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On the 7th April, an attack was made upon the enemy, which had the
effect of raising the blockade ; and a week afterwards General Pollock
marched in to the relief. Earlier in the same year (1842), Jalalabad
was reached by Dr. Brydon, the sole survivor of General Elphinstone's
army. The second occasion on which Jalalabad was occupied by
British troops was during the Afghdn war of 1879-80. The fort, or
Bala Hissar, was put into thorough repair, and quarters and hospitals
were built. While the campaign lasted, the town was an entrepot for all
kinds of military stores, and the head-quarters of the Khaibar division.

Jalalabad. — Town in Jalalabad District, Afghanistan ; lies at a



JALALABAD TOWN AND TAHSLL. 77

height of 1946 feet, in the midst of a cultivated plain on the south of
the Kabul river. Lat. 34° 24' n., long. 70° 26' e. Jalalabad is by road
100 miles from Kdbul, and 91 from Peshawar. Between it and Pesha-
war intervene the Khdibar and other adjoining passes; between it and
Kabul, the passes of Jagdalak, Khurd-Kabul, etc. In 1840, the town,
though its walls had an extent of 2100 yards, contained only 300
houses, and a permanent population of 2000. The walls formed an
irregular quadrilateral in a ruinous state, surrounded on all sides by
buildings, gardens, the remains of the ancient walls, etc., affording
abundant cover to an assailant. According to Burnes, Jalalabad is
one of the filthiest towns in the East. It is advantageously situated
for trade, as, besides being on the high-road between Peshdwar and
Kabul, roads lead from it to Derbend, Kashmir, Ghazni, Bamian, and
Yarkand.

Jaldlabdd. — To^^^l in Hardoi District, Oudh ; 6 miles south-east of
Mallanwan town. Population (1881) 1857, chiefly Kanaujia Brahmans,
residing in 313 mud houses. Bi-weekly market.

Jal^ldbad. — Town in Muzaffarnagar District, North-Western Pro-
vinces. Lat. 29° 37' N., long. 77° 28' 45" E. Situated near the Httle river
Krishni, 2 1 miles north-west of Muzaffarnagar town, on the road from Delhi
to Saharanpur. Population (1872) 6904; (1881) 6592, namely, Hindus,
3065 ; Jains, 44 ; and Muhammadans, 3483, the latter chiefly Pathans.
Areaof town site, 155 acres. For police and conservancy purposes, a house-
tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. Large market
on Sundays and Fridays. The celebrated fort of Ghausgarh, built by
the Rohilla leader Naji'b Khan, lay at a short distance from the town.
Jalalabad was often sacked by the Marathas during the rule of Zabita
Khan, and one member of that race still holds revenue-free grants in the
neighbourhood. The Sikhs afterwards harried the country ; and nothing
now remains of the site of Ghausgarh except mud walls, scattered
bricks, a well 15 feet in diameter, and the ruins of a mosque. The
town still possesses a considerable trade in local produce, and a channel
of the Eastern Jumna Canal irrigates the surrounding country. The
Pathans of Jalalabad remained quiet during the Mutiny of 1857, and
one of their principal leaders did good service as tahsilddr of Thana
Bahwan after its capture.

Jalalabad. — Southern ^'^/w/Zof Shahjahanpur District, North-Western
Provinces, lying along the north bank of the Ganges, and also inter-
sected by the Ramganga and Sot rivers and other minor streams.
The /^/wf/ includes three distinct tracts of soil — (i) The bhur or sandy
tract in the extreme east, with an area of about 40 square miles, pro-
ducing poor crops of wheat as the spring, and bdjra as the autumn
harvest. (2) The tardi tract in the centre, including the valleys of the
Ramganga and Bahgul, the soil of which consists of a fine alluvial



78 JALALABAD TOWN,

deposit, yielding rich crops of wheat with Uttle labour, and without the
necessity of irrigation ; area, 128 square miles. (3) The ba7ikati tract,
extending from the valley of the Ramganga to the Ganges, with an area
of nearly 140 square miles, consisting of a hard clay soil, with a large
extent of dhdk jungle and grass land nitersected by numerous flood-
watercourses draining into the Sot river. Cultivation in this tract is
very laborious, and frequent and copious irrigation is necessary to
prevent the soil from hardening and cracking into wide fissures. When
properly cared for, however, it produces very good wheat and millet.
Two metalled and two unmetalled roads intersect the tahsil^ besides
the ordinary cross country cart roads. The bankati tract, however,
is badly off for roads, and those which exist are difficult to traverse in
the cold weather, and are utterly impracticable during the rains, owing
to the numerous watercourses and flood-channels. Water communica-
tion for large boats is afforded by the Ganges and Ramganga rivers,
along which a considerable traffic is carried on. The total area of the
tahsilm 1881-82 was 329T square miles, of which i83"6 square miles
were returned as under cultivation, 100 square miles as cultivable, and
45'5 square miles as uncultivable waste. Population (1872) 165,763;
(1881) 145,915, namely, males 79,990, and females 65,925, showing a
decrease of 19,848, or 11-9 per cent, during the nine years. Classi-
fied according to religion, there were, in 1881— Hindus, 133,435;
Muhammadans, 12,477; and 'others,' 3. Out of 356 inhabited
villages, 268 contained less than five hundred inhabitants. Land
revenue (1881-82), ;£"2 1,132 ; total Government revenue, including
local rates and cesses, ^£23,688 ; rental paid by cultivators, including
cesses, jQaIi'^S^- '^^^ tahsil contains 2 criminal courts, the civil
jurisdiction being included with that of the Tilhar mu7isifi. Strength
of regular police, 63 officers and men, besides a rural police force of
chmikiddrs.

Jalalabad. — Town in Shahjahanpur District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, and head-quarters of Jalalabad tahsil. Situated in lat. 27° 43'
20" N., and long. 79° 41' 53" e., on the plain 2 miles north of the Ram-
ganga river and 19 miles south of Shahjahanpur city. Population (1872)
7127 ; (1881) 8025, namely, Hindus, 4077 ; Muhammadans, 3945 ; and
' others,' 3. Area of town site, 117 acres. For police and conservancy
purposes, a house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856.
An almost purely agricultural town. Boats from Cawnpur ascend the
Rdmganga as far as Kola Ghat, opposite this town, where they receive
cargoes of wheat and other food-stuffs. Bi-weekly markets are held on
Mondays and Thursdays, but the trade of the place has much fallen
off of late years, traffic having been diverted by the opening of the
Oudh and Rohilkhand Railway. The public buildings consist of the
usual iahsili courts and offices, poUce station, post-oflice, and Anglo-



JALALI—JALALPUR. 79

vernacular school. The town is described as having a miserable
appearance ; the houses are nearly all mud-built, the bazar small, the
shops i^^N^ and the roadway unmetalled.

Jaldli. — Town in Koil tahsil^ Aligarh District, North- Western
Provinces. Lat. 27° 51' 35" n., long. 78° 17' 35" e. ; 14J miles
south-east of Aligarh town, on the route from Aligarh to Budaun.
Population (1881) 4939? namely, 2831 Hindus, and 2108 Muham-
madans. Area, 44 acres. For police and conservancy purposes,
a house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx. of 1856. The
town stands on a high site, between two raised distributaries of the
Ganges Canal, but in an isolated position, and with no good roads.
The most noteworthy inhabitants are the Sayyids, Shias by sect, a large
and influential body, who are regarded as the leaders of their sect
in the Upper Doab. They are the descendants of one Kamal-ud-din,
who settled in the town about 1295 a.d., in the reign of Ala-ud-din.
During the reign of Shah Jahan, this Sayyid family became sufficiently
powerful to expel the old Pathan landholders, and thus obtained the
full proprietary rights in the town which they still possess. ' These
rights,' says the Settlement Officer, ' have since become so sub-divided
that the individual shares are scarcely worth retaining. The reputation
of the family is due to their having given so many useful subordinate
officers to the British Government. Among its co-sharers, the village
can boast of an exceptionally numerous body of men, who have obtained,
or are now obtaining, distinction in both the military and civil services.'
The town contains upwards of eighty mosques, of which thirty are of
good size, one being a handsome building. The streets are narrow,
tortuous, and unmetalled. There is no regular bdzdr^ and no trade.
The town is an essentially agricultural one, inhabited by landholders
and cultivators. Camping ground half a mile from the town.

Jaldlkhera. — Town in Nagpur District, Central Provinces. Lat. 21°
23' N., long. 78° 27' E. ; about 14 miles west of Katol, near the junction
of the Jam with the Wardha. Population (1881)897, chiefly cultivators.
According to tradition, the place once contained 30,000 inhabitants,
but was ruined by the ravages of a band of Pathans. The remains
of a large fort, said to be of Gauli origin, still exist ; and for 2 square
miles around the village may be found traces of the old town. Probably
Jalalkhera once formed a single large city, with Amner on the Berar
side of the river.

Jalalpur. — Sub-division of Surat District, Bombay Presidency. On
the north the Sub-division is separated by the Purna river from Baroda
territories \ on the east it is bounded by the Baroda Sub-division of
Mahuwa ; on the south by the river Ambika ; on the west by the
Arabian Sea. It forms a tract about 20 miles long and 16 broad.
The area is returned at 189 square miles. Population (1881) 74,016;



8o JALALPUR TAHSIL AND VILLAGE.

average density, 392 persons per square mile. Since 1872, the
population has increased by 3904. In 1881 Hindus numbered
63,608, or 86 per cent, of the total; Muhammadans, 5428; 'others,*
4980. According to the statistics of 1873-74 (the most recent avail-
able), 94*7 per cent, of the cultivable land was then under cultivation.
There are 91 villages in the Sub-division; houses, 14,680. The Sub-
division of Jaldlpur is a level plain of deep alluvial soil, sloping towards
the sea, where it ends in a salt marsh. Along the coast-line low sand-
hills appear at intervals. With the exception of the salt lands near
the coast, the Sub-division is rich, highly cultivated, and well supplied
with water, groves of fruit trees, and valuable timber. The villages
are large and prosperous. Besides the salt marsh on the coast, there
are extensive salt marshes along the banks of the Purna and Ambika
rivers, which flow through the Sub-division. In 1875, of the whole
31,360 acres of salt marsh, more than half (16,794) were undergoing
reclamation. The reclaimed land has been made to yield a small
return of rice. In 1873-74, 62 per cent, of the cultivable land was
under grain. Jodr., bdj'ra, and rice are the staple crops. Miscellaneous
crops are pulses, gram, oil-seeds, sugar-cane, and plantain. The climate
is mild and healthy throughout the year. Average rainfall, 54 inches.
The land revenue (1881) was ;£"33,795. The Sub-division contains
2 criminal courts, with i police station {thd7id) ; strength of regular
police, 22 men; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 720.

Jalalpur. — Tahsil of Hamirpur District, North- Western Provinces,
lying along the south bank of the river Betwa, now known as Muskara

Jalalpur. — Town and municipality in Gujrat tahsil and District,
Punjab. Lat. 32° 21' 35" n., long. 74° 15' e. ; 8 miles north-east of
Gujrat town. Population (1868) 15,526; (1881) 12,839, namely,
Muhammadans, 9496; Hindus, 3331; and Sikhs, 12. Number of
houses, 2733. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£"787, derived from
octroi, or an average of is. 2fd. per head. Jalalpur is situated in an
open and highly-cultivated country, at the junction of cross roads leading
to Sialkot, Jehlam, Jamu, and Gujrat. It has a good bdzdr and a
large number of well-built houses. It is the second principal town in
Gujrat District, and carries on a considerable shawl manufacture, the
work of a Kashmiri colony. The manufacture, however, has greatly
declined since the Franco-Prussian war, owing to the French demand
for these goods having fallen off. The town contains a well-attended
Government school, a town hall, commodious sardi with accommoda-
tion for European travellers, police station, and dispensary.

Jalalpur. — Village and municipality in Lodhran tahsil^ Multan
(Mooltan) District, Punjab. Lat. 29° 30' 15" n., long. 71° 16' e. ; lying
in the tongue of land between the Sutlej and the Trimab, twelve miles



JALALPUR—JALALPUR-NAHVL 8i

from their confluence. Population (1881) 3875, namely, Muham-
madans, 2257 ; Hindus, 1613 ; and Sikhs, 5. Number of houses,
622. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ;£'24o, or is. 2^d. per head
of population. The town consists of a collection of brick houses,
surrounded by an embankment to protect them from river inunda-
tion. A fine domed building, covered with blue glazed tiles, marks
the tomb of a saint, Sayyid Sultan Ahmad, who bears to this day a
great reputation for casting evil spirits out of possessed persons. The
trade of the town has decayed since the opening of the Indus Valley
Railway. Manufacture of paper of excellent quality. The public
buildings consist of a municipal office, police station, school-house, and
sardi (native inn).

Jalalpur. — Ancient ruined town in Jehlam (Jhelum) /^/wf/ of Jehlam
District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 32° 39' 30" n., and long. 73° 27' e.,
close to the right bank of the Jehlam river. Head-quarters of a sub-
ordinate police jurisdiction. The village has been identified by General
Cunningham with the site of the ancient Bucephala, built by Alexander
the Great in memory of his famous charger, which was killed in the battle
with Porus at the crossing of the Jehlam. Remains of ancient walls still
crown the summit of the hills, which rise to a height of 1000 feet above
the village. Coins found among the ruins date back to the period of
the Graeco-Bactrian kings. Even in the time of Akbar, the town covered
a site four times as large as that which it now occupies ; but since
the foundation of Pind Dd,dan Khan, and the shifting of the river
channel 2 miles eastward, it has undergone a constant decay. Jalalpur
is now nothing more than a small agricultural village, of no com-
mercial or other importance, apart from the interest attaching to its
antiquarian remains.

Jalalpur-Dehi. — Town in Dalmau tahsil, Rai Bareli District, Oudh ;
8 miles east of Dalmau, and 18 south-east of Rai Bareli town. Lat.
26° 2 N., long. 81° 62' E. Founded close to the site of an ancient and
ruined town, named Dehi, by one JaMl-ud-din, upon whom it was
conferred as aytf^frby Ibrahim Sharki of Jaunpur. Population (1881),
Hindus, 1116; Muhammadans, 669; total, 1885, residing in 362
houses. Government vernacular school. A bi-weekly market is held
at a little distance from the village.

Jalalpur-Nahvi.— Town in Faizdbdd (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; 52
miles from Faizabad town. Lat. 26° 37' 10" n., long. 82° 10' 30" e.
Pleasantly situated on the banks of the Tons river, which here runs
in a winding channel, between high and precipitous banks. Popula-
tion (1881), Muhammadans, 3792; Hindus, 2446; 'others,' 2; total,
6240. Area of town site, 291 acres. A flourishing weaving town. An
imdmbdra outside the town w^as built about a century ago, at a cost
of ^400, by contributions from the weaving community, each man-

VOL. vii. F



82 JALANDHAR.

contributing a quarter of a pice for each piece of cloth wrought by him.
The circumstance was brought to the notice of the King of Oudh, who
highly commended the weavers for their piety and liberality, and
ordered them to continue the subscription, but to pay the proceeds
into the royal treasury as a contribution to himself.

Jalandhar {Julhindur). — A Division or Commissionership in the
Lieutenant-Governorship of the Punjab, comprising the three Districts
of Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, and Kangra, each of which see
separately. Lat. 30° 56' 30" to 32° 59' n,, long. 75° 6' 30" to 77° 49'
15" E. Area of Jalandhar Division, 12,571 square miles, with 31 towns
and 3951 villages; number of houses, 507,838, of which 384,189 are
occupied and 123,649 unoccupied. Total population (1881) 2,421,781,
namely, males 1,293,828, and females 1,127,953; proportion of males
in total population, 53*4 per cent. ; number of families, 538,226.
Average density of population, 193 per square mile; persons per town
or village, 608; persons per occupied house, 6-t,.

As regards religion, Hindus numbered 1,576,112, or 65*08 per cent.
of the population; Muhammadans, 687,942, or 28-40 per cent.;
Sikhs, 150,842, or 6*23 per cent.; Buddhists, 2860; Jains, 1942;
Christians, 2056; Parsis, 8; and 'others,' 19. Classified ethnically,
apart from religion, the population consists of the following tribes and
castes, including Hindus, Muhammadans, Sikhs, etc. : — Jats, 320,618;
Rajputs, 238,009; ChamarS; 231,041; Brdhmans, 217,828; Arains,
163,191; Giijars, 95,156; and Tarkhans, 70,551. The exclusively
Muhammadan classes, by race as apart from religion, includes —
Pathans, 13,417 ; Shaikhs, 18,351 ; Sayyids, 11,126; and Mughals, 3351.
The urban population in 31 towns and municipalities is returned at
2355676, or 97 per cent, of the entire population of the Division.
Rural population, 2,186,105, or 90-3 per cent. Of the 3982 towns
and villages, 2556 are returned as containing less than five hundred
inhabitants; 850 from five hundred to a thousand; 407 from one to
two thousand ; 79 from two to three thousand ; 56 from three to five
thousand; 28 from five to ten thousand; and 6 over ten thousand.
The adult male population is thus returned according to occupation —
(i) Professional class, 33,004 ; (2) domestic and menial class, 29,326;
(3) commercial class, 14,012 ; (4) agricultural and pastoral class,
438,190; (5) industrial class, 53,496; (6) indefinite and non-pro-
ductive class, 53,497 ; (?) unspecified, 43»977-

Of a total assessed area of 7,405,942 acres in 1878-79, as shown
in the last quinquennial return of agricultural statistics, 2,058,796
acres were under cultivation, of which 415,573 acres were artificially
irrigated by private irrigation. Of the remaining or uncultivated
area, 3157 acres were returned as grazing land, 315,184 acres
as cultivable but not under cultivation, and 5,028,805 acres as



JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 83

uncultivable waste, nearly nine-tenths of which is included in the
mountainous District of Kangra. The annual average area under crops
for the five years 1877-78 to 1881-82, was 2,124,777 acres, the area
under the principal crops being — Wheat, 779,969 acres ; Indian corn,
332,303 acres ; rice, 177,913 acres ; barley, 116,621 acres ; yWr, 112,645
acres; gram, 112,381 acres; moth, 75,024 acres; sugar-cane, 92,146
acres; cotton, 55,597 acres; vegetables, 14,192 acres; tobacco, 8053
acres; indigo, 2348 acres ; and poppy, 2026 acres.

The total revenue in 1881-82, excluding canals, forests, salt,
assessed taxes, fees, and cesses, was ;£"43o,457, made up as follows : —
Land revenue, fixed and fluctuating, ;£3i2,397 ; tribute, ;£23,ioo ;
stamps, ^47,337; excise, ^10,815; local rates, ;^26,8o8. The
Division is under the general control of the Commissioner of
Jalandhar, assisted by a Judicial Commissioner. The administrative
staff for the various Districts comprises 3 Deputy Commissioners, each
with a Judicial Assistant, 3 Assistant Commissioners, 8 extra-Assistant
Commissioners, i cantonment magistrate, 3 honorary magistrates, 13
tahsilddrs, and 13 miinsifs, besides subordinate officials. For further
details, see separate District articles on Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, and
Kangra.

Jalandhar {/ullundur). — British District in the Lieutenant -
Governorship of the Punjab, lying between 30° 56' 30" and 31° 37' n.
lat., and between 75° 6' 30" and 77° 49' 15" e. long. Jalandhar
forms the southernmost District in the Division of the same name.
It is bounded on the north-east by the District of Hoshiarpur ; on the
north-west by the Native State of Kapurthala; and on the south by
the Sutlej (Satlaj), which separates it from Ludhiana and Hoshiarpur
Districts. Jalandhar stands thirtieth in order of area, and eighth in
order of population, among the thirty-two Districts of the Province,
comprising 1-24 per cent, of the total area, 4-19 per cent, of the total
population, and 5*62 per cent, of the urban population of British
territory. The District is divided into four tahsils or Sub-divisions,
of which the Jalandhar tahsil comprises the northern portion, and
Nawashahr, Phillaur, and Nakodar the southern portion, running in
that order from east to west. Area, 1322 square miles; population
(1881) 789,555 persons. The administrative head-quarters are at the
town of Jalandhar.

Physical Aspects.— The blunt triangular tongue of land, enclosed by
the confluent streams of the Sutlej (Satlaj) and the Beas (Bias), bears
the general name of the Jalandhar or Bist Doab. Its submontane por-
tion belongs to Hoshiarpur ; the remainder is divided between the Native
State of Kapurthala and the British District of Jalandhar. Below the
hills, the whole Doab consists of one unbroken alluvial expanse, whose
fertility extends without a single break from river to river. The Sikhs



84 JALANDHAR DISTRICT.

regarded it as the richest region in the Punjab plains; for although
other tracts may be found of equal fruitfulness, in no other Doab does
the cultivated land stretch so far back from the river banks. The
entire District lies within the zone of rich cultivable soil, the detritus
of the mountain system, which skirts the foot of the Himalayas. At
places, a few acres are covered with a sandy layer ; but, except in these
rare spots, one vast sheet of luxuriant and diverse vegetation spreads over
the plain from end to end. Neither rock nor stone crops out in any
part, nor does any eminence occur deserving the name of a hill. The
highest point in the plateau, at Rdhon, near the eastern corner of the
District, has an elevation of 1012 feet above sea-level. Somewhat
farther to the west, at the little town of Hiiin, the general height sinks
to 969 feet ; and from this point westward the surface gradually falls
away toward the Beas valley.

A well-defined bank marks the bed of the Sutlej on the Jalandhar
side, below which stretches a tract of varying width, the bet or
khddar, parts of which are annually fertilized by the deposit of silt
during the inundations, and produce rich crops after their subsidence.
The river contains in winter about 15 feet of water in its deepest
parts, and it is navigable at all seasons for large flat-bottomed country
boats of about 8 tons burden. The main channel shifts from year to
year through the wide bed, often forming new islands by slight changes
in its course. The present stream runs at an average distance of
6 miles from the high bank. Opposite Phillaur, the Sutlej is crossed
by a bridge of the Punjab and Delhi Railway. During the cold
weather, a bridge of boats is maintained across the river for the
traffic of the Grand Trunk Road. The torrents from the Siwalik Hills
in Hoshiarpur District eventually unite in two main streams, the White
(or east) and the Black (or west) Ben, the former of which runs through
Jalandhar, while the latter holds its course through Kapiirthala terri-
tory. The White Ben receives numerous affluents from the Hoshiarpur
Hills, which meet it at right angles ; and, following a serpentine path
in a deep channel, finally falls into the Sutlej 4 miles above its junction
with the Beas.

Several marshy lakes {jhils) collect a considerable quantity of
water in the rains, which they retain throughout the dry season.
The largest is that of Rahon, at the eastern corner of the District.
It measures about 8650 feet in length by nearly 3000 feet in
breadth; extreme area of about 500 acres. The next largest jMl
is near Phillaur, with a length of about 6500 feet and a breadth of
about 1900 feet; extreme area about 250 acres. The nodular lime-
stone formation, known as kankar, is found plentifully in the District^
the best beds being within a radius of 10 miles from Jalandhar town.
The District is almost entirely free from dangerous animals. Wolves,



JALANDHAR DISTRICT. 85

however, are occasionally seen, and rewards are offered for their destruc-
tion. Numerous waterfowl frequent the various jhils ; and towards
Kapurthala, antelope, nilgai, and hares are found.

History. — The Jalandhar Doab at a very early period formed a
separate Hindu kingdom, ruled over by a family of Chandrabansi Raj [)uts,



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