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the Haidarabad tdliik of Haidarabad District, Sind, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 25° 25' 30" N., long. 68° 34' 30" e. Population (1871) 1897;
(1881) 2072. The Muhammadans are chiefly of the Nizamani, Sayyid,
and Khaskeli tribes; the Hindus principally Lohanos. Municipal income
(1882-83), ;£"i 24; expenditure, ^93 ; incidence of taxation, is. per head.
Founded by the Talpur dynasty, and now the residence of the Khanani
branch of the Talpur Mi'rs. Jam-jo-Tando lies on the main road,
leading from Haidarabad, via Alahyar-jo-Tando, to Mirpur Khas, ten
miles south-west of Haidarabad. There is a vernacular school. The
term Tando means a town or village founded by a Biliich chief.

Jamkhandi.— Native State under the Political Agency of Kolhapur
and the South Maratha y^z^/Vi-, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16^ 26' to
16° 47' N., and long. 75° 7' to 75° 37' e. Area, 492 square miles.
Population (1872) 102,346; (i88r) 83,917, namely, 41,495 males
and 42,422 females; total decrease in nine years, 18,429, or 18 per
cent.; density of population, 170*6 persons per square mile; revenue
(1881-82), ^35,622; expenditure, ^35,169. Of the population in
1881, 73,910, or 88 per cent., were Hindus ; 7628, or 9 per cent.,
Muhammadans; and 2379 'others.' Number of towns, i ; villages, 80;
occupied houses, 14,890 ; unoccupied houses, 2902. A soft stone of
superior quality is found near the village of Marigudi. Products of the
State are — cotton, wheat, the ordinary varieties of pulse and millet.
Manufactures — coarse cotton cloth and nativ'e blankets, for home
consumption. In 1882-83 there were 24 schools, including r English
school; besides 30 indigenous schools: total number of scholars,
1229. The chief, Ramchandra Rao Gopal, or Apa Sahib Patwardhan,
a Brahman by caste, ranks as a first-class chief of the South Maratha
country. For purposes other than military, he maintains a retinue of
57 horse and 852 foot soldiers; and he pays to the British Government
a tribute of;£2o84. He holds a .f^;z^^ of adoption, and the succession
follows the rule of primogeniture. The chief has power to try his own
subjects for capital offences without the express permission of the
Political Agent. The survey has been at work in the State since
1881-82. Until lately communications were backward; in 1S81-82,
however, ;,^i8oo was spent on their improvement.

Jamkhandi. — Chief town of the State of Jamkhandi, South Maratha
jdgirs, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 16° 30' 30" n., and long. 75^ 22' e. ;
70 miles north-east of Belgaum, 68 miles east of Kolhapur, and 162
miles south-east by south of Poona. Population (1872) 12,493 > (1881)
10,409, namely, Hindus, 8460; Muhammadans, 1921 ; and Jains, 28.
Jamkhandi is a municipality, with an income of about £'joo.

Jamkhher. — Sub-division of Ahmadnagar District, Bombay Presi-
dency ; situated to the south-east of Ahmadnagar city, and east of the


Sina river, indenting into and intermixed with the Nizam's Dominions.
The largest compact portion lies in lat. i8° t,t; 40" to 18° 52' 20" n.,
and long. 75° ii' 20" to 75° 35' e. Area, 482 square miles; contains
I town and 74 villages, with 11,217 houses. Population (1872)
72,994; (1881) 60,960, namely, 30,925 males and 30,035 females;
decrease in nine years, 12,034, or 16-5 per cent. In 1881, Hindus
numbered 55,953; Muhammadans, 3196; 'others,' 1811; density of
population, 126-5 per square mile. Land revenue (1882-83), ;£9786.
The Sub-division contains i civil and i criminal court ; number of police
stations {thd7ids), i ; regular police, 36 men ; village watchmen {chauki-
ddrs), 237. The chief town of the Jamkhher Sub-division is Kharda.

Jamki. — Town in the Sialkot tahsil of Sialkot District, Punjab ;
situated 4 miles north-west of Daska, in lat. 32° 23' n., long. 74° 26'
45" E. Population (1881) 4157, namely, Hindus, 2207; Muham-
madans, 1609; and Sikhs, 341. A third-class municipality, with an
income in 1881-82 of ;£229 ; average incidence of taxation, is. 2d. per
head of population. Said to have been colonized about 500 or 600
years by one Jam, a Chuna Jat from Sahuwala, assisted by a Khattri
named Pindi. It was originally called Pindi Jam, afterwards changed
to Jamki. An extensive trade in sugar is carried on.

Jamli. — Village of Jhabua State, Bhopawar Agency, Central India.
A considerable village, distant from Sardarpur 24 miles north, and from
Jhabua city 30 miles north-east. The residence of a Thdkur^ one of
the Uinrdos ; his income is ^400, and he pays an annual tribute of
^100 to the Indore Darbar.

Jammalamadligu (lit. the ' Pool of Rushes '). — Tdliik or Sub-
division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency. Lat.
14° 36' to 15° 5' N., and long. 78° 7' to 78° 32' 30" e. It is
bounded on the north by Kurnool (Karniil) District, west by Bellary
District; on the south and east by the Pulivendla and Proddotur
tdluks. Area, 616 square miles. Population (1881) 91,958; living
in I town and 126 villages; number of houses, 18,918; density
of population, 149 per square mile. Hindus numbered 82,910;
Muhammadans, 7253; and Christians, 1795. Since 1871 the population
has decreased 17 per cent, due to the famine which devastated
Southern India in 1876-78.

Two hill ranges intersect the idluk^ but in no place attain an
elevation of more than 1000 feet, and are bare of vegetation. The
greater part of the tdluk is drained by a stream formed by the junction
of the Pennair and Chitravati. The Pennair and Chitravati join
near Gundloor, and then pass through the precipitous gorges of
Gandikota. The soil is of the kind called ' black cotton ' soil.
As irrigation is little resorted to, the crops raised are mostly 'dry'
crops. Cholam and cotton are the staples grown, the latter being


largely exported to Madras ; miscellaneous crops are indigo, gram, and
oil-seed. The number of tanks was, in 1875, 30 ; land cultivated
with 'wet' crops or those depending on irrigation, 2690 acres. Water
is deficient in the taluk. Inundations of the Pennair and Chitra-
vati, however, occur. In 185 1, a flood swept away the village of
Chautapalli at the confluence of the rivers. The taluk is ill supplied
with roads, particularly in the southern corner of it. Altogether there
were only 35 miles of road in 1875. The Madras Railway, north-west
line, crosses the Chitravati on a wrought-iron viaduct within the taluk.
The viaduct has 40 arches of 70 feet span. There are two railway
stations within the taluk, at Muddniir and at Condapiir. Condapiir is
14 miles from Jammalamadugii, the chief town of the taluk. About
7 miles of the Madras Irrigation Company's Canal cross the north-east
corner. Traffic is mostly carried on by means of pack-bullocks.
The taluk in 1883 contained 2 criminal courts; police stations
{thdmis\ 7 ; regular police, 63 men. Land revenue, ^21,025.

The natural fortress of Gandikota, and the fort of Jammalamadiigu
at the passage of the Pennair near Muddniir, are two remarkable places
in the taluk. Fort Gandikota overhangs the Pennair from a scarped
rock 300 feet above the water. Innumerable stone steps lead to the
mingled bastions and temples which crown the summit. Fort Gandikota
was the key to the valley of the Pennair.

Jammalamadugii. — Chief town of the Jammalamadugii taluk or
Sub-division of Cuddapah (Kadapa) District, Madras Presidency.
Lat. 14° 51' N., long. 78' 28' E. Population (1871) 4835; (1881)
4846, namely, 2382 males, 2464 females. Of the total population in
1881, 3600 were Hindus, 1241 Muhammadans, and 5 Christians.
Area of town site, 3391 acres. The town contains a Government
school, and a mission attached to the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel. Police station. Jammalamadugii is a busy centre of
trade, with large exports of indigo and cotton. A small cloth manu-
facture is carried on. The business season is from March to May. The
Car festival of Narapu-ramswami is held in May ; about 3000 visitors

Jammu {Jamu, Jummoo). — Province and town in Kashmir State,
Punjab. Population (1873) 41,817. No regular Census was taken of
Kashmir in 1881. Situated in lat. 32° 43' 52" n., and long. 74° 54' 14" e.,
on the Tdvi, a tributary of the Chenab, among the mountains of the
outer Himalayan range. The people are, as a rule, Hindus. The town
and palace stand upon the right bank of the river ; the fort overhangs
the left or eastern shore at an elevation of 150 feet above the stream.
The lofty whitened walls of the palace and citadel present a striking
appearance from the surrounding country. An adjacent height com-
mands the fortress, rendering it untenable against modern artillery.



Extensive and handsome pleasure-grounds. Ruins of great size
in the suburbs attest the former prosperity of the city. Once the
seat of an independent Rajput dynasty, whose dominions extended
into the plains, and included the modern District of Sialkot. It was
afterwards conquered by the Sikhs, and formed part of Ranjit
Singh's dominions. For its subsequent acquisition by Gulab Singh,
see Kashmir.

Jamna. — River of Northern India. — See Jumna.
Jamnagar.— State in Bombay. — See Nawanagar.
Jamner.— Sub-division of Khandesh District, Bombay Presidency.
Lat. 20° 32' 30" to 20° 52' 20" N., long. 75° 34' 50" to 76° 3' 45" e.
Jamner Sub-division is bounded on the north by Nasirabad (Nusser-
abad) and Bhusawal Sub-divisions ; on the east by Berar ; on the south
by the Haidarabad State (the Nizam's territory) ; on the west by Pachora
and Nasirabad. Area, 525 square miles; contains 2 towns and 156
villages, with 16,010 houses. Population (1872) 70,321; (1881)
83,535, namely, 42,779 males and 40,75^ females ; average density,
159 persons per square mile; increase in nine years, 13,184, or 187
per cent. In 1881, Hindus numbered 73.613, or 88 per cent, of the
population; Muhammadans, 6706, or 8 per cent.; 'others,' 3216.
Land revenue (1882-83), ;£22,376.

Most of the Sub-division of Jamner consists of a succession of rises
and dips, with streams of which the banks are fringed with babiU
groves. In the north and south-east low straggling hills covered
with young teak rise out of the plain. There is a plentiful and
constant supply of water. On the whole, the climate is healthy ;
but at the close of the rains fever and ague prevail. The rainfall
averages 30 inches. The chief streams of the Sub-division are the
Vaghar, with its tributaries the Kag and the Siir, the Harki, and the
Sonij. Most of these streams rise in the hills called Satmalas. In
addition to the rivers, there was in 1880 an additional supply of water
from 1950 wells. Generally speaking, the soil is poor. There is
black loam in the valleys, and on the plateaux a rich brownish
mould called kali iminjal. The Jamner Sub-division is said to have
formerly belonged to the Nizam of Haidarabad, Deccan. After
the battle of Kharda (Deccan), in 1795, it was ceded to the
Marathas, who subsequently made part of it over to Sindhia (Gwalior).
The Jamner Sub-division came into British hands in 18 18-19. The
crops are— staples, jodr (Sorghum vulgare) and bdjra (Penicillaria
spicata); miscellaneous, rice, wheat, maize, pulses, coiton, hemp,
tobacco, sugar-cane, and indigo. In 1879-80, nearly forty per cent,
of the cultivated area was under jodr. The Sub-division contains
2 criminal courts and i police station {thdnd) ; regular police, 49 men ;
village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 201.


Jamner. — Chief town of the Jamner Sub-division of Khandesh
District, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 20' 48' n., and long. 75° 45' e.
Jamner Hes 60 miles east by south of Dhulia. Population (1872) 5309,
namely, 4263 Hindus, 1259 Muhammadans, 99 Jains, and 84 'others.'
Area of town site, 102 acres ; situated on the small river Kag. At one
time surrounded with walls and protected by a fort, Jamner was a
place of consequence. Its trade and manufactures have now fallen
away. Outside the town is a temple to Rama, called Ram Mandir.
Also outside the town are the lines for a detachment of the Poona
Horse. Post-office, Government school.

Jamni. — River of Bundelkhand, Central India, rising in lat. 24"^ 36' n.,
and long. 78° 50' e., in the Central Provinces. It flows northwards
into Bundelkhand, whence it passes into Chanderi territory, and, after a
course of about 70 miles, eventually joins the Betwa, in lat. 25° 11' n.,
and long. 78° 37' e.

Jdmnia (also called Dabir).—Ps. guaranteed Thakurate or chiefship
under the Deputy Bhll (Manpur) Agency of Central India. The
chief bears the tide of Bhiimia of Jamnia. This chiefship, like those
of Rajgarh, Garhi Bandpurha, Kothide, and Chikthiabor, is an
important historical feature in the history of Malwa. The thdkurs
are all of the Bhulala caste, said to be sprung from the inter-
marriage of Bhil and Rajput. [For some general remarks on the
Bhiimias, see Rajgarh.] Jamnia is the family seat from which Nadir
Singh, a celebrated Bhiimia of Jamnia, made himself formidable to
the surrounding country. The estate consists of 5 villages held from
Sindhia under British guarantee. These villages are situated on the
table-land of Malwa, and belonged formerly to the Qj\s2X\ox pargand of
Dikthan. The estate also includes Mauza Kheri of the Hasilpur
pargand in Malwa ; Dabhar, with its six pdrds or hamlets, in Nimar ;
and the tract of country known as the 47 Bhll pdrds^ with Jimnia as
their head-quarters. Mauza Kheri is held from Holkar under British
guarantee ; Dabhar is held from Dhar 3 and the 47 W^\\ pdrds from the
British Government, to whom the Bhiimia is responsible for the robberies
that may take place. The pdrds are partly on the table-land of Malwa,
and partly on the slopes of the Vindhya range. The total area of the
estate is about 46,575 bighds, of which great part is cultivable waste.
A uniform rate of Rs. 3 per plough is at present levied on all cultiva-
tion. There are i tank and 59 wells in the estate. Population (1879)
2388; (1881) 3205, namely, 1658 males and 1547 females. Hindus
numbered 1793; Muhammadans, 198; Jain, i; and aboriginal tribes,
1 2 13. Number of houses, 603. Two sawdrs and 13 sipdhis are
employed as police. Land revenue (1881), ;£"i6oo. The Manpur-
Dhar road passes through the estate for a distance of 7 miles. The
Bhiimia of Jamnia, who has contributed to the cost of construction,


levies toll on the traffic passing over it. The present head-quarters
of the estate is the village of Kunjrod.

Jamnotri.— Hot springs in Garhwal State, North- Western Provinces,
near the source of the Jumna. Lat. 30° 59' n., long. 78° 35' e. The
springs occur on the sides of a massive mountain block, known as
Banderpiinch, with an elevation of 20,758 feet above sea-level. In the
centre stands a lake in which the monkey-god Hanuman is said to
have extinguished his flaming tail. The water rushes up through
a granite rock, and deposits a chalybeate sediment. It has a
temperature of 1947° F. Elevation of the springs, 10,849 ^^^^ above
the sea.

Jamod. — Town in Jalgaon taluk of Akola District, Berar. Lat. 21°
o' 40" N., long. 76° 39' 30" E. Population (1872) 4241 ; (1881) 5258.
In 1881, Hindus numbered 444^; Muhammadans, 773; Sikhs, 6;
and Jains, 33. Area of town site, 144 acres.

Jampui (or Jdmpiii Tlang). — One of the chief ranges in Hill
Tipperah, Bengal ; runs directly north and south, upon long. 92° 19' e.,
between the rivers Deo and Lungai, from lat. 23^ 40' to 24° 10' n.
Highest peaks— Betling Sib (formerly Sorphuel), 3200 feet above the
sea; and Jampui, i860 feet. The upper valleys, between the Jampui
and other northern ranges of Hill Tipperah, are for the most part flat
and covered with rank vegetation ; those to the south are wild in
character, and broken by numerous deep-cut ravines. Small hillocks
connect the Jampui Hills with those of Sylhet on the north, and with the
Lungtene range in Chittagong towards the south.

Jampur.— Tlz/^i-f/ of Dera Ghazi Khan District, Punjab, lying between
the Indus and the Sulaiman Mountains. Lat. 29"" 17' to 29° 47' 3°' ^'-j
and long. 69° 53' 30" to 70° 50' 30" e. Area, 912 square miles, with 141
towns and villages, and 10,001 houses. Population (1881) 69,159,
namely, males 38,059, and females 31,100; average density, 76
persons per square mile. Number of famihes, 13,501. Muhammadans
numbered 61,215 ; Hindus, 7817 ; and Sikhs, 127. Of the 141 villages
comprising the tahsil, 102 are returned as containing less than five
hundred inhabitants; 26 from five hundred to a thousand; 9 from one
to two thousand ; while only 4 have upwards of two thousand inhabit-
ants. The urban population in eight municipal towns amounted to
12,610, or 19-3 per cent, of the total tahsil population. Total revenue,
£^S91' Of a total assessed area of 414,509 acres in 1878-79, as shown
in the last quinquennial agricultural statistics published by the Punjab
Government, 147,694 acres were under cultivation, of which 36,197
acres were irrigated from Government works, and 4025 acres by
private individuals. Of the uncultivated area, 23,144 acres were
returned as grazing land, 105,136 acres as cultivable but not under
cultivation, and 138,535 acres as uncultivable waste. The total


average area under crops for the five years 1S77-7S was 128,051
acres, the principal crops being^'^^zV, 58,816 acres; wheat, 28,082
acres; rice, 8353 acres; hdjra^ 8242 acres; indigo, 4400 acres; and
cotton, 3933 acres. The administrative staff consists of i tahsilddr,
I munslf, and 3 honorary magistrates. These officers preside over 4
civil and 4 criminal courts. Number of police circles, 3 ; strength of
regular police, 73 men ; village watchmen {chaukiddrs), 56.

Jdmpur. — Chief town and head-quarters of Jampur tahsil in Dera
Ghazi Khan District, Punjab. Situated in lat. 29° 38' 34" n., and long.
70° T^Z' 16" E., in the plain, 32 miles south of Dera Ghdzi Khan town,
on the high-road to Rajanpur and Jacobabad. Population (1881)
4697, namely, 1883 Hindus, 2791 Muhammadans, and 23 Sikhs.
Founded, according to local tradition, by a Jat chief, about the 13th
century. The town contains, besides the usual tahsili courts, a police
station, dak bungalow, school, dispensary, sardi or native inn, dis-
tillery, and municipal hall. The bdzdr is well paved and drained.
Exports of indigo to Multan and Sukkur. Principal industry, wood-
turning, the work being much admired. A third-class municipality, with
an income in 1882-83 of ^428; expenditure, ^617. Average
incidence of taxation, is. 9fd. per head,

Jamri. — A small zaminddri or estate in Bhandara District, Central
Provinces, lying north of the Great Eastern Road, near Sakoli. Lat.
21° 11' 30" N., long. 80° 5' 30" E. Consists of 4 small villages, with an
area of 15 square miles, of which only i square mile is cultivated.
The zafjtinddr is a Gond, and obtains a moderate income from the sale
of timber. Population (1881) 571.

Jamnid. — Fort in Peshawar District, Punjab; situated in lat. 34° n.,
and long. 71° 24' e., at the mouth of the Khaibar (Khyber) Pass. It
was occupied by Hari Singh, Ranjit Singh's commander, in 1836; but
in April 1837, Dost Muhammad sent a body of Afghans to attack it.
A battle ensued, in which the Sikhs gained a doubtful victory, with the
loss of their general, Hari Singh. Elevation above sea-level, 1670 feet.
During the military operations of 1878-79, Jamriid became a place of
considerable importance, as the frontier outpost on British territory
towards Afghanistan ; the fort has been greatly strengthened, and is
now capable of accommodating a garrison of about 350 men. It is
built in three tiers, the first and second being defended by strong
bastions, on which guns can be mounted. The third and highest tier
is at an elevation which gives an excellent command over the neigh-
bouring country. The roof of this tier is used as a signalling station
with Peshawar.

Jamtara.— Sub-division of Santdl Parganas District, Bengal, com-
prising the thdnd or police circle of Jamtara. Lat. 23° 48' 15" to 24°
10' 30" N., and long. 86° 41' to 87° 20' 30" e. Area, 696 square miles ;


villages, 1791; houses, 22,355. Population (1881)' 146,263, namely,
males 73,393, and females 72,870. Average number of persons per
square mile, 210; villages per square mile, 2-57; persons per village,
82; houses per square mile, 33; persons per house, 6-5. Hindus
numbered 85,278, or 58-3 per cent. ; Muhammadans, 9432, or 6-5 per
cent. ; Santdls, 48,849, or 33-4 per cent. ; Kols, 1364 ; other aboriginal
tribes, 971; Christians, 60; and 'others,' 309. Jamtara contains
one criminal, one subordinate judge's civil court, and one Santal
civil and revenue court — all these functions being vested in the sub-
divisional officer. The police force consists of 30 regular police, and
733 village chaukiddrs.

Jamu. — Province and town of Kashmir State, Punjab. — 5^^

Jamiii.— Sub-division of Monghyr District, Bengal. Lat. 24° 22' to
25° 16' 30" N., and long. 85° 38' 30" to 86° 38' 30'' e. Area,
1593 square miles; towns and villages, 2441; houses, 86,859.
Population (1872) 525,829; (1881) 551,972, of whom 491,839 were
Hindus; 54,499 Muhammadans; 139 Christians; ' others,' consisting
of Santals and Kols still following their aboriginal faiths, 5495-
Number of males, 275,733, and females, 276,239. Proportion of
males, 49*9 per cent. ; density of population, 346 per square mile ; villages
per square mile, 1-53; persons per village, 226; houses per square
mile, 57 ; inmates per house, 6-3. This Sub-division comprises the 4
police circles of Shaikhpura, Sikandra, Jamiii, and Chakai. Number of
courts (1883), 3; regular police force, 86 men; rural police, 1126

Jamiii. — Head-quarters of Jamiii Sub-division, Monghyr District,
Bengal. Lat. 24° 55' 30" n., long. 86° 15' 50" e. ; on the left bank of the
river Keul, 4 miles south-west of the Jamiii station on the East Indian
Railway, with which it is connected by a metalled road. Population
(1881) under 5000. This town lies within the great Gangetic rice
plain, but shares in the slope of the country from the Chakai and
Hazaribagh plateau northwards; well drained, and healthy. It
contains the usual public buildings, a jail, branch dispensary, Anglo-
vernacular school, distillery, etc. Exports — mahud flowers and oil,
buffalo gill, shell-lac, oil-seeds, grain, and gur ; imports — cotton,
tobacco, piece-goods, and metal vessels. Trade carried on by rail and
by pack-bullocks ; no metalled roads in the town. Jamiii is a town of
recent growth, and has no historical interest ; to the south of it are the
remains of an old fort.

Jamund. — River of Northern India. — See Jumna.

Jamuna {Jamoona ox Jandi). — The name given to the lower section
of the Brahmaputra {g.v.) in Northern Bengal, from its entrance into the
plains to its confluence with the Ganges. This channel is of compara-


tively recent formation, but now carries down by far the largest volume
of water. When Major Rennell compiled his map of Bengal towards the
close of the last century, the main stream of -the Brahmaputra flowed in
a south-easterly direction across the District of Maimansingh, past the
civil station of Nasirabdd, to join the Meghna just below Bhairab Bazar.
Some thirty years later, at the time of Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton's survey,
this channel had already become of secondary importance. At the
present time, though it still bears the name of the Brahmaputra, it has
dwindled to a mere watercourse, only navigable during the rainy season.
The Jamuna, as had been anticipated by Dr. Buchanan-Hamilton, is now
the main stream, and in fact the only one marked in common maps. It
extends from near Ghoramara in Rangpur District to the river mart of
Goalanda in Faridpur, situated at the junction of the Padma or main
stream of the Ganges. Its course is almost due north and south,
extending approximately from 26° to 24° n. lat. Along the left or east
bank stretches the District of Maimansingh ; on the right or west bank
lie Rangpur, Bogri, and Pabna, all in the Rajshahi Division.

Although a modern creation, the Jamuna thus serves as an important
administrative boundary. In that portion of its course which fringes
Bogra District, it is locally known as the Dao-koba or Hatchet-
cut, perhaps to distinguish it from another river of the same name in
that District. It runs through a low-lying country, formed out of its
own loose alluvial sands. At some points, its channel swells to a

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