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per cent, of the total population, are ^professional;' 4078 'or o-^6
per cent, are 'domestic;' 19,410, or 173 per cent., are ' commercial • '
478,467, or 42-68 percent, are 'agricultural;' 134,332, or 11-98 per
cent, are 'industrial;' and 469,094, or 41-85 per cent, belon/to
the 'indefinite and non-productive' class,-2-39 per cent. amon. the
last being returned as ' occupied.' About 60-54 per cent are returned
as workers, on whom the remaining 39-46 per cent of the population
depend; 71-51 per cent of males, and 49-21 per cent of females, were
workers. There were 5 1,693 persons who were either educated or under
instruction, of whom only 1882 were females. The Christians of thi'.
District are better taught than any other class of natives

It is noteworthy that, while the Brahmans are by a vast majority
returned as Siva-worshippers, the Kshattriyas are generally Vaishnavs
Ihe Muhammadans are arranged as follows :— Shaikhs, 6579 • Sayyids
998; Pathans, 1228; Mughals, iii; Lubbays, 60 ; and ' others,' 9421'
excluding 79,352 Muhammadans returned under the heading 'not stated '
Of the native Christians, nearly all are Pariahs, and of the Protestant
faith; of Europeans there were only 42; and of Eurasians, 282.
Ihe wandering tribes-known to the police as ' the criminal classes'—
comprise the Yanadis, Yerukalas, Chenchuwars, and Sugalis. The first
of these, a low-statured race, live among the hills on the frontier of the
District, descending at times to take employment in the plains In
their unreclaimed state they are the determined plunderers of the
shepherds' flocks. In the Forest Department their woodcraft is turned
to good account. The Yerukalas will seldom settle, preferring to
wander about, under pretence of collecting jungle produce. A favourite
lorm of crime with them is to enter an unguarded house at night and
wrench the jewels from the ears of sleeping women and children. The
bugahs, who are comparatively harmless, resemble European gipsies
in their wandering life, picturesque costume, and pilfering tendencies.
Ihe Chenchuwars, physically a fine race of men, are most incorrigible
criminals, showing little regard for human life; in habits they are not
unhke the Yanadis. .

The chief towns are— Cuddapah, which is the only municipal town
m the District, with 18,982 inhabitants; Badvel, U^,^ ■ Prodd^tur
,6510; Jammulamadugu, 4846; Kadiri, 5004; Madanapalli,'
57CO ; PuLiVENDALA, 1885 ; Rayachoti, 4367 ; Vempalle, 581 1 ; and
Vayalpad, 3695. ^ >

Agriculture.—ThQ Cuddapah agriculturists are good farmers, and the
■alluvial soil of the valleys produces rich crops. They manure very
highly, using for that purpose animal, vegetable and mineral manures.


In the Cuddapah valley especially the soil is very rich, and grain of
all kinds is grown, as well as cotton and indigo. Tamarind trees are
largely planted, 800 lbs. weight of the cleaned fruit selling for los.
The trees, however, only bear every second year. The cultivator
now holds his lands under the rdyatwdri system of tenure. Formerly
(in 1808), land was held under a three years' lease, on the 'village rent
system,' each village being farmed out to a separate and solely re-
sponsible renter. This did not succeed, and in 181 1 a lease for ten
years was substituted, which continued up to 182 1. The inhabitants
of the District still speak of those days as one incessant period of
extortion from the under-tenants, and of absconding and punishment
of the renters. The ten years' lease system, proving unsatisfactory,
was abolished; and the rdyatwdri system was introduced, which
caused the revenue to fall to about ;£i5o,ooo in the first year of hs
introduction (1822). From this time, however, it began steadily
to rise, until in 1830 it reached ^^2 00, 000, at which average it has
stood since. As regards ordinary ' wet ' crops, such as rice, ragi, etc.,
the out-turn per acre may be valued at about £^ per annum, and the
net profit to the rdyat at £2. The average size of an ordinary
cultivator's holding is 6^ acres. Cotton has always been largely culti-
vated in the northern tdluks, and indigo is grown very generally over
the District. The cotton soil demands continual care, since, if
neglected for a short time, it is liable to be overgrown by a weed
known as ' nut grass,' which spreads very rapidly and can only be
ploughed up with great labour. Sugar-cane cultivation requires very
deep ploughing and a constant supply of water. An acre of cane
ought to produce about 12,000 lbs. of jaggery (crude sugar), worth
in the market about ;£22. Of the total area of the District, 8745
square miles (5,596,800 acres), 2,889,007 acres were returned in
1881-82 as assessed to Government revenue. The area actually
under cultivation was 1,495,514 acres, of which 178,534 acres were
irrigated. The cultivable area not under the plough was 1,143,287
acres; pasture and forest lands, 184,080 acres; uncultivable waste,
2,776,039 acres; total uncultivated, 4,103,406 acres. Of the total
area, 775,438 acres are held in indm, or under a free grant. The
staple cereals of the District are the millets, cJiolain (Sorghum vulgare),.,
ka77ibic (Panicum spicatum), and korra (Panicum italicum), which
occupied between them 769,243 acres of the cultivated area; 283,282
acres being taken up by other cereals, as ragi (Eleusine coracana),
wheat, rice, etc. Of the remaining cultivated area, peas, lentils,
and other pulses occupied 149^243 acres; orchard and garden
produce, 25,635 acres; tobacco, 5084 acres; chillies and cummin,
13,508 acres; sugar-cane, 3034 acres; oil-seeds, 40,210 acres; indigo,
100,772 acres; saffron, 1449 acres; cotton, 96,743 acres; jute


and other fibres, 355 acres. The agricultural stock of the District
comprised in 1881-82, 212,924 horned cattle, 10,630 donkeys,
385 horses, 1474 ponies, 220,273 sheep, 235,038 goats, 8462 pigs,
41,152 carts, and 108,929 ploughs. The prices of produce ruling
at the end of the same year, per viaund of 80 lbs., were — for rice,
6s. ; wheat, 6s. ; other grains, 2s. ; sugar, 32s. ; linseed, i6s. ; salt, 8s. ;
jute, I2S. ; cotton, 32s. ; and sheep, 5s. to 6s. each. The wages for
skilled labour were from is. to is. 3d. per day, and of unskilled, from
3d. to 5d.

Natm-al Calamities. — Between 1800 and 1802 there was considerable
distress in Cuddapah, and relief w^orks were opened. Again in 1866
very high prices obtained ; and the great drought of 1876-77 caused
severe suffering throughout the District. In 1865, part of the Dis-
trict suffered from a visitation of grasshoppers. From the commence-
ment of the District history, alternate droughts and floods appear to
have prevailed. Three years of drought preceded a great bursting of
the tanks in 1803 ; and in 1818, after a dry year, 180 tanks in one
taluk alone wxre breached by the sudden and excessive rainfall. In
1820, a violent storm burst 770 tanks, causing the destruction of a
few human lives and many cattle. In 185 1, there was a greater
mortality from the same cause; in one of the villages swept away, 500
people were drowned. Cuddapah suffered severely in the great Madras
famine of 1877, for an account of which see the article on Madras

Co?7imerce and Trade. — The manufacture of cloth from the cotton
produced in the District ranks first among the local industries. In
1804, the number of looms was estimated, under the East India Com-
pany's system of 'Investments,' at 19,626, turning out annually goods
to the value of ;^23o,ooo; and in 1875, the out-turn of cotton having
more than doubled since 1804, the value of the manufactured produce
was estimated at ^400,000. The manufacture of indigo has of late
years decreased, the European firms having closed their factories, and
the business falling entirely into the hands of native producers. The
sugar made in Cuddapah commands a market throughout Southern
India, the cane being of superior quality. The ' Imperial ' and ' Minor '
irrigation works of the District comprise 434 channels and 995 tanks,
irrigating an area of 235,612 acres, and yielding a revenue of ;^85,379.
The roads of the District aggregate a length of 11 23 miles (a great
portion being over cotton soil, and passable only in dry weather), and
are spread equally over the District. They branch off from the three
^ain lines from Madras to Bellary, Karniil (Kurnool), and Kadiri.
The Kurnool-Cuddapah canal enters the District in the Proddatiir
taluk. It is taken across the Pennar at Adniamayapalli by means of
an anicut which holds up the water at the required level, and terminates,


after a course of 191 miles, at the Krishnapuram station of the Madras
Railway, 4 miles from Cuddapah. The total length of canals in the
District is 75 miles. The Madras Railway (North-West Line) traverses
the District for 102 miles, with 14 stations.

The religious institutions of the District are important in the
aggregate, Government continuing an ancient allowance of ;£"2 7oo,
and local piety contributing extensive endowments. The Car Festival
in the Proddatiir and other taluks, the Bathing Festival of Pushpagiri,
and the Ganga Jafrd Festivals, all attract large assemblages, and
facilitate the interchange of local products.

Administration. — For administrative purposes, the District is divided
into II taluks, namely, Badvel, Cuddapah, Jammulamadugu,
Kadiri, Madhanapalle, Proddatur, Pullivendala, Pullampet,
Rayachoti, Sidhout, and Vayalpad. The land revenue amounted
in 1881 to ;^i6i,743, while excise yielded ;£^2o,37o ; stamps, ;£^i5,354;
and assessed taxes, ;^3854. Total revenue, ;,^2 01,321. The esti-
mated money value of the lands alienated in payment of service
amounts to about ^'jj,ooo. This does not, however, include
the alienations in personal and religious indms, amounting to an
additional ^60,000. In fact, such an excessive quantity of indm
land has been granted in this District, that the cultivating class is to
a considerable degree independent of Government land. The admini-
stration of justice is conducted by 7 civil and 5 revenue judges ; the
number of magistrates of all grades is 30. The police force com-
prises 1058 officers and men of all ranks, giving a proportion of i to
every 8 square miles and every 1060 of the inhabitants, and is
maintained at a cost of ;^ 16,688. The District possesses one jail in
the town of Cuddapah, with a daily average population of 145, costing
;£"9, 15s. per prisoner.

Education is provided by grants from the Local Funds, and by
Government. In 1881-82 there were 495 schools, including 3 girls'
schools, distributed over the District, with a total attendance of 8425
pupils, besides 158 indigenous schools with an average roll of 2814
pupils. The one municipality is that of Cuddapah, with an income,
in 1881-82, of ;£^2958, from which are supported an elementary
school, civil dispensary, vaccinating staff, conservancy establishments,
and municipal police.

Medical Aspects. — The climate, though trying, does not appear to be
unhealthy. In January and February, north-east winds, cool and dry,
keep the temperature at about 75° F., but in March the heat begins to
increase, and till the end of June the mean varies from 95° to 100° in
the shade. From July to September inclusive, cooler breezes, with
occasional showers, prevail from the south-west ; and from September
to December, during the north-east monsoon, the temperature averages


70°, Cholera occasionally visits the District in an epidemic form,
but causes no serious mortality. Small-pox shows a lower death-rate
than in any other District of the Presidency, except Ganjam and South
Kanara. Fever carries off great numbers annually ; and to this cause
is probably due the reputation for unhealthiness unfairly bestowed on
the District. The disease called ' Madura-foot ' is endemic in the black
cotton-soil taluks. There are three dispensaries in the District — at
Cuddapah, Proddatiir, and Madanapalli. The number of births
registered in the District in i88i was 32,867, or a ratio of 29-3 per
1000 of population. The number of registered deaths in the same
year was 20,343, or i8"i per 1000, the mean for the previous five
years being 27-4. Vaccination still meets with opposition, and makes
but little progress. The annual rainfall for 30 years ending 1881
averaged 2 7 "26 inches. [For further information regarding Cuddapah,
see the Maiiual of Cuddapah District, by J. D. B. Gribble, Esq., C.S.
(Madras, 1875). ^^so the Census Report of Madras {\ZZ\)\ and the
Annual Administration Reports of the Madras Presidency from 1880
to 1883.]

Cuddapah {Kadapd). — Taluk or Sub-division of Cuddapah District,
Madras Presidency. Area, 760 square miles, containing 31,104 houses,
grouped into i town and 146 villages; population (188 1) 147,453, namely,
74,421 males and 73,032 females. The taluk forms a basin completely
shut in on three sides by the Lankamalai and Seshachalam Hills, and
watered by the Pennar (Ponnaiyar), which within its limits receives three
tributary streams, the Kundair, Papaghni, and Bugair. Diamond-yielding
quartzite is found at the foot of the hills above Chennur and Kanu-
parti. The farming carried on in this taluk is decidedly superior to
that of the rest of the District. The use of both irrigation and manure
is more resorted to than elsewhere, and the rotation of crops is better
understood. Cuddapah indigo, which differs in being extracted from
the plants when green, commands a higher price than indigo from
other parts of the Madras Presidency. Of the total area, only about
one-third pays land revenue. The chief places are Cuddapah, Kamala-
puram, Akkayapali, and Komadi. The Madras Railway (North-West
Line) has 3 stations within the taluk, and good roads run alongside
the canal which traverses the river valley. Education is very back-
ward, even the ordinary /^j^^/ schools being remarkably few in number,
and exclusive. Land revenue demand (1882-83), £26,2)^9- I^ ^^^
same year, the /^f////^ contained 2 civil and 5 criminal courts, with 11
police stations (thdnds), and a police force numbering 255 officers and
men. Historically, the interest of the taluk centres in its chief town,

Cuddapah {Kadapd). — Town and administrative head-quarters of
Cuddapah District, Madras Presidency; situated in lat. 14° 28' 49" n..


and long. 78° 51' 47" e., in the Pennar (Ponnaiyar) valley, 6 miles south
of that river and 161 miles by rail from Madras; population (1881) 18,982,
namely, 11,216 Hindus, 7273 Muhammadans, and 493 Christians,
occupying 4015 houses. Municipal income in 1881-82, ^,^2958 ; inci-
dence of taxation, about 3s. id. per head. As the head-quarters of the
District, Cuddapah contains all the chief offices of local administration,
the Judge's and Collector's courts, jail, telegraph and post offices.
The trade consists chiefly in the export of indigo and cotton, and the
principal industry is the weaving of coarse cloth. The town, being
enclosed on three sides by bare sandstone hills, is one of the hottest
in the District, the mean temperature in the shade from March to
July being 97° F. ; annual rainfall, 27 inches. The native town
is unhealthily situated and squalidly built, the proportion of substantial
Duildings being much lower than in many large villages. Cuddapah
is sometimes said to have been a place of importance under the
Vijayanagar dynasty. But the existence of a hamlet in the neighbour-
hood called Old Cuddapah (Pata-Cuddapah), and the total absence of
ancient Hindu buildings, prove the modern origin of the present town.
Muhammadan local tradition names Abdul Nabi Mia as the founder ;
but it seems more probable that one of the Pathan lieutenants of the
Golcondah army erected the fort about 1570. It is not till the
beginning of the i8th century, when the so-called Nawab of Kurpa
(Cuddapah) had absorbed the whole of the tract known as the Balaghat,
except Giiti (Gooty), and had extended his conquests to the Baramahal,
that Cuddapah appears as the capital of a separate kingdom {see
Cuddapah District). In 1 748, the Nawab followed the standard of the
Nizam Muzaffar Jang to the Southern States, and two years afterwards
murdered his lord paramount with his own hand. Eight years later,
retribution overtook him ; his country was invaded by the Marathas, to
whom he was compelled to cede half his estates, including Gurramkonda
fort ; and at the same time Haidar All of Mysore wrested the Baramahal
from him. In 1769, the Nawab of Cuddapah paid tribute to Mysore;
but having in the following year joined the Nizam, he was attacked by
Haidar Ali, and, in spite of a gallant defence, his fort was captured.
■Soon after the Nawab surrendered at Sidhaut. In 1792, Cuddapah
was restored by treaty to the Nizam, who made it over for a time in
jdgir to M. Raymond, for the expenses of the French contingent. In
1800 it was ceded to the East India Company, and in 181 7 constituted
the head-quarters of the District. Since 1868 it has ceased to be a
military cantonment.

. The name has been derived from Kripa, 'mercy' (Sansk.); but
others connect it with Gadapa, ' a gate ' (Telugu) — i.e., ' the gate to
Tripan.' During the Muhammadan occupation, the town was called


Culna. — Sub-division and town in Bardwan District, Bengal. — See

Oumbum {Kambam). — Town in Madura District, Madras Presi-
dency ; situated in the valley of the same name, in the south-west of
the District. Lat. 9° 44' 50" n., long. 77° 20' 35" e. ; population
(1881) 5361, almost all Hindus ; number of houses, 768. The valley
is a fertile tract sheltered by the Travancore Hills, and watered by
a feeder of the Vygai (Vaigai). The fort of Cumbum was stormed by
Vishwanath Nayak in the i6th century.

Cumbum {Kambam). — ^Town in Karniil (Kurnool) District, Madras
Presidency, and head- quarters of the taluk of the same name. Lat.
^5° 34' 15" N., long. 79° 9' \" E. ; population (1881) 7170, namely,
Hindus, 4691 ; Muhammadans, 2471; and Christians, 8: number of
houses, 2238. The Local Fund grant (about ;^i5o) is inadequate to
meet the sanitary wants of the place ; and no town in the Presidency
has a worse reputation for fever. A tank or lake has been formed here
by damming the Gundlakamma river by a bandh 57 feet high, thrown
between two hills. This lake has an area of about 15 square miles,
and is largely used for irrigation. The only building of interest is a
dismantled fort.

Cutch {Kachchh, or the sea-coast land). — Native State in Gujarat
under the political superintendence of the Government of Bombay ;
bounded on the north and north-west by the Province of Sind,
on the east by Native States under the Pdlanpur Agency, on the
south by the peninsula of Kathiawar and the Gulf of Cutch, and on the
south-west by the Indian Ocean. Its limits, inclusive of the great salt
marsh termed the Rann (Runn), extend from lat. 20° 47' to 24° n.,
and from long. 68° 26' to 71° 10' e. The territory comprises a belt of
land, 160 miles from east to west and about 35 to 70 from north to
south. The area of the State, exclusive of the Rann, is about 6500
square miles, containing 8 towns and 889 villages; population in 1881,
512,084. The capital is Bhuj, where the Chief or Rao resides.

From its isolated position, the special character of its people, their
peculiar dialect, and their strong feeling of personal loyalty to their
ruler, the peninsula of Cutch has more of the elements of a distinct
nationality than any other of the dependencies of the Bombay

Physical Aspects.— The whole territory of Cutch is almost entirely
cut off from the continent of India — north by the Great Rann, east
by the Little Rann, south by the Gulf of Cutch, and west by the
eastern or Kori mouth of the Indus. Though on the whole treeless,
barren, and rocky, the aspect of the country is varied by ranges of
hills and isolated peaks, by rugged and deeply-cut river beds, and by
well-tilled valleys and tracts of rich pasture land. On the south, behind


a high bank of sand that lines the sea-coast, lies a low, fertile, and well-
cultivated plain from 20 to 30 miles broad. Beyond this plain, the
Dora, a broad belt of hilly ground, stretches east and west from 500 to
1000 feet above the level of the plain. Behind the Dora range lies a
rich valley, bounded to the north by the Charwar, a second line of hills
parallel to the first, but higher, narrower, and, especially along the
northern side, more precipitous. Again, beyond the Charwar Hills, a
low-lying belt of rich pasturage, about 7 miles broad, stretches north-
wards to the Great Rann or salt desert ; and, close to its southern
shore, four hilly islands (from one of which rises Patcham Pir, the
highest point in Cutch, 1450 feet above the level of the sea) stand out
from the bed of the Rann. Each of the two chief ranges that, stretch-
ing east and west, form as it were a double backbone to the peninsula
of Cutch, is marked by one peak of special height and of peculiar shape.
Of these, Nanu, the centre point of the southern hills, is nearly 800,
and Indria, the most prominent peak of the northern hills, nearly 90c
feet above the sea-level. Besides these two main ranges, in the south-
west a broken line of hills, and from the central plains isolated peaks
rising to a commanding height, give the greater part of the State a
rugged and rocky appearance. Except some brightly-coloured cliffs
and boulders, the hills are dusty brown and white, their sides bare 01
covered with a stunted brushwood. From the sea on the south and
west, and from the Rann on the north and east, the coast is in some
places very slightly raised and fringed with mangrove swamps.

There are no permanent rivers in Cutch, but during the rainy season
(July to October) many streams of considerable size flow from the
central ranges of hills northwards to the Rann and southwards to the
Gulf of Cutch. For the rest^of the year, the courses of these streams
are marked by a succession of detached pools. Owing to the porous
nature of the upper soil, storage of water in ponds and reservoirs is
difficult. But in rocks, at no great depth from the surface, water is
readily found, and wells yielding excellent supplies are numerous.

The Rann. — The most striking physical feature of Cutch is the Rann'
or salt desert, stretching along the north and east of the State, which is '
estimated to cover an area of nearly 9000 square miles. It is believed
to be the bed of an arm of the sea, raised by some natural convulsion
above its original level, and cut off from the ocean. It almost com-j
pletely surrounds the State with a belt, varying in width from 25 to 35
miles on the north to 2 miles on the east. The northern or larger Rann
— measuring from east to west about 160 miles, and from north to
south about 80 — has an estimated area of not less than 7000 square
miles. The eastern or smaller Rann (about 70 miles from east to west)
covers an area estimated at nearly 2000 square miles. In appearance
and general character, the greater and lesser Ranns differ but little.



The soil is dark, and is generally caked or blistered by the action of
the sun on the saline particles with which the surface is impregnated.
At times, the whole surface, particularly of the eastern part of the Rann,
is covered with salt. With the exception of some of the smaller islands,
on which grow a iQ\N stunted bushes and grass, there is no sign of
vegetable life. The wild ass roams over the Rann, finding subsistence
on the grasses in the islands and at the borders. During the rains,
when the whole tract is frequently inundated, a passage across is a work of
great labour, and often of considerable danger. Some of this inundation
is salt water, either driven by strong south winds up the Lakhpat river
from the sea, or brought down by brackish streams ; the rest is fresh,
the drainage of the local rainfall. In spite of this yearly flooding, the
bed of the Rann does not, except in a few isolated spots, become soft
or slimy. The flood-waters, as they dry, leave a hard, flat surface,
covered with stone, shingle, and salt. As the summer wears on, and
the heat increases, the ground, baked and blistered by the sun, shines
over large tracts of salt with dazzling whiteness, the distance dimmed
and distorted by an increasing mirage. On some raised plots of rocky
land, water is found, and only near water is there any vegetation.
Except a stray bird, a herd of wild asses, or an occasional caravan, no

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 4) → online text (page 7 of 58)