District jail contained in
the same year a daily average of 340 prisoners, of whom 8 were
females. The total strength of the District regular and municipal police
force was 906 men; and the cost of their maintenance was ;£"8884, of
which ;^6479 was contributed from Provincial revenues, and j[^2\o^
from municipal or local funds. There was also a rural or village police
force of 2004 men, and a road patrol of 68 men, maintained at a cost
of ;!^75oo. These figures give an average of i policeman to every 0*57
square mile of area and every 305 of the population ; while the cost of
maintenance amounted to ;£"9, los. 7jd. per square mile and 4jd. per
head. There are 15 imperial and 12 local post-offices ; and there is a
railway telegraph station at Fatehgarh. There were, in 1882, 166 Govern-
ment inspected schools in the District, with a joint roll of 5319 pupils.
There are also a number of private uninspected schools; and the Census
Report of 1 88 1 returned 6488 boys and 347 girls as under instruction,
besides 20,169 rnales and 419 females able to read and write, but
not under instruction. The city of Farukhabad has a zild school, and
an Anglo-vernacular school is established at Fatehgarh. The District
contains only one municipality, Fatehgarh-cum-Farukhabad.

Medical Aspects. — Farukhabad bears the reputation of being one of
the healthiest Districts in the Doab. The general elevation is con-
siderable, the climate is dry, and the country possesses remarkable
freedom from epidemics. The trans-Gangetic pargands, however, must
be excepted as low-lying and damp. The annual mean temperature
was 77° F. in 1874 ; the lowest monthly mean being 58° in January,
and the highest 94° in May. The observatory was closed in 1875.
The cold weather begins later than in the Districts to the west, and
lasts from about the end of October to the end of March. The hot
weather lasts till the end of June or the beginning of July, when the
rainy season sets in, which lasts till October. The average annual
rainfall for a period of thirty-five years ending 1881 amounted to 29*5
inches; the maximum being 47*2 inches in 1867, and the minimum
12*1 inches in 1868 (the year of scarcity). In 1881 the rainfall was
27*5 inches, or 2 inches below the average. Fevers prevail in August
and September. The total number of deaths recorded in 1882 was
25,389, or 31*3 per thousand of the population, of which 23,010 were
owing to fevers. The average registered mortality for the five previous
years was 37*55 per thousand. Four charitable dispensaries, at Farukh-
abad, Fatehgarh, Kaimganj, and Miran-ki-Sarai, afforded relief in 1883
to 36,915 persons, including 1438 in-door patients. [For further
information regarding Farukhabad, see the Gazettee?- of the North-
western Provinces, vol. vii. pp. 1-402 (Allahabad, Government Press,


1884). Also Final Report of the Settlement of the Fariikhdbdd District
by H. T. Evans, Esq., C.S. (1875); Census Report of 1881 for the
North- Western Provinces and Oiidh ; Adffimistration and Depart-
mental Reports of the North- Western Provinces from 1880 to 1883.]

Farukhabad.— Head-quarters tahsil of Farukhabad District, North-
western Provinces, lying along the west bank of the Ganges, and
comprising the pargands of Bhojpur, Muhammadabad, Pahara, and
Shamsabad East. Area, 343 square miles, of which 222 are cultivated.
With the exception of a small tract of 4I square miles, the whole tract
lies in the bangdr or upland portion of the District, along the high cliff
above the alluvial basin of the Ganges. Population (1881) 255,127,
namely, Hindus, 218,253; Muhammadans, 35,917; Jains, 100; and
'others,' 857. Land revenue, ;£^23,977 ; total Government revenue,
;£"28,35o; rental paid by cultivators, ;^29,528. The tahsil contained
in 1883, 3 civil and 10 criminal courts (including the head-quarter
courts) ; 5 police circles {thdnds) ; 2 1 7 regular police, and 640 village
watchmen {chaukiddrs).

Farukhabad. — City and municipality in Farukhabad District, North-
western Provinces. Situated in lat. 27° 23' 35" n., and long. 79° 36'
50" E., two or three miles from the right or west bank of the Ganges,
which formerly flowed under its walls ; distant from Cawnpur 83
miles north-west, and from Etawah 62 miles north-east. It is the
terminus of the Cawnpur and Farukhabad light railway, now (1883)
being extended to Hathras. Population (1881) 62,437, namely,
males 31,416, and females 31,021. Hindus numbered 42,133;
Muhammadans, 18,172; Jains, 98; and Christians, 34. Area
of town site, 1802 acres. The town forms a joint municipality with
Fatehgarh, the civil station of the District in its immediate neighbour-
hood. Municipal income in 1882-83, ^553°, of which ^4877 was
derived from octroi ; average incidence of taxation, is. 3|d. per head
of the population (74,872) within municipal hmits. Farukhabad is a
handsome and well-built town, with many of its streets shaded by
avenues of trees. It was founded about 17 14 by Nawab Muhammad
Khan, and named after the Mughal Emperor Farukhsiyyar. A mud
fort, once the residence of the Nawabs of Farukhabad, commands
an extensive view of the Ganges valley. The trade of the town was
formerly considerable, but it rapidly declined on the diversion of
commerce by the opening of the East Indian Railway. Now that
Farukhabad itself is connected with the general railway system of India,
it is hoped that commerce will revive, and there are already encouraging
signs of improvement in this respect. Zild school ; dispensary ; head-
quarters at the adjacent civil station of Fatehgarh. For early
history and Mutiny narrative, see Farukhabad District.

Farukhnagar. — Town and municipahty in Gurgaon tahsil and

VOL. IV. 2 D


District, Punjab, situated in lat. 28° 25' n., and long. 76° 51'
30" E., in the midst of a sandy sterile tract in the north-west of the
District near the Rohtak border, ij miles from the terminus of a
branch of the Rajputana-Malwa State Railway. Population (1881)
8738, namely, Hindus, 5398; Muhammadans, 2950; Jains, 375;
Sikhs, 6; and 'others,' 9; number of houses, 1215. In 1875, Farukh-
abad contained a population of 10,594, and its recent falling off is
attributable to a virulent epidemic fever in 1878-79. Municipal
income (1882-83), ^^822, or an average incidence of is. lod. per
head of the population ; expenditure, ;£693. The town is octagonal
in shape and surrounded by a high wall with four gates. It has
two broad bazars running at right angles to one another, well paved
and drained, and flanked with good shops. The other streets and
courts are narrow and crooked. The principal export is salt, produced
by evaporation from the waters of saline wells in the neighbourhood ;
and the imports are unrefined sugar, grain, spices, and piece-goods.
The salt trade was once considerable, but since the extension of railway
communication has cheapened the superior salt from the Sambhar lake,
it has been on the decline. The chief buildings are the Delhi
gate ; the Shish mdhal or Nawab's palace, in which are now located the
municipal hall, rest-house, school, police station, and post-oflice ; a fine
mosque ; large well with stone staircase to the water ; and a dispensary.
The town was founded in 1 713 in the reign of the Emperor Farukh-
siyyar, after whom it was named, by a Baluch chief Dalel Khan, better
known by his title of Faujdar Khan, the governor of the country. The
family held possession of the country till 1757, when the place was
conquered by the Jats of Bhartpur. Twelve years afterwards it was
recaptured by the grandson of Faujdar Khan; and in 1803, when the
British supremacy began, he was confirmed in his possessions and
dignities. The family ruled till 1857, when the then Nawab, Ahmad
All Khan, was hanged for participation in the rebellion, and the estate
was conferred on Tafuzzul Husain Khan, as a reward for good service
during the Mutiny, and is still (1883) held by his son, Suraj-ud-din
Haidar, who holds the position of an honorary magistrate.

Fatehabad. — Town, municipality, and head-quarters of Fatehabad
tahsil, Hissar District, Punjab ; distant from Hissar 30 miles north-west.
Lat. 29° 31' N., long. 75° 30' E. Population (1881) 2992, namely,
Muhammadans, 1720; Hindus, 1234; Jains, 37; and Sikh, i; number
of houses, 610. A third-class municipality; income (1882-83),
;^i99 ; expenditure, ;^202. Founded by the Emperor Firoz Shah,
and named after his son Fateh Khan. Held at the beginning of the
present century by a Bhatti chieftain. Khan Bahadur Khan. North
of the town runs a cut from the river Ghaggar, constructed by Firoz
Shah, and still used for purposes of irrigation. Considerable manu-


fecture of country cloth; export of grain and ghi to Bikaner (Bickaneer)
and the Bagar territory ; brisk trade in leather. Tahsili, police station,
sardi, staging bungalow, and dispensary.

Fatehabad. — Tahsil of Agra District, North- Western Provinces,
lying on the south bank of the river Jumna (Jamuna). Lat 29° 15' to
29° 34' N. j long. 75° 16' to 75° 51' E. Area, 241 square miles,
of which 163 are cultivated. Population (1881) 104,762, namely,
males 56,835, and females 475927. Hindus numbered 97,543;
Muhammadans, 5962; Jains, 1244; and 'others,' 13. Number of
villages, 161. The /^/w// lies between the Jumna and Utangan rivers,
and contains a large ravine area, with a considerable amount of low-
lying sandy soil at the foot of the ravines along the rivers. Proceeding
inland, the soil gradually changes as the higher lands are approached,
and the greater part of the upland area is a good loam, light in places,
but of average fertility. Land revenue, ;^2 7,000; total Government
revenue, £z^,'^']Z ', rental paid by cultivators, ;^42,885 ; incidence of
Government revenue per acre, 3s. 6fd. In 1883, the /<a;//i-f/ contained
I civil and i criminal court, with 4 police circles {thdnds) ; strength of
regular police, 44 men ; village watchmen {ckaukiddrs), 336.

Fatehabad. — Town and head-quarters of Fatehabad tahsil, Agra
District, North- Western Provinces; situated in lat. 27° i' 30" n., long.
78° 20' 30" E., 21 miles south-east of Agra City. Population (1881)
4441. Ta/isili, munsifi^ police station, post-office, boys' and girls'
schools. The town has but little trade ; small bi-weekly market. For
police and conservancy purposes, a house-tax is levied under the
provisions of Act xx. of 1856, which in 1881-82 yielded ;^93. The
town was originally named Zafrnagar, and was changed to Fatehabad
by Aurangzeb, after his victory over his unfortunate brother Dara,
in 1658. The Emperor built a mosque here on the spot on which
he rested after the battle, as well as a sardi, now the tahsili, and a tank,
which has now nearly silted up. He also planted a large grove to the
south-east of the town, which still remains in tolerable preservation.

Fatehganj (East). — Village and batde-field in Bareilly (Bareli)
District, North- Western Provinces, lying in lat. 28° 4' n., and long. 79°
42' E., on the route from Bareilly to Shahjahanpur, 23 miles south-east
of the former town. Population (1881) 2189. Founded by Shuja-
ud-daula, Nawab Wazir of Oudh, in commemoration of the British
victory over the Rohillas in 1774, which gave him possession of the
greater part of Rohilkhand. Hafiz Rahmat Khan, the Rohilla chieftain,
fell in this engagement. Station on the Oudh and Rohilkhand Rail-
way. Police station, post-office, village school, and sardi or native inn.
Market twice a week.

Fatehganj (West). — Village in Bareilly (Bareli) District, North-
western Provinces ; famous as the scene of a British victory over the


Rohillas in October 1794. Lat. 28° 28' n., long. 79° 24' e. A
monument marks the burial-place of the Company's troops, and a
carved tomb with minarets covers the remains of two Rohilla chiefs.
Police station, encamping-ground, missionary school, and 2 sardis,

Fatehgarh. — Town, cantonment, and administrative head-quarters
of Farukhabad District, North-Western Provinces, and station on the
Cawnpur-Farukhabad Railway, adjoining the native city of Farukh-
abad, 3 miles to the eastward. Lat. 27° 22' 55" n., long. 79° 40' 20" e.
Population (1881) 12,435, namely, Hindus, 8728; Muhammadans,
3588; and Christians, 119; area, 383 acres. The military station of
Fatehgarh dates from 1777, although the town did not pass into the
possession of the British until 1802. Farukhabad District having fallen
under the power of the Oudh AVazirs, Fatehgarh formed an outpost
against the Marathas ; and the British brigade lent to the Nawab Wazir
was stationed at Fatehgarh in 1777. At the cession in 1802, Fatehgarh
became the head-quarters of a Governor-General's Agent, and of the

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 4) → online text (page 50 of 58)