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District, although much distress was felt.

Commerce and Trade, etc. — The trade of the District is mainly in
agricultural produce, and is concentrated in the towns of Fatehpur and
Naraini. Bindki, however, is the great grain and cattle mart of the
District, where dealers from Bundelkhand and the Doab meet to
exchange their produce. Most of the Bundelkhand grain is sent
off from the Mauhar railway station, 5 miles north of Bindki. Brass
and copper work is turned out in considerable quantities at Khajuha and
Kora ; and the latter town has likewise some trade in whips and skins.
Saltpetre is manufactured to a large extent in the northern portion of
the District, from the saline deposits of the /isar plains ; a good deal
of refined salt is also made, but only surreptitiously, as the manufacture
is prohibited. The means of communication are ample. The East
Indian Railway main line runs through the heart of the District, with
five stations, and a total length within its boundaries of 55 miles. The
Grand Trunk Road also traverses the District from side to side, with a


length of about 60 miles. Other excellent roads connect Fatehpur
with Oudh, Bundelkhand, and the Doab generally. The Ganges and
Jumna afford water communication along the whole northern and
southern frontiers. They still carry a large part of the heavy traffic in
cotton, grain, and stone, though of course the railway and the Grand
Trunk Road have seriously diminished its dimensions. The only fair
of any importance is that held at Shiurajpur, on the Ganges, in the first
week of November. Its object is primarily religious, but a good deal
of business is transacted side by side with the bathing in the sacred
river. From 20,000 to 50,000 people often attend it Horses, cattle,
whips, shoes, and toys are the chief articles sold.

Administration. — The District staff usually consists of a Colleccor-
Magistrate, a Joint Magistrate, an Assistant, and an uncovenanted
Deputy Collector. The whole amount of revenue — imperial, municipal,
and local — raised in the District in 1876 was ;£"i65,409. In 1882-83,
the imperial revenue of the District amounted to ;£^ 137,874, of which
;^i 30,834 was derived from the land-tax. In the same year the regular
and municipal police amounted to 482 men, and the cost of their
maintenance to ;^5487, of which ^^4987 was defrayed from provincial
funds, and the remainder from other sources. These figures give an
average of i policeman to every 3-4 square miles and every 141 9 of the
population. The expenditure upon the force is equal to an average of
;^3, 7s. 2jd. per square mile and ifd. per inhabitant. The regular
police were supplemented by 1869 village watchmen {c/iaukiddrs),
maintained at a cost of ^6764. During 1882, the Fatehpur jail
contained a daily average of 31 1 prisoners, of whom 293 were males and
18 females. The District contains 22 post-ofhces, of which 14 are
imperial and 8 local The Government has no telegraph station in
Fatehpur, but there is a railway telegraph office at each station on the
East Indian line. Education was carried on in this District in 1882-83
by 107 Government inspected schools, with 3845 scholars. Six of the
schools are for girls. There are, however, several private schools unin-
spected by the educational officers; and the Census Report of 1881
returned 6082 boys and 121 girls as under instruction, besides 19,443
males and 155 females able to read and write, but not under
instruction. For fiscal and administrative purposes, Fatehpur is sub-
divided into 6 tahsi/s, i^ pargands, and 20 police circles {thdnds).
The District contains only one municipality — Fatehpur town.

Medical Aspects. — The climate of Fatehpur is that of an ordinary
Doab District ; but from its easterly position, the west winds do not
reach it with such force in the hot weather as they display at Agra
and the adjoining towns. The surface is somewhat marshy, and the
numerous shallow lakes {jhils) render the atmosphere damper than that
of the Upper Doab. The humidity of the climate makes it rather


feverish, but the natives do not consider it unhealthy, especially when
compared with the malarious flats and valleys of Bundelkhand to the
south. Europeans enjoy moderate health ; and the once notorious
head-quarters at Fatehpur have now been rendered safe by the drainage
of a large swamp, which formerly stretched to the west of the station.
During the winter months the climate is most enjoyable, but towards
the end of March the weather gets rapidly hotter, and in June the
thermometer often remains at 96° or 98° F. day and night. The maximum
rainfall was 53*5 inches in 1870, and the minimum was 16-3 inches in
1864. The slight rainfall of the latter year was, however, so evenly
distributed, that drought was not felt so severely as in 1868, when i8'6
inches fell, but so irregularly as to cause a partial famine during the
following winter. The average annual rainfall for a period of 33 years
ending 1881 was 29*99 inches. The rainfall in 1881 was 39*40 inches,
or 9*41 inches above the average. The total number of deaths
recorded in 1882 was 28,178, or 4i'35 per thousand of the population.
The mean ratio of recorded deaths per thousand during the previous
five years was 33'i5 per thousand. There is one charitable dispensary
in the District, at Fatehpur town; in 1882-83 it afforded relief to a
total number of 5792 patients. [For further information regarding
Fatehpur, see the Gazetteer of the North- Western Provinces^ vol. viii.
(Government Press, Allahabad, 1884). Also Final Settlemejit Report of
the Fatehpur District^ by A. B. Patteson, Esq., C.S. ; Report on the
Census of the North- Western Provinces and Oudh for 1881 ; and the
Provincial Administration and Depart7nental Reports of the North-
western Provinces and Oudh from 1880 to 1883.]

Fatehpur. — Tahsil or Sub-division of Fatehpur District, North-
Western Provinces. Area, 357 square miles, of which 170 were
cultivated in 1881, 77 cultivable, and 103 square miles waste. Popu-
lation (1881) 177,596, namely, males 90,959, and females 86,637.
Number of villages, 368. Land revenue, ;^28,7i7 ; total Government
revenue, ;£"33,863 ; rental paid by cultivators, ^£"50,382.

Fatehpur. — Town, municipality, and administrative head-quarters of
Fatehpur District, North- Western Provinces; lies in lat. 25° 55' 18'' n.,
long. 80° 52" E., on the road from Allahabad to Cawnpur, 70 miles
north-west of the former and 50 miles south-east of the latter. Popu-
lation (1881) 21,328, namely, Hindus, 11,896; Muhammadans, 9356;
and 76 Christians and '■ others ; ' area of town site, 761 acres. Municipal
income in 1882-83, ;£"ii68, of which ;i^io24 was derived from octroi;
average incidence of taxation, is. o|d. per head of municipal
population. The town lays claim to considerable antiquity, and Babar
mentions it in his memoirs. The tomb of Nawab Bakar Ali Khan,
minister of the Oudh Nawabs at the end of the last century, forms the
chief architectural ornament of the principal street. The Jama Masjid,


or great mosque, and the mosque of Hakim Abdul Hasan of Kora, also
possess considerable interest. For the Mutiny narrative, see Fatehpur
District. Station on the East Indian Railway main line. Telegraph
office, District jail, administrative offices, charitable dispensary, high
school. Trade in hides, soap, and grain. The only industry peculiar
to the town, and that an unimportant one, is the manufacture of whips.
Two vernacular newspapers are published here.

Fatehpur. — TahsU or Sub-division of Bara Banki District, Oudh ;
lying between 26° 58' and 27° 21' n. lat., and between 80° 58' and
81° 36' E. long; bounded on the north by Mahmudabad tahsil of
Sitapur, on the east by Hisampur tahsil of Bahraich, on the south by
Bara Banki tahsil, and on the west by Malihabad tahsil of Lucknow.
Population, according to the Census of 1881 — Hindus, 240,443;
Muhammadans, 48,951; Jains, 241; ^others,' 8: total, 289,643,
Number of villages, 676. The tahsil comprises the 6 pargands of
Fatehpur, Kursi, Muhammadpur, Bhitauli, Ramnagar, and Bado Sarai.
It contains i civil and i criminal court and 4 police circles {thdnds).

Fatehpur. — Pargand in Fatehpur tahsil, Bara Banki District,
.Oudh. The original seat of the Khanzada family, to which the great
talukddrs of Mahmudabad, Bhatwamau, and Bilahra belong ; the
Shaikhzadas of Fatehpur are connections of the family of the same
name, once so powerful in Lucknow. The pargand is picturesquely
situated on the high lands above the Gogra (Ghagra), between Dewa
on the north and Mahmudabad on the south. Area, 154 square miles,
or 98,352 acres, of which 65,358 acres are cultivated and 13,186 are
cultivable waste. Government land revenue, ;£i 2,-904; average inci-
dence, 3s. iijd. per acre of cultivated, or 3s. 3^d. per acre of assessed
area. Population (1881) 92,969, namely, 48,524 males and 44,445
females. Average density of population, 609 persons per square mile.

Fatehpur. — Town in Bara Banki District, Oudh; 15 miles north-
north-east of the head-quarters town, at the junction of the Daryabad,
Ramnagar, Bara Banki, and Sitapur roads. Lat. 27° 10' 15" n., long.
81° 15' 5" E. A place of considerable importance during the days of
Mughal supremacy. Many large Muhammadan buildings exist, but all
in a state of decay. The principal of these is an imdmhdrd, said to
have been built by Maulvi Karamat Ali, an officer of high rank at the
court of Nasir-ud-din Haidar, but now only used during the vmhar-ram
festival. There is also an old inasjid, said to have been built in the
time of Akbar ; the present owner of the ground attached to it holds
under a sanad or deed of gift, purporting to have been granted by
Akbar himself. There are also many Hindu temples. Besides a
well-attended daily hdzdr, a special bi-weekly market is also held, the
principal trade being in grain brought from the trans -Gogra tract,
and in English cloth. Coarse country cloth is manufactured by a


numerous colony of weavers. Police station, revenue court, and well-
attended Anglo-vernacular school.

Fatehpur. — Village in Hoshangabad District, Central Provinces;
situated in lat. 22° 38' n., and long. 78° 34' e., on the outer slope of
the low limestone hills which shut in the Denwa valley, and upon the
road from Bankheri to Pachmarhi. A line of semi-independent Gond
Rajas held the surrounding country from the days of the Mandla
dynasty ; and its present representatives still live at Fatehpur, and hold
large estates in the neighbourhood. Tantia Topi passed this way to
the Satpura Hills in 1858.

Fatehpur. — Village in Hatta tahsil, Damoh District, Central
Provinces. Population (1881) 2276, namely, Hindus, 2108; Muham-
madans, 120 ; and Jains, 48.

Fatehpur. — Town in Shaikhawati District, Jaipur State, Rajputana.
Population (1881) 14,731, namely, Hindus, 10,561 ; Muhammadans,
3927; and 'unspecified,' 243. Situated 145 miles north-west from
Jaipur. The town is fortified and belongs to the chiefship of Sikar.

Fatehpur Chaurasi. — Pargand in Safipur tahsil,\^nio District, Oudh,
lying along the banks of the Ganges, south of Bangarmau, and north
of ^2Sv^\}iX pargand ; colonized about 250 years ago by Janwar Rajputs,
who ousted the aboriginal Thatheras. The last chief, who held the whole
pargand as his estate, rebelled in the Mutiny of 1857. He seized the
English fugitives who were escaping by boat from Fatehgarh, and delivered
them up to the Nana, by whom they were massacred on the Cawnpur
parade. He died from the effects of a wound received in an attack on
Unao ; one of his sons was hanged, and the other fled. The family
estates were confiscated and given to strangers. The pargand possesses
varied scenery, being dotted with picturesque groves, and intersected
by channels leading to the Ganges. Indian corn of the best descrip-
tion, and barley of a fair quality, are the principal crops. Area, 90
square miles, of which 49 are cultivated. Government land revenue,
^5418, or an average assessment of is. lofd. per acre. Land is held
under the different tenures as follows: — Td/ukddri, 25,966 acres;
zaminddri, 25,806 acres; pattiddri, 5442 acres; and Government estates,
308 acres. Population (1881) 33,087, namely, males 17,853, and
females 15,234.

Fatehpur Chaurasi. — Town in Safipur tahsil, Unao District, Oudh ;
6 miles west of Safipur, and 25 north-west of the head-quarters town.
Said to have been held successively by the Thatheras, a colony of
Sayyid emigrants, and the Janwars, each of whom ousted the previous
holders by force. The estates of the last holder were confiscated for
rebellion in 1857. Population (1881) 2948, namely, Hindus, 2619 ; and
Muhammadans, 329. Six Hindu temples. Bi-weekly bdzdr^dind. small


annual fair on the occasion of the Basahara festival. Post-office,
registration office, and village school.

Fatehpur Sikri.— r^//>f/7of Agra District, North-Western Provinces,
(also known as ta/isil Kiraoli), lying in the western or trans-Jumna
portion of the District. Area, 272 square miles, of which 189
square miles are cultivated, 62 square miles cultivable, and 21 square
miles waste. Land revenue, £20),^^; total Government revenue,
including local rates and cesses, ^33,423 ; rental paid by cultivators,
including cesses, ;£"38,349. Population (1881) 114,678, namely, males
61,596, and females 53,082. Hindus numbered 101,861 ; Muham-
madans, 11,989; Jains, 823; and 'others,' 5. Number of towns and
villages, 171. The tahsil \s watered by the Utangan river in the south,
and by the Khari jiadi which flows through its centre. In the east the
country is level, resembling the adjoining tract in the Agra tahsil. In
the western half, however, there are hills, the most important being the
range on which the town of Fatehpur Sikri is situated, running across
the valley between the Utangan and Khari 7iadi in a north-easterly
direction. A much shorter and lower range runs parallel to this on the
north side of the Khari nadi ; both ranges consist of red sandstone.
The Muttra and Agra road crosses the north-east of the tahsil^ but the
most important road is the one from Agra, through the centre of the
tahsil to Kiraoli, the head-quarters, and to Fatehpur Si'kri, up to which
point it is metalled. Thence it continues westwards, and is known as
the Nasirabad road. This line of communication is connected by-
numerous village roads with all parts of the tahsil, which is thus
brought into close connection with Agra city, distant only 10 miles
from its eastern border. The Rajputana State Railway runs through
the northern half of the tahsil, within 4 miles of Kiraoli ; and at
Achhnera the branch line to Muttra strikes off. The Agra Canal passes
through the north of the tahsil, and three distributaries irrigate the
tract to the north of the Khari nadi. The tahsil or Sub-division
contains i criminal court, with 4 police stations; strength of regular
police, 54 men.

Fatehpur Sikri. — Town, municipality, and a former capital of the
Mughal Empire; situated in Agra District, North- Western Provinces,
23 miles west of Agra, and 10 miles south-west of Kiraoli. Lat.
27° 5' 35" N., long. 77° 42' 18" E. Population (i88r) 6243, namely,
Hindus, 3536; Muhammadans, 2706; and i Christian. Municipal
income (1882-83), ^426, of which ;^4ii was derived from octroi;
average incidence of taxation, is. id. per head (7466) of municipal
population. Founded by the Emperor Akbar in 1570 with a view
to its establishment as the permanent seat of the Mughal court ; and
enriched by magnificent architectural works in the time of Akbar and
Jahangir ; but abandoned within fifty years of its foundation, in

VOL. IV. 2 E


favour of Delhi. It chiefly consists of a vast expanse of ruins, enclosed
by a high stone wall, some 5 miles in circuit. The great mosque is
approached by a magnificent gateway, known as the Buland Darwaza,
which surmounts a splendid flight of steps, and gives access to the
Dargah or sacred quadrangle, a courtyard some 500 feet square, sur-
rounded by a lofty cloister and a range of cells for Fakirs or pilgrims.
The quadrangle contains a large mosque with three handsome domes
of white marble, besides the tomb of Shaikh Salim Chishti, a Musalman
ascetic, through whose intercession Akbar obtained an heir in the
person of Prince Salim, afterwards known as the Emperor Jahangir.
The tomb consists of an elaborately- carved shrine in white marble,
enclosing a sarcophagus within a screen of lattice-work, inlaid with
mother-of-pearl. North of the Dargah stand the houses of Abul Fazl
and his brother Faizi, now used as a boys' school. Eastward is the
principal palace, containing the apartments of Akbar's chief wife. It
consists of a spacious courtyard, surrounded by a continuous gallery,
from which rise rows of buildings on the north and south, roofed with
slabs of blue enamel. A _ lofty and richly-carved gate gives access
to a terrace paved with sandstone flags, and formerly enclosed by a
colonnade. On this terrace stand, among other noble buildings, the
so-called houses of Birbal and of the ' Christian lady.' Birbal's palace,
which modern antiquaries assign with greater probability to his daughter,
is noticeable for its massive materials and the lavish minuteness of its
detail. The ' Christian lady's house ' belonged, according to tradition, .
to Bibi Mariam, a Portuguese wife of Akbar. Some of the paintings
are supposed to represent Christian scenes, but the Musalmans have
nearly obliterated all traces of these offensive pictures. Great doubts,
however, have been cast upon the traditions respecting the ' Christian
lady,' who was probably a Hindu princess, the mother of Jahangir.
Among the other architectural masterpieces, the Diwan-i-Khas and the
Diwan-i-am, or Council Chamber and Hall of Judgment, especially
attract the attention of visitors. The Elephant Gate contains two
massive figures of the animals from which it derives its name; but
their heads were removed by the Muhammadan bigotry of Aurangzeb.
Close by towers the Hiran Minar, a pile some 70 feet in height, covered
with enamelled imitations of elephants' tusks, which are commonly
believed by the populace to consist of solid ivory. Numerous other
splendid buildings, dating back in every case to the reign of Akbar, or
of his son Jahangir, stand in various parts of the city. Fatehpur Sikri
has little modern importance, and its architectural remains, which
attract many tourists from Agra, are its chief claim to attention.
During the Mutiny of 1857 it was occupied by the Nimach (Neemuch)
and Nasirabad (Nusseerabad) rebels on the 2nd of July, and the British
authorities did not permanently recover the place until November.


The modern town of Fatehpur lies to the south-west of the ruins and
palaces, and the village of Sikri to the north-east, but both are within
the old boundary wall built by Akbar, which had a circumference of
about 7 miles. The public buildings comprise a police station, post-
office, charitable dispensary, and Anglo-vernacular school. There is
also a dak bungalow, in a part of the old palace, formerly Akbar's record
office ; while other portions of the palace buildings are available for
occupation by visitors on permission given by the Collector. Fatehpur
Sikri is mentioned in the Ain-i-Akbari as among the principal places in
the Mughal Empire in 1596, although it had then ceased for ten years
to be the capital, and as celebrated for its hair-weaving, silk-spinning,
and stone-carving, which ' clever workmen chisel so skilfully as t.k^
turner could do with wood.' Its grand sardi was the rendezvous of
merchants from all the then known parts of the globe, European
countries being largely represented. But at the present day, the
weaving of a few coarse and cheap cotton carpets, and the fashioning
of rude millstones, are the only manufactures of the place, while its
trade has dwindled down into the import of a few insignificant items,
mainly for local consumption.

Fatwa {Fatuhd). — Town in Patna District, Bengal, and station on
the East Indian Railway, 8 miles from Patna city, and 324 from
Calcutta. Situated in lat. 25° 30' 25" n., and long. 85° 21' e., at the
junction of the Punpiin with the Ganges, and supported in a great
measure by river traffic. Fatwa was described by Dr. Buchanan
Hamilton, in 181 2, as a large country town, which might contain 2000
houses and 12,000 people, with a considerable trade and manufacture
of cloth. Population (1881) 10,919, namely, Hindus, 9718; and
Muhammadans, 1201. Area of town site, 588 acres. Its position on
the railway and on the Ganges naturally give it commercial import-
ance. Fatwa is also a place of considerable sanctity. Five festivals
are held here annually, when large numbers of pilgrims bathe in the
sacred river. At the Bdrni Dawddasi^ or festival commemorating an
incarnation of Vishnu in the form of a dwarf, from 10,000 to 12^000
persons bathe at the junction of the Piinpiin with the Ganges.

Fazilka. — TahsU of Sirsa District, Punjab, lying along the bank of
the river Sutlej (Satlaj). Area, 1196 square miles. Population (1881)
87,894, namely, males 48,345, and females 39,549, Muhammadans
numbered 41,781; Hindus, 37,085; Sikhs, 8974; 'others,' 54. The
tract is naturally divided into the low alluvial tract along the Sutlej,
and the high land to the east, the latter being by far the larger of the
two. Steps are being taken to re-open the Padi-nala, an old inundation
canal which once watered the lowlands ; while a branch of the Sirhind
Canal has been brought into the uplands, and was opened in 1882.
Revenue of the iahsil, ;£"9552. The administrative staff consists of an


extra-Assistant Commissioner and a tahsilddr, presiding over 2 civil and
2 criminal courts. Number of ihdnds or police circles, 3 ; strength of
regular police, 81 men; village watchmen {chmikiddrs), 187.

Fazilka. — Town and municipaUty in Sirsa District, Punjab, and
head-quarters of Fazilka tahsil Lat. 30° 24' 57" N., long. 74° 4' 10" e.
Situated on the left bank of the Sutlej (Satlaj). Population (1881)
6851, namely, Hindus, 4917; Muhammadans, 1874; Sikhs, 44; and
Jains, 16; number of houses, 11 19. A third-class municipality.
Municipal income in 1882-83, ^1969; expenditure, ;^i484'
Founded about 1846 by Mr. Oliver on the ruins of a deserted village,
named after a Wattu chief, Fazil, and greatly developed by his
exertions. Great entrepot for the produce of the neighbourhood, and
of the western portion of Patiala, exported by boats down the Sutlej
towards Miiltan (Mooltan) and Karachi (Kurrachee). Fazilka is the
most thriving and progressive town in this part of the Punjab. Con-
siderable trade with Bhawalpur and Bikaner, chiefly in grain and wool.
The Indus Valley State Railway has established a depot on the river
bank, five miles from the town, to which steamers ply in the rainy
season. It is proposed to connect Fazilka with the Firozpur-Rewari
Railway, by a branch either at Bhatinda or Mukatsar. Station of
an extra-Assistant Commissioner, court-house, tahsili^ police station,
dispensary, staging bungalow, sardi.

Ferokh {Farrukhdbdd, 'Fortunate city,' Faramukka).—i:hQ town
which Tipu Sultan in 1789 designed to be the capital of Malabar, and
whither in that year he removed the inhabitants of Calicut. In the
following year^ however, it was captured by the British, and hardly a
vestige now remains of the town. The site lies a few miles from
Beypur (Beypore), in Malabar District, Madras Presidency.

Ferozabad.— 27z/^j// and town in Agra District, North-Western
Provinces. — See Firozabad.

Ferozabad. — Pargand in Kheri District, Oudh. — See Firozabad.

Ferozepur. — District, tahsil, and town, Punjab. — See Firozpur.

Ferozeshah. — Battle-field in Firozpur District, Punjab. — See


'FiageswSi.r.—Zaminddri or estate in the Central Provinces. — See

Firinghi Bazar. — Village in Dacca District, Bengal ; situated in
lat. 23° 33' N., and long. 90° 33' e., upon a branch of the river
Ichamati. Noted as the first Portuguese settlement in the District,
formed about 1663, during the Governorship of Shaista Khan. These
Portuguese were mainly soldiers who had deserted from the service
of the Raja of Arakan to that of Husain Beg, the Mughal general
besieging Chittagong, which at that time was Arakanese territory.

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 4) → online text (page 52 of 58)