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retreat. The commandant committed suicide. The unusual pro-
portion of Muhammadans in the neighbouring village attests its former
military occupation.

Jamalavaya Durga. — Hill in Tiruvur Sub-division, Kistna District,
Madras Presidency. Lat. 16^ 57' 22" N., long. 80° 2>^' 8" e. ; 1856 feet
above sea-level.

Jamdlpur. — Sub-division of Maimansingh District, Bengal. Lat.
24° 43' to 25° 25' 45" N., and long. 89° 38' to 90° 20' 45" e. Area, 1244
square miles; towns and villages, 1879; houses, 65,402. Population
(1872) 414,469; (1881) 497,766, namely, males 255,010, and females
242,756. Increase of population in nine years, 83,297, or 2o"io per
cent. Average density of population, 400 per square mile ; villages
per square mile, 1*5; persons per village, 265; houses per square
mile, 63; persons per house, 7 '6. According to religion, Muham-
madans numbered 381,572, or 76*6 per cent.; Hindus, 110,740, or
2 2*3 per cent.; Christians, 12; non-Hindu aboriginal tribes, 5442.
This Sub-division comprises the 3 police circles {thdnds) of Jamalpur,
Sherpur, and Diwanganj. In 1883, it contained a deputy magistrate


and deputy collector's court and 2 miinsifs courts ; regular police, 79
men; village watch, 851 men.

Jamalpur. — Head-quarters town and municipality of Jamalpur Sub-
division, Maimansingh District, Bengal ; situated on the west bank of the
Brahmaputra, in lat. 24° 56' 15" n., and long. 89° 58' 55" e. Population
(1881) 14,727, namely, Muhammadans, 10,360; Hindus, 4366; 'other,' r.
Area of town site, 9318 acres. Gross municipal revenue (1881-82),
;2f43o, of which ;2{^4i3 was derived from taxation; rate of taxation,
6|d. per head of municipal population (15,264). Jamalpur is connected
with Nasirabad (Nusseerabad), 35 miles distant, by a good road ; ferry
across the Brahmaputra. This town was a military station up to 1857.

Jamalpur. — Town and municipality in Monghyr District, Bengal ;
situated at the foot of the Monghyr Hills, in lat. 25° 18' 45" n., long.
86° 32' 1" E. Chiefly noted as containing the largest iron workshops
in India, which belong to the East India Railway Company, on its
loop-line, 299 miles from Calcutta, covering an area of 3c acres. These
works, in addition to about 500 European workmen, employ about
3000 native labourers, and have attracted the best iron-smiths from
many parts of Behar. The Company does its work through a number
of native middle-men, who are paid by the piece. Population (1872)
10,453; (1881) 13,213, namely, Hindus, 9625; Muhammadans, 3038;
and 'others,' 550. iVrea of town site, 832 acres. Municipal income in
1881-82, ^1523, of which ;^i429 was derived from taxation; average
incidence of taxation, 2s. i|d. per head. Neat and substantial dwellings
for the European employees and their families are laid out in streets and
squares near. the railway station. The native town and bazar is separated
from the European quarter by the railway. Jamalpur contains an insti-
tute with library and reading rooms, a theatre, swimming bath, church,
schools, race-course, and cricket ground, maintained or largely supported
by the railway authorities. The water-supply is afforded by means of
a canal cut from the base of the Monghyr Hills.

Jambu. — The northern channel leading inland from False Point
anchorage, on the coast of the Bay of Bengal, Cuttack District, Orissa,
Bengal. A winding stream, which renders navigation dangerous,
especially during the freshes, when a strong current comes down. A
bar stretches across its mouth for about three-quarters of a mile, with i
foot of water at lowest tide ; after this the channel gradually deepens
to 10 feet (lowest tide), and higher up still, to 18 feet. Towards Deul-
para, some 12 or 15 miles from the mouth, the Jambu shoals and
narrows to such an extent that this point becomes the safe limit of
navigation for heavily laden country boats. The entire course of this
channel is through a desolate country, which during floods forms one
large sea or jungle-covered swamp. The Jambu is now the property of
the Maharaja of Bardwan.


Jambughora. — Chief village of the Narukot State, Panch Mahals
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22° 19' 30" n., long. 73° 47' e.
Here in 1858, the Naikda tribe attacked a detachment of the 8th Regi-
ment Native Infantry. In 1868, Jambughora was sacked by a robber
band from Joriya in Kathiawar. Since then a police station designed
with a view to defence has been erected at a cost of ^£42 70. It is a
quadrangular enclosure, having at each of the four corners a bastion,
with steps leading to a roof, terraced and provided with parapets
loopholed for musketry. The chief of the Narukot State lives at
Jhotwar, half a mile to the north-west. School and dispensary.

Jambukeswaram (a title of Siva). — A famous temple in Srirangam
island, Trichinopoli, Madras Presidency. Lat. 10° 51' n., and long.
78° 44' E. ; f of a mile east of the great Srirangam {Seringhaju) temple,
but rivalling the latter in architectural beauty and interest, and probably
exceeding it in antiquity. * It possesses only three courts, but these
are much larger than the inner ones of the other temple ; and being
built on a uniform and well-arranged plan, produce a finer effect. It
probably belongs to the 12th century, and must have been completed
before the larger pagoda was begun. The first gateway of the outer
enclosure is not large, but it leads direct to the centre of a hall
containing some 400 pillars. On the right, these open on a tank fed
by a perpetual spring, which is one of the wonders of the place. The
corresponding space on the left was intended to be occupied by the
600 columns requisite to make up the 1000, but this was never com-
pleted. Between the two gopiiras of the second enclosure is a very
beautiful portico of cruciform shape, leading to the door of the
sanctuary, which, however, makes no show externally, and access to
its interior is not vouchsafed to the profane. The age of this temple
is the same as that of its great rival, except that, being all of one
design, it probably was begun and completed at once, and, from the
simpUcity of its parts and details, may be earlier than the great build-
ings of Tirumalla Nayak. If we assume 1600 a.d., with a margin of ten
or fifteen years either way, we shall probably not err much in its date.'
— (Fergusson.)

There is an error in the foregoing as to the number of the so-called
*iooo pillars.' 'There are in reality 796 of them, and, if the 142
round the litde tank that adjoins the hall are added, the total reaches
938. There are five enclosures in the building. Of these, the first
or inner one, in which the nimdna is, measures 123 feet by 126 feet,
with a wall 30 feet high round it. The second is 306 feet by 197, with
a wall 35 feet high; there is a gopura 65 feet high in this enclosure,
and several small mandaps. The third enclosure is 745 feet by 197,
surrounded by a wall 30 feet high. In this are two gopiiras, in
height 73 and 100 feet respectively; there is a cocoa-nut tope in


this portion of the building, containing a small tank and temple,
to which the image from the great Vishnu pagoda in the Srirangam
island is brought for one day in the year. The hall and tank described
by Mr. Fergusson are in the fourth enclosure, which measures 2436
feet by 1493 ; the wall surrounding it is 35 feet high and feet
in thickness. The fifth or outer enclosure contains 4 streets of
houses ; here is a small gopura, about sixty years old, over the western

'Several inscriptions are found in the various parts of the building ;
but these are of no great use from a historical point of view, as they are
simply accounts of grants of land made to the pagoda from time to
time, and, with a single exception, without dat€s. One of them, however,
is stated to have been written about the year 1480 a.d. ; and if this be
relied on, we must conclude that the temple is nearly 400 years old.

'It appears that the Jambukeswaram pagoda had an endowment
of 64 villages in 1750; in 1820, it owned only 15 ; in 1851, a money
allowance of J^^^S ^^^ given to the pagoda in lieu of its lands,
and this sum is now paid to the trustees every year.' — (Lewis
Moore, C.S.)

Jambulghata.— Town in Chanda District, Central Provinces. Lat.
20° 33' N., and long. 79° 30' E. ; 7 miles north-east of Chimur. The
market, held twice a week, is the largest in the District, the chief
products sold being cotton cloth and iron. The extensive quarries of
soapstone, a mile from the village, have been worked for over a hundred
years ; about 50 cart-loads are annually quarried and fashioned into
bowls and platters. Near these quarries are others of a very fine black
serpentine, where for three years Raghuji iii. employed 250 workmen on
fixed wages for eight months in the year. With the stone he constructed
a temple at Nagpur. Since his death, the quarries have fallen in,
and in 1881 the village contained only 605 inhabitants. Police

Jamblir.— Village in Nanjarajpatna tdhik of Coorg. Situated in
lat. 12° 34' N., long. 75° 53' E. Population (1881) 172. Thirteen miles
from Merkaraon the Manjirabad road. Head-quarters of the Parpattigar
of Gadinad. Weekly market on Thursdays. Small tomb and temple
of Singaraj, one of the Rdjas of Coorg. Coffee estates in the neigh-

Jambusar.— Sub-division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency ;
bounded on the north by the river Mahi ; on the east by Baroda terri-
tory ; on the south by the Dhadhar river ; on the w^est by the Gulf
of Cambay. Total area, 373 square miles. Population (1872)
93,249; (1881) 77,772, namely, 40,415 m^les and 37,357 females;
total decrease (1872 to 1881), 15,477, or 19-9 per cent. Density of
population, 208-5 per square mile. In 1881, Hindus numbered


63,882; Muhammadans, 13,036; and 'others,' 854. The Sub-
division contains i town and 82 villages ; numbers of occupied houses,
18,711; unoccupied houses, 4184: civil courts, i; criminal courts,
2; regular police, 53 men; village watchmen {chatckiddrs), 694; police
stations {thdnds), i. Land revenue (1882-83), ;^79,479. There
is a total cultivable area within the Sub-division of about 156,000
acres. Six square miles are occupied by the lands of alienated State
villages. The country consists of two tracts of level land. Towards
the west lies a barren plain, and in the east is a well-wooded stretch of
light soil. In the latter tract are large and sweet springs, but in the
former tract the water-supply is defective. Number of wells (1874),
700; tanks, 323 ; ploughs, 5927; carts, 5036; oxen, 17,092; cows,
2448; buffaloes, 18,645; horses, 656. The staple crops are /^ar
(Sorghum vulgare), bdjra (Holcus spicatus), wheat, and miscellaneous
crops of pulses, peas, tobacco, cotton, and indigo. The average annual
rainfall is 23-5 inches.

Jambusar. — Chief town and municipality of the Jambusar Sub-
division of Broach District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 22° 3' 30" n.,
and long. 72° 51' 30" e. Population (1872) 14,924; (1881) 11,479,
namely, 5925 males and 5554 females. Of the total population in
1881, 8741 were Hindus, 2379 Muhammadans, 129 Jains, i Christian,
16 Parsis, and 213 'others.' Area of town, 348 acres; persons
per acre, 32. Municipal revenue (1882-83), ^^664; municipal
expenditure, ;£^595; rate of taxation, is. 6d. per head of municipal
population. In former times, when Tankaria, 10 miles south-west
of Jambusar, was a port of but little less consequence than Broach,
Jambusar itself enjoyed a considerable trade. Indigo was then the
chief export. Of late years, since the opening of the railway (1861),
the traffic by sea at Tankaria has much fallen off. On the other hand,
Jambusar is only 18 miles distant from the Palej station, on the Bombay,
Baroda, and Central India Railway ; and as roads have recently been
made connecting Jambusar both with Palej and Broach (27 miles), a
traffic by land has to some extent taken the place of the old sea-borne
trade. It is in contemplation to connect Broach and Jambusar by rail.
In preparing cotton for export, 3 ginning factories were employed here
in 1874. Tanning, the manufacture of leather, and calico printing are
carried on to a small extent, and there are also manufactures of ivory,
armlets, and toys. In 1880-81 the imports were valued at ^21,1 15,
and the exports at ^125,419. Jdmbusar has a subordinate judge's
court, post-office, and dispensary. The town was first occupied by the
British in 1775, and remained in their possession until 1783, when it
was restored to the Marathds. Under the treaty of Poona (181 7),
it was finally surrendered to the British. To the north of the town is
a lake of considerable size sacred to Nageswar, the snake-god, with


richly-wooded banks, and in the centre of the water a small island
about 40 feet in diameter, overgrown with mango and other trees.
The water-supply is chiefly derived from this tank. In the town is a
strong native-built fort, erected by Mr. Callender when Jambusar was
held by the British from 1775 to 1783. This fort furnishes accom-
modation for the treasury, the civil courts, and other Government offices.

Jambva. — River of Gujarat (Guzerat), Bombay Presidency. The
Jambva or Jambuva rises near Devalia in Jarod Sub-division of Baroda
State, runs a course of 25 miles past the palace of Makarpura, near
the hunting grounds of the Gaekwar, and terminates near Khalipur.
Two stone bridges have been thrown across it ; one at Kelanpur on
the Baroda-Dabhoi road, the other near Makarpura.

James and Mary Sands. — Shifting and dangerous alluvial deposits
formed in the channel of the Hiigli, by the meeting of the backwater of
the Rupnarayan with the discharge of the Damodar. Both of these
last-named rivers enter the Hugli at sharp angles from the west ; the
Damodar nearly opposite Falta, about 27 miles by water from Calcutta,
and the Rupnarayan, opposite Hiigli point, 33 miles down the river from
Calcutta. The James and Mary Sands stretch more or less completely
up the Hugh' channel throughout the six miles between the mouths of
these two rivers; although the name is sometimes appropriated to the
more southern portion of the shoals. The mouth of the Damodar river
is situated in lat. 22° 17' n., and long. 88° 7' 30" e., and that of the
Rupnarayan in lat. 22° 12' N., and long. 88° 3' e.

These fatal sands have long been a terror to seamen, and still form
the most dangerous obstacle in the navigation of the Hiigli. The
name was commonly supposed to be a corruption of the Bengali
words jdl-?min\ ' The Waters of Death.' But Sir George Birdwood
has discovered in the India Office mss. the following entry : — ' The
Royal James a?id Mary [James 11. and Mary of Modena] arrived in
Balasore Roads from the west coast in August, with a cargo of red-
wood, candy, and pepper, which she had taken up in Madras. Coming
up the river Hiigli on the 24th of September 1694, she fell on a sand-
bank on this side Tumbolee Point, and was unfortunately lost, being
immediately overset, and broke her back, with the loss of four or five
men's lives.' 'Tumbolee Point' is shown in the chart of 1745 at the
north entrance to the Riipnarayan river. It is now called Mornington
Point. The wreck of this Royal Ja?nes and Mary was the origin of the
name of the sandbank, and shows that it was a dangerous obstruction
to navigation as far back as 1694.

How its dangers were subsequently increased by the opening of the
new mouth of the Damodar will be presently mentioned. The sharp
angle at which the Rupnarayan enters the Hiigli, opposite Hiigli Point,
would alone suffice to check the current of the main stream of the


larger river, and to cause a deposit of its silt. It is probable, therefore,
that, independently of the discharge of the Damodar by its new mouth,
6 miles above the Riipnarayan debouchure, dangerous sandbanks had
existed from a remote period in this section of the Hiigli river. The
sandbanks apparently spread upwards during the first half of the i8th
century ; that is to say, during the period when the main body of the
Damodar waters was gradually forcing its way southwards to the new
Damodar mouth opposite Falta. But the above entry in the ' Consul-
tations ' for 1694 prove that this section of the Hiigli was a dangerous
one at the end of the 17th century.

The records of the Calcutta Bankshall or Port Office commence in
1768, and they speak of the James and Mary Sands as an existing
shoal without any reference to their having been recently formed. The
proximate cause of their deposit is supposed to have been the shifting
of the course of the Damodar river. The nearly right angle at which
the Riipnarayan enters the Hiigli would, as above mentioned, have
sufficed to check the flow of the Hiigli current, and lead to a deposit
of silt. But when the Damodar river changed its course, and forced its
way into the Hiigli, also nearly at a right angle, and only 6 miles above
the mouth of the Riipnarayan, a double and an aggravated process of
shoaling took place. The James and Mary Sands are the result.

This change in the course of the Damodar was going on probably
throughout the first half of the 18th century. Formerly, the Damodar
entered the Hiigli at Naya Sarai, about 8 or 10 miles above Hiigli
town. A branch, or tidal channel from the Damodar, still marks this
old course of the river. The Damodar was, under the Muhammadan
Government, confined to that old course by a series of embankments,
which counteracted the natural tendency of the river to straighten
itself out to the southwards. But the main body of the Damodar
gradually broke through its embankments, and found its way south-
ward to its present point of debouchure into the Hiigli about 62 miles
by the river below its old entrance at Naya Sarai. The result was two-
fold : first, a deterioration of the upper part of the river which had
formerly been fed by the old Damodar ; and second, the aggravation
of the James and Mary Sands already formed by the junction of the
Riipnarayan and the Hiigli.

The period at which this change took place is not fixed. But a clear
tradition of it existed among the European inhabitants of Calcutta in
the beginning of the present century ; and the change is attested by
early maps which mark the ' Old Damodar ' as entering the Hiigli at
Naya Sarai. The probability is that the change gradually went on
during a number of years, and that its effects were distinctly felt by
the Calcutta merchants in the last half of the past century. The
deterioration of the upper part of the river above Calcutta, has been


strongly marked since 1757, when Admiral Watson's 64-gun ship sailtd
up to Chandarnagore, and when the French Company's ships of 600
and 800 tons are said to have laid off that port. The deterioration of
the lower part of the river, represented by the James and Mary Sands,
although undoubted, has been by no means so well marked. On the
one hand, it must be remembered that, in former times, ships of 700
tons usually, or almost invariably, remained at Diamond Harbour below
these shoals. On the other hand, it should also be stated that the reason
for this was not necessarily the shallowness but the narrowness of the
channel, which rendered it difficult for sailing vessels to tack. We
know that in 1801, the Cou?ttess of Sutherland^ a ship of 1445 tons
old measurement, was launched above Calcutta, and sailed down the

Various projects have been proposed to enable ships to avoid this
dangerous shoal. About 1821-22, apian was under discussion for cutting
a ship canal from above Falta to Diamond Harbour, so as to escape
the James and Mary shoals. In 1839, a prospectus of a larger under-
taking, a Diamond Harbour and Calcutta Railway Company, was
issued by Captain Boileau of the Bengal Engineers, with a view to
avoid the James and Mary and other shoals in the course of the Hiigli.
These schemes were not carried out; and in 1853, statements were
placed before the Government, pointing to a serious deterioration in
the navigable capacity of the Hiigli. The Calcutta Chamber of
Commerce called the attention of Government to the 'difficult and
dangerous state of the river Hiigli, which threatens at no distant period
to render access to the port of Calcutta altogether impracticable for any
vessels but those of the smallest tonnage.' The Marquis of Dalhousie
accordingly issued a Commission, which,after examining evidence extend-
ing from 1804 to 1854, reported in the latter year. All agreed that the
James and Mary shoals were among the worst and most dangerous in
the river ; but great difference of opinion existed as to their increasing
deterioration of late years. Out of twenty-three experts, fifteen con-
sidered that there was, on the whole, no change for the worse ; and
eight bore witness to a marked deterioration. The same uncertainty
still exists among the experts of the river. Since the Hiigli Commission
reported, two lines of railway have been made respectively to Diamond
Harbour, and to Port Canning on the Matla river. Both of these rail-
ways avoid the dangers of the James and Mary, and other obstacles
between those shoals and Calcutta; and indeed Port Canning was
founded at a large expense on the Matla with this view. But neither
of these two railways has attracted any share of the commerce of
Calcutta, and vessels drawing up to 26 feet still pass up and down the

The James and Mary Sands have two channels named respectively


the Eastern and the Western Gut. The following description of them
is taken from the Hiigli Commission's Report of 1854; but it will be
superseded before long by a survey of the Hiigli river, now under
preparation by Captain Petley, R.N., Deputy-Conservator of the Port of
Calcutta. The Eastern Gut ' lies close along the left bank of the river/
the Western Gut ' along the right bank. As a rule, these channels have
never good water at the same time, but close and open alternately,
according to the season of the year. Some of the witnesses, however,
speak to one or two years within their experience when the two
channels were open together, but with bad water in both. The Eastern
Gut is opened by the freshes of the wet season, when the flood-tides
are weak, and the united waters of the Damodar and Hiigli direct the
force of the strong ebb-tides down the left bank of the latter river.
The free flow of the current on the opposite or western bank, being
impeded by the rush of water below from the Riipnarayan almost at
right angles, silt is deposited, and the Western Gut fills up. The latter
channel, on the other hand, is reopened by the strong flood-tides of the
south-west monsoon, when the Makripatti Lumps, joining on to the
Hiidi sand, form a bar across, and close the south entrance of the
Eastern Gut. The Western Gut is subject to continual fluctuations as
to the position of the best water, and both channels show most
important differences in soundings at similar periods, in different
years.' Such was the general course of the fluctuations of the James
and Mary Sands up to the date of the Hiigli River Committee in
1854. For their more recent history, we must await Captain Petley's

The dangers of the James and Mary Sands add materially to the
charges on ships coming up the Hiigli. An establishment for watching
the constantly shifting channels has to be maintained. The perils of
the passage through these shoals have also to be considered in the
charge for pilotage. The evil reputation which the James and Mary
give the river has seriously affected the rates of insurance on ships
entering or departing from Calcutta. Examples of recent wrecks have
been given in article Hugli River.

Jami. — Town in Srungavarapukota taluk of Vizagapatam District,
Madras Presidency; situated on the Gosthani river, in lat. 18° 3' n.,
and long. 83° 18' e. Houses, 1228. Population (1871) 6088; (1881)
5029, of whom 4962 were Hindus and 67 Muhammadans. Area,
3289 acres. Jami was formerly the head-quarters of a taluk. Indigo

Jamira. — One of the tidal estuaries by which the waters of the
Ganges merge into the sea, in the Sundarbans, Bengal; between the
Matla and the Hiigli rivers, and flowing through dense jungle. Lat.
2\ 36' N., and long. 88° 31' e.


Jam-jO-TandO, also called Tando Jam. — Town and municipality in

Online LibraryWilliam Wilson HunterThe imperial gazetteer of India (Volume 7) → online text (page 15 of 57)