William Wilson Hunter.

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breadth in the rainy season of 4 or 5 miles, broken by frequent chars or
sandbanks, which form, are washed away, and re-form year after year,
according to the varying incidence of the current. The low lands
on either bank supply the most favourable soil for jute cultivation
in Bengal. The chief river mart on the Jamuna is Sirajganj in
Pabna District, which collects the agricultural produce of all the
surrounding country. In 1876-77, the total number of country
boats registered at Sirajganj was 49,644- The Jamuna is navigable
throughout its entire length by native craft of the largest burthen
at all seasons of the year, and also by the river steamers that ply to
Assam.

Jamund..— A deltaic distributary of the Ganges, or rather the name
given to a part of the waters of the Ichhamati during a section of its
course. The Jamuna enters the Twenty-four Parganas at Baliani from
Nadiya District ; and after a south-easterly route through the Twenty-
four Parganas, winds amid the forests and jungles of the Sundarbans
until it empties itself into the Raimangal, a short distance from where
that estuary merges in the sea, in lat. 21° 47' N., and long. 89° 13 e.
The Jamuna is a deep river, and navigable throughout the year by
trading boats of the largest size. Where it enters the Twenty-four
Parganas, the stream is about 150 yards wide, butjts breadth gradually



136 JAMUNA—JANDIALA,

increases in its progress southwards to from 300 or 400 yards. The
canals which run from Calcutta eastward fall into this river at
Husainabad.

Jamund;. — A river of Assam, rising in lat. 26° 31' n., and long.
93° 31' E., in the north of the Ndga Hills, and flowing first south and
then west along the southern foot of the Rengma Hills, finally
falls into the Kapili, a tributary of the Brahmaputra, in Nowgong
District, at the village of Jamuna-mukh, in lat. 26° 5' n., and long.
92° 47' E. Its tributaries in the hills are the Dikhru, Sargati, and
Pathradesa, all small streams. In the lower part of its course it is
navigable by boats of 4 tons burthen during the greater part of the
year. Coal and limestone of good quality are found in certain portions
of its bed.

Jamund* (Jaboona). — A river of Northern Bengal, probably repre-
senting one of the old channels of the Tista. It rises in Dinajpur
District, not far from the boundary of Rangpur, and flowing due south
along the border of Bogra, finally falls into the Atrai, itself a tributary
of the Ganges, near the village of Bhawanipur in Rdjshahi District. In
the lower part of its course it is navigated all the year round by
country boats of considerable burthen, but higher up it only becomes
navigable during the rainy season, from June to October. The chief
river marts on the banks of the Jamund are Phiilbdri and Birampur
in Dinajpur District, and Hilli in Bogra, just beyond the Dinajpur
boundary. Hilli is one of the largest rice marts in Northern Bengal.

Jamwari. — River in Oudh ; a small tributary of the Sarayan, rising
in Bhurwara village, Kheri District, in lat. 27° 56' n., and long.
80° 38' E. After flowing a tortuous course of 41 miles, it joins the
Sarayan on its left bank, in Sultdnpur District, in lat. 27° 32' n., and
long. 80° 47' E.

Janaurd. — Town in Faizdbad (Fyzabad) District, Oudh ; adjoining
Ajodhya. Said to have been originally founded by Rajd Janakji, and
having fallen into decay, to have been re-founded by the Oudh
Vikramaditya in the 2nd century a.d. Population (1881) 2021
Hindus, 436 Musalmdns, and 3 'others;' total, 2460.

Jandidld. — Town and municipality in Amritsar tdhstl and District,
Punjab. Situated in lat. 31° 50' 45" n., and long. 75° 37' e., on the
Grand Trunk Road, 12 miles south-east of Amritsar city, and a station
on the Lahore and Delhi Railway. Founded by a colony of Jats, and
named after Jand, the son of their leader. Population (1881) 6535,
namely, Muhammadans, 3490; Hindus, 2380; Sikhs, 402; Jains,
254; 'others,' 9. Number of houses, 1200. Municipal income
in 1882-83, ;^48o, or is. 5|d. per head of the population. The
town carries on a considerable trade, entirely with Amritsar, and is
noted for its manufacture of brass and copper vessels. Police station,



JANDIALA—JANJIRA, 137

sardi, Government and mission schools, post-office, dispensary, and
encamping-ground. The Sobraon and Kasur branch of the Barf Doab
Canal runs a mile and a half east of the town.

Jandidla. — Town in Phillaur tahsil^ Jalandhar (Jullundur) District,
Punjab. Lat. 31° 9' 30" n., long. 75° 39' 30" e. Population (1881)
6316, namely, 3013 Hindus, 978 Muhammadans, and 2325 Sikhs.
Number of houses, 1191. The town is an agricultural centre, of purely
local importance.

Jangipur. — Sub-division of Murshiddbad District, Bengal. Lat. 24°
19' to 24° 52' N., and long. 87° 51' 30" to 88° 24' 15" e. Area, 508
square miles; villages, 986; houses, 54,448. Population (1872)
267,907; (1881) 304,080, namely, males 145,009, and females
159,071. Total increase of population in the nine years, 36,173,
or i3'5o per cent. Persons per square mile, 598 ; villages per
square mile, i'94; persons per village, 308; houses per square mile,
114; persons per house, 5*6. Muhammadans numbered 160,844, or
52-9 per cent, of the population; Hindus, 142,993, or 47-0 per cent.;
Santals, 200; Jains, 29; and Christians, 14. This Sub-division com-
prises the 5 police circles {thdnds) of Raghunathganj, Mirzapur, Diwan
Sarai, Suti, and Shamsherganj. It contains one civil and one criminal
court, a regular police force 117 strong, and a village watch of 850
men.

Jangipur (or Jahdngirpur). — Chief town of Jangipur Sub-division
of ]\Iurshidabad District, Bengal; situated on the left bank of the
Bhagirdthi, in lat. 24° 28' n., and long. 88° 6' 45" e. Population
(1872) 11,361 ; (188 1) 10,187, namely, Hindus, 6378; Muhammadans,
3790; 'others,' 19. Area of town site, 640 acres. Municipal revenue
(1881-82), ;£"834; average incidence of taxation, is. 7jd. per head.
The town is said to have been founded by the Emperor Jahangir.
During the early years of British rule, it was an important centre of
the silk trade, and the site of one of the Company's Commercial
Residencies. The number of boats registered here annually is about
10,000; the amount of toll, ;£8ooo, or about one-third of the total
gross revenue derived from the Nadiya rivers.

Janjira f^Habsdn),—^dX\\& State within the Political Agency of
Kolaba (Colaba), in the Konkan, Bombay Presidency. Lat. 18° to
18' 31' N., and long. 72° 53' to 73° 17' e. The State is bounded north
by the Kundalika or Roha creek in the British District of Kolaba ;
east by the Roha and Mahad Sub-divisions of the same District ; south
by the Bankot creek in the District of Ratndgiri ; and west by the
Arabian Sea. About the middle of the coast-line, 40 miles long, the
Rajpuri Gulf divides Janjira into two main portions, northern and
southern. Area, 325 square miles. Population (1881) 76,361 ;
density of population, 235 per square mile; gross revenue in 1882-83,



138 JANJIRA.

^37,600, not including the accounts of the Nawab's private treasur}-,
which shows an income of ;£^i 1,437.

Physical Aspects. — The surface of the State of Janjiraor Habsan is
covered with spurs and hill ranges, averaging about 1000 feet in height,
and generally running parallel to the arms of the sea that penetrate east-
wards into the interior. The sides of the hills are thickly wooded, except
where cleared for cultivation. Inland from the coast, rise ranges of
wooded hills. Near the mouths of the creeks, belts of palm groves
of from one to two miles broad fringe the shore. Behind the palm
groves lie salt marshes and mangrove bushes ; behind these again, the
rice lands of the valleys. The wealthiest and largest villages nestle in
the palm-belt along the coast. Gardeners, the richer fishermen, and
palm-tappers inhabit them. Inland, the banks of the creeks are
studded with hamlets, occupied by husbandmen who cultivate rice.
On the hill-sides, in glens or on terraces, are the huts and scanty clear-
ings of Kathkaris and other hillmen. The slopes of lower hills are
generally rounded and passable by a pony. These slopes, except in
the rains, are bare ; but at most times, and particularly at the time of
high tide, the Rajpuri creek affords fine views of wooded hill and
winding water. During the rains travel is nearly impossible. On the
coast, the sand-bars at the mouth of every inlet but the Rajpuri creek
prevent ingress. Further inland, the low rice lands become covered with
deposited mud, the main streams are flooded too deeply to be forded,
and overgrown forest tracts render difficult the passage from one hill
rano-e to another. None of the streams are more than five or six miles
in length. The larger watercourses flow westward. During the rains
they are torrents, but dwindle to mere rills at other seasons. The
chief creeks and backwaters are, beginning from the north, the Mandla-
Borlai, the Nandgaon, the Marad, the Rajpuri, the Panchaitan or Dive-
Borlai, and the Shriwardhan. Most of the creek entrances are rocky
and dangerous. During the navigable season, September to June, they
can be entered only by boats of under one-and-a-half tons burthen.
Once over the bar, the creeks are mostly of uniform depth throughout
their course. The mouth of the Rajpuri creek is 25 miles south of
Bombay. The creek ends at the old town of Mhasla, 14 miles south-
east of Janjira town. At springs the tide rises 12 feet in the creek.
There is no bar. The bottom is muddy. Shoalest water at low tide,
3J fathoms at the entrance of the creek, 4I inside the entrance in
mid-channel. Steamers can enter, even during the rains, and lie in
still water to the south of Janjird island.

Population. — The population of the State of Janjira has increased
from 71,966 in 1872 to 76,361 in 1881. Of the total in 1881, males
numbered 37,782 ; females, 38,579. Number of villages, 226 ; occupied
houses, 14,421 ; unoccupied, 1505. Classified according to religion,



JANJIRA. 139

6o,8ri, or 80*9 per cent, of the population, were Hindus; 13,912, or
i8-2 per cent., Muhammadans ; 47 Christians; 27 Jains; 2 Parsi's ;
590 Beni-Israel ; and 972 aboriginal tribes. The Beni-Israel, a race of
Jewish descent, worship one God, and have no images in their houses.
They practise many Jewish rites. The dress and manner of living of
the Beni-Israel, who are mostly oil-pressers by trade, are partly Muham-
madan and partly Hindu. They speak Marathi. Though fond of
drink, they are steady, enterprising, and prosperous. The Sidis are the
representatives of Habshi or Abyssinian slaves and soldiers of fortune.
They are only found in the island of Janjira. The Sidis number over
200. Many of them are related to the Nawdb or head of the State,
and inherit State grants and allowances. The Konkanis are the
largest and most important community of Janjira Muhammadans.
The Daldis are a fishing race which supply boatmen for Bombay
harbour. The crews of the Bombay dubdsh boats,— the ' bumboats '
of the harbour,— the steamships of the Peninsular and Oriental Com-
pany, and the smaller coasting steamers, are to a great extent recruited
from Janjira. In the rains, when bad weather prevails in the harbour,
the Daldis and other natives of Habsan return to their homes.
Shriwardhan (population, 7424) is the largest town in the State.

Climate, Products, ^/r.— The climate of Janjira is moist and relaxing,
but not unhealthy. The sea-breeze cools the coast and hill-tops.
Along the coast, fever and dysentery prevail from October to January.
The heat on the coast ranges from 76° F. in the cold weather, and in
July and August, at the period of the heaviest rains, to 90° in the hot
weather and the period at the close of the rains. Inland, where the
sea-breeze does not penetrate, the thermometer ranges f or 8° higher.
Average rainfall, 100 inches.

Sea-fishing for pomphlet and other large fish is the occupation of the
bulk of the people. The staple crops are cocoa-nuts, betel-nuts, rice,
the coarser varieties of grain, and hemp. Timber and firewood are cut
and exported. The manufactures are salt, saris, or robes for women,
coarse cloth turbans, and coir rope. Paper is made in Janjira fort.
Recently, small pearls were found in oysters fished up from the Rajpuri
creek. The oyster is believed to be the Placuna placenta. Judging
from the quantities of. shells thrown up along the banks of the Rajpuri
creek, the beds must be considerable.

Except the plots of rich alluvial rice land in the valleys, and some
sandy tracts near the coast, the usual red stony soil of the Konkan
prevails throughout Janjira. For irrigation purposes, water sufficiently
fresh is found everywhere by digging a few yards into the easily worked
earth. It is drawn from wells by means of the Persian wheel, and
from streams by a balance-lift called uptL In the strip of light
sand bordering? the sea-coast, cocoa-nut trees grow in great perfection.



140 JANJIRA,

Quarries of trap and laterite are occasionally worked. The State has
for some years been a chief source of supply of firewood to Bombay
city ; but its forests have been consequently over-cut, and the necessity
of conserving them has engaged the attention of the Government
of Bombay.

There are 25 schools, 14 being Mardtha, and 11 Muhammadan.
The number of pupils are 816 and 558 respectively. In the 3 girls'
schools 141 attended — 57 Muhammadans and 84 Hindus. There is a
dispensary.

Comtnunications. — External traffic is carried on almost entirely by
water. In March 1874, a regular tri-weekly steam communication
was established between Bombay and Dasgdon, on the Sdvitri river,
touching at Janjira and Shriwardhan. A State post is worked from
Alibagh to Bankot. There are 1 2 ferries in the State. A ferry steamer
plies between Bombay and Dharamtar. The only made roads are one
from Murud to Borli, 14 miles in length, and another from Dighi to
Shriwardhan, 19 miles.

History. — The chief is a Sunni Muhammadan, by race a Sidi or
Abyssinian, with the title of Nawdb. The last chief, Ibrdhim Khan
Yakut Khan, died in 1879. The Nawab has no sanad authorizing
adoption, and pays no tribute. As regards succession, the eldest
son does not, as of right, succeed to the throne ; but that one
among the sons who is decided by the supreme authority in the
State to be fittest to rule. Till 1868, the State enjoyed singular
independence, there being no PoHtical Agent, and no interference
whatever in its internal affairs. About that year, the mal-administra-
tion of the chief, especially in matters of police and criminal justice,
became flagrant ; those branches of administration were in consequence
taken out of his hands, and vested in a Political Agent. The Treaty,
which regulates the dealings of the British Government with the
Nawab, is that of 1870. The name Janjira is corrupted from the
Arabic jazirah^ ' an island.' The origin of the ruling family is thus
related : — About the year 1489 a.d., an Abyssinian in the service of
one of the Nizam Shahi kings of Ahmednagar, disguised as a merchant,
obtained permission from the chiefs of the island to land 300 boxes.
Each of these boxes contained a soldier, and by this means the
Abyssinians possessed themselves of Janjird island and the fort of
Danda Rajapur. The island afterwards formed part of the dominions
of the King of Bijapur. In the time of Sivaji, the government of the
Southern Konkan was held by the Admiral of the Bijapur fleet, who
was always an Abyssinian. In consequence of harsh treatment at the
hands of his master, the Sidi Admiral offered his services, in 1660,
to the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. The most noticeable point in the
history of Janjira, is its successful resistance, alone of all the States of



JANJIRA—JANSATH. 141

Western India, to the determined attacks of the Marathas, who made
its capture a point of honour. After repeated attacks by Sivaji,
its conquest was again attempted in 1682 by his son Sambaji,
who besieged the island, which he attempted to connect with the
mainland by means of a mole. The project failed, and other attempted
modes of attack were defeated with heavy loss. The State maintains a
force of 700 men for garrison and police duties. The Nawab of Janjira
is entitled to a salute of nine guns. The small State of Jafardbad in
Kathiawdr is also governed by this family.

Janjird. — Town and fort of Janjira State, in the Konkan, Bombay
Presidency. Lat. 18° 18' n., long. 73° e. ; 44 miles south of Bombay.
Population (1881) 1784. The fort of Janjira, on an island at the
entrance of the Rajpuri creek, lies half a mile from the mainland on
the east, and a mile from the mainland on the west. The walls of the
fort rise abruptly from the water to a height of 50 feet. The walls
are battlemented and loopholed. In the bastions and on the walls
are ten guns. In the fort a yearly Muhammadan fair is held in
November, attended by about 3000 visitors. On Nanwell headland,
about two miles west of the fort, a lighthouse is being erected. A
dioptric light of the fourth order will stand on a tower of about 150
feet about sea-level. It will serve to light the dangerous sunken reef
known as the Chor Kassa, situated about three-quarters of a mile from
the headland.

Jansath. — South-eastern tahsil of Muzaffarnagar District, North-
western Provinces, lying between the Ganges and the Hindan, traversed
by the Sind, Punjab, and Delhi Railway, and watered by the Ganges
Canal. It comprises the four pargaiids of Jauli Jansath, Khatauli,
Bhukarheri, and Bhuma Sambhalheri. Area, 453 square miles, of
which 287 are cultivated. Population (1872) 161,927; (1881) 183,854,
namely, males 98,677, and females 85,177. Increase of population in
the nine years, 21,927, or 11 '9 per cent. Classified according to
religion, there were in 1881 — Hindus, 120,509; Muhammadans, 51,944;
Jains, 2316; and 'others,' 85. Of the 241 villages which comprise
the iahs'd^ 121 have less than five hundred inhabitants; 75 from
five hundred to a thousand; 27 from one to two thousand; 11
from two to three thousand; and 7 from three to five thousand
inhabitants. Total Government revenue, including cesses, ^23,531 ;
rental paid by cultivators, ^65,131. The tahsil, which in civil matters
is within the jurisdiction of the munsif of Muzaffarnagar, contains 3
criminal courts, that of a deputy magistrate or tahsilddr^ and those of 2
honorary magistrates. For police purposes, the tahsil is divided into
the four police circles {ihdnds) of Jansath, Bhopa, Miranpur, and
Khatauli. Strength of regular police, 49 officers and men ; village
watchmen {chaukiddrs), 374.



142 JANSATH—JAORA.

Jansath. — Town in Muzaffarnagar District, North-Western Pro-
vinces, and head-quarters of Jansath tahsil Lat. 29° 19' 15" n., long.
77° 53' 20" E. Situated on a low part of the plain, 14 miles south-east
of Muzaffarnagar town. Famous as the home of the Jansath Sayyids,
who held all the chief offices of the Delhi Empire in the early part of
the 1 8th century. Jansath was sacked and destroyed by a Rohilla
force, under orders from the Wazir Kamar-ud-din, in 1737, and most
of the Sayyids were slain or exiled ; but some of their descendants
still inhabit the town. Population (1881) 6284, namely, Hindus,
3354; Muhammadans, 2839; and Jains, 91. Area of town site, 70
acres. A small municipal revenue for police and conservancy purposes
is raised under the provisions of the Chaukidari Act. Police station,
post-office, school.

Jaoli.— Sub-division of Satara District, Bombay Presidency.— ^fd
Javli.

Jdora. — Native State under the Western Malwd Agency, Central
India. The territory of the Jdora State consists of two principal
tracts. The larger tract lies between lat. 23° 32' and 23° 55' n., and
between long. 74° 52' and 75° 32' e. ; the smaller tract lies between
lat. 24° 10' and 24° 20' n., and long. 75° 10' and 75-° 25' e. The
area of the whole is 872 square miles. Population (1881) 108,434,
namely, 57,245 males and 51,189 females; Hindus numbered 87,833,
Muhammadans 13,318, Jains 2010, Parsis 12, Christians 3, and
aboriginal tribes 5258. Revenue of the State (1881), ^79»930-

The lands of this chiefship were originally assigned by Holkar to the
Pathan adventurer Amir Khan, for support of troops to aid his schemes
of aggrandizement in Northern India. Amir Khan's brother-in-law,
Gafiir Khan, being in occupation when the battle of Mehidpur decided
the fate of Malwa in 1818, the possession of Jaora was secured to him
and his heirs by the British Government. The present Nawab of Jaora,
who succeeded in 1865, is Muhammad Ismail Khan, by race a Pathan.
His residence is at Jaora. Though nominally a feudatory of Holkar,
and liable to the payment of a succession nazardnd of 2 lakhs
(;£2 0,000), the Nawdb is directly under the protection and poUtical
control of the British Government. He holds a sanad guaranteeing
the succession according to Muhammadan law, in the event of failure
of natural heirs. Jdora State contains the best poppy-growing lands
in Malwd, and silver mines are said to have formerly been worked.
The Nawdb keeps up a military force of 15 guns, with 69 gunners;
cavalry, 121; regular infantry, 200; and irregular foot levies, 200:
police, 497. His services during the Mutiny were rewarded by an
increase to his salute of 13 guns, and by a reduction in his annual
contribution to the Contingent, now fixed at ^16,181. The Raj-
putana-Malwd State Railway passes through the State.



JAORA—JAROD. 143

Jd<ora. — Chief town of the State of Jaora, under the Western Mahva
Agency of Central India, and a station of the Rajputana-Mahva State
Raihvay. Lat. 23° 37' n., long. 75° 8' e. The town contains (1881)
4400 houses, and a population of 19,902, namely, 10,336 males and
9566 females; Hindus numbered 10,547, Muhammadans 8892, and
' others ' 463. It was formerly the residence of a Thdkiir^ whose family
still exists here in the enjoyment of a pension. The present town
was laid out by Colonel Borthwick in regular streets, and boasts
one of the most beautiful stone bridges in Central India, built by
him. The houses and shops are substantial ; the town is surrounded
by a stone wall not yet completed. A fair amount of trade is carried
on, and the town is connected by railway with Ratlam (20 miles) on
the south and Partabgarh (32 miles) on the north. It contains an
opium-weighing depot, post and telegraph offices, school, and dispensary.
Elevation, 1450 feet. The small river Piria, on which the town is
situated, becomes a torrent in the rainy season.

Jarcha {Jhdrcha). — Town in Sikandarabad tahsil, Bulandshahr
District, situated 8 miles north of Sikandardbad, 7 miles east of Dadri,
and 20 miles north-west of Bulandshahr town. The population (3776
in 1 881) consists chiefly of Sayyids, styled Sabzwari, who claim
descent from the Sayyids of Sabzwar in Turkistan, whence they came
during the reign of the Tughlak dynasty. The correct name of
the town is said to be Char Chah, or ' the four wells,' because four
wells were sunk here by the founder of the town, Sayyid Zain-ul-abdin,
who obtained a revenue-free grant of 3500 bighds from the Emperor
Mubarak Shah, on condition of ousting the Mewatis. The four wells
are still to be seen, and the descendants of the founder continued
in enjoyment of the grant until 1857, when they took part in the
plunder of Sikandarabad, and their holdings were confiscated. The
village was then sold by auction. It realized ^17,800, and passed
into the possession of a Hindu family. The town is famous for the
number and excellence of its mango trees. Weekly market on
Wednesdays ; police station, and school. For police and conservancy
purposes, a small house-tax is levied under the provisions of Act xx.
of 1856. The Ganges Canal runs about a mile north of the town.

Jdrod. — Sub-division of Baroda (the Gdekwar's territory), Bombay
Presidency. Area, 350 square miles. Bounded on the north by the
Rewa Kantha Agency ; west by Baroda Sub-division ; south by Dabhoi
Sub-division ; east by Halol District. Acres under cultivation, 28,894 ;
waste, 23,725 acres; cultivable waste, 96,210. Population (1872)
65,225. No later population statistics are available. The Sub-division
consists of a well-wooded plain, intersected by the Viswamitri, Surya,
and Jambva rivers. The soil is either black or gordt (yellow). Number
of holdings (of from \\ to 15 J acres), 4300. Cotton, bdJ7-a^ and jodr



144 JARWAL—JASHPUR.

are the staple crops. Savali (population in 1881, 6275) is the head-



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